Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 – The Civil War:"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 14 – The Civil War: 1861-1865 Fort Sumter, 1861Resolved: States’ rights were the primary cause of the Civil War
2Chapter 14 – The Civil War: 1861-1865 Battle of Antietam, 1862Do Now: North-South Economic Advantages & Disadvantages
3The Start of the Civil War, 1861 5 Border States: Missouri, Kentucky, W. Virginia (formed in 1863), Maryland and Delaware remained with Union.4 more Southern states seceded in 1861 when Lincoln called for military volunteers to “preserve the Union”When Lincoln was elected in 1860, 7 Southern states seceded from the Union & formed the Confederate States of America7 states in the deep south.4 more in 1861: VA, AK, NC, TN (when Lincoln called up military)Note the long interval— nearly six months—between the secession of South Carolina, the first state to go, and that of Tennessee, the last state to leave the Union. These six months were a time of terrible trial for moderateSoutherners.The Civil War began when Fort Sumter was fired upon by Confederate soldiers
5Strategies & Advantages The Union strategy during the war was called the Anaconda Plan:Blockade the coast, seize the Mississippi River to divide the South, & take control of Richmond, Virginia- the capital of the SouthExploit South’s dependency on foreign trade & its inability to manufacture weaponsRelied on Northern advantages in population, industry, & military
6Take the CSA capital at Richmond Take control of the Mississippi River Ulysses Grant in the WestGeorge McClellan was in charge of Army of the PotomacThis plan maximized the North’s industrial advantages but required better leadership than North hadBlockade the Southern coastDivide the West from South
7Strategies & Advantages The Confederate strategy during the war was an Offensive Defense:Protect Southern territory from “Northern aggression” but attack into Union territory when the opportunity presents itselfGet Britain & France to join their cause because of European dependency on “King Cotton”Drag out the war as long as possible to make the North quit
9Political Leadership During the Civil War During the Civil War, President Jefferson Davis had a difficult time:The CSA Constitution protected states’ rights so state governors could refuse to send him money or troopsCSA currency inflated by 7,000%During the Civil War, President Lincoln used “emergency powers” to protect “national security”:Suspended habeas corpus (Laws requiring evidence before citizens can be jailed)Closed down newspapers that did not support the warThe national government in the USA & CSA relied on volunteer armies in the beginning, but soon needed conscription (draft) to supply their armies with troops
12Fighting the Civil War: 1861-1865 From 1861 to mid-1863, the Confederate army was winning the Civil War:Defensive strategy carried out by superior Southern generals like Robert E. Lee & Stonewall JacksonDisagreements among military & political leaders in the North
13Bull Run (Manassas), 1861: The 1st battle of the Civil War; Stonewall Jackson kept the Union army from taking the CSA capital at Richmond
14Seven Pines, 1862 (CSA)Seven Days, 1862 (CSA)2nd Bull Run, 1862 (CSA)Shiloh, 1862 (USA)From , the CSA had success in the East, but the USA had success in the WestNew Orleans, 1862 (USA)
15Antietam, 1862: General Lee’s 1st attempt to invade outside the CSA was halted by McClellan
16Antietam (Maryland), 1862Bloodiest single day loss of lives: 22,000 dead as McClellan and Lee clashed.Even though the Battle of Antietam ended without a clear winner, it had important effects on the North:The battle convinced Britain & France not to support the Confederacy in the warThe battle convinced Lincoln that the time was right to make the emancipation of slaves the new focus of the war for the North
17Lincoln at Antietam (also known as Sharpsburg), October 1862 Deeply committed to his responsibilitiesas commander in chief, President Lincoln visited Union forces on the battlefield several times during the war. Withhim here at Antietam are the detective Allan Pinkerton (on the left), who provided intelligence to the Union army, andGeneral John McClernand, who often accompanied the president on his travelsp428
18The Pending Conflict, 1863 Great Britain and France look on while the Americans struggle. Despite repeatedpleas from Confederate diplomats for recognition and aid, both France and Britain refrained from intervening in theAmerican conflict—not least because of the Union’s demonstrated strength on the battlefield and its economicimportance to European importers.
19Emancipation Proclamation After Antietam, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation:This executive order freed all slaves in Confederate territoriesIt did not free slaves in the border states but it gave the North a new reason fightInspired Southern slaves to escape which forced Southern whites to worry about their farms“…all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom...”
20Was the Emancipation too little, too late Was the Emancipation too little, too late? How did the emancipation edict affect the politics and military affairs of the North?
21States Impacted by the Emancipation Proclamation Emancipation in 1863
22Escaped slaves in NC coming into Union lines Lincoln, “The Great Emancipator”
23After Antietam, the Confederates continued to win in the East Fredericksburg, 1862 (CSA)Chancellorsville, The Confederates won, but Stonewall Jackson was killed; Lee said of Jackson: “He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right arm”After Antietam, the Confederates continued to win in the East
24Despite being outnumbered & under-equipped, the CSA dominated the fighting in the East from due to better generals & a defensive strategyBut, the Union Army was having success in the West under the leadership of Ulysses S GrantConclusions:By mid-1863, the weight of the Northern population & industrial capacity will begin to turn the tide of the war in favor of the Union
25Essential Question:What factors helped the Union win the Civil War by 1865?Note-Taking Questions:Why was the Confederacy able to win the majority of Civil War battles from 1861 to mid-1863?
26Fighting the Civil War: 1861-1865 When the Civil War began, most expected the fighting to end quickly, but the war lasted until 1865 due to:The commitment of the Union & Confederacy to “total war”Excellent Southern generals like Robert E. Lee & Stonewall JacksonImproved, industrial weaponry
27Main Thrusts, 1861–1865: Northern strategists at first believed that the rebellion could be snuffed out quickly by a swift, crushing blow. But the stiffness of Southern resistance to the Union’s early probes, and the North’s inability to strike with sufficient speed and severity, revealed that the conflict would be a war of attrition,long and bloody.
28New Weapons but Old Tactics Long-range artillery & the Gatling gun (1st machine gun)Cone-shaped bullets & grooved barrel rifles for more accuracyIronclad naval ships like the USS Monitor & CSS VirginiaOld tactics such as massed formations & frontal assaults. Led to huge casualty rates
29The Technology of Battle Repeating Weapons Importance of the Railroad The TelegraphThe Technology of War One of the new machines of destruction that made the Civil War the first mechanized war, this eight and-a-half-ton federal mortar sat on a railroad flatcar in Petersburg, Virginia, ready to hurl two-hundred-pound missiles as far as two and a half miles. This powerful artillery piece rode on the tracks of a captured Southern railroad—itself another artifact of modern technology that figured heavily in the war.Of the 31,256 miles of railroad track in the United States in 1861, less than 30 percent, or 9,283 miles, were in the Confederate states, soon reduced by Union capture and destruction to 6,000 miles. The Confederate government’s failure to understand the military importance of railroads contributed substantially to its defeat.War by Railroad (NARA)
30The Course of BattleSoldiers guard a train on a Union Army-built trestle on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad near Manassas, Virginia, c (Royalty-Free/CORBIS)
31Killing Fields of Antietam, 1862 Why was Antietam such a “turning point” in the Civil War?Dead Union Soldiers at Antietam, (Library of Congress)
32The Tide of the War Turns in 1863 By 1863, the Confederacy was having difficulty sustaining the fight:Attempts to lure Britain & France into the war had failedThe Union blockade, limited Southern manufacturing, & lack of grain fields left CSA soldiers ill-suppliedTo pay for the war, the CSA printed money leading to massive inflation
34Gettysburg, 1863: In July, Robert E Lee decided to take advantage of his victory at Chancellorsville & attack Northern soil to end the war quickly by crushing Union moraleVicksburg, 1863: Grant cut off Southern access to Mississippi River & divided the South into two halves; Grant was then promoted to lead the entire Union armyGettysburg proved to be the turning point of the war; Lee was halted, the CSA never again attacked Union soil, & the Union army began winning the war
36The most famous speech in American history is also one of the shortest, President Lincoln's Gettysburg Address of 1863.Why does Lincoln say the Union is fighting this war?How does this differ from his earlier pronouncements earlier in the conflict?To what elements of the American ideological tradition does Lincolnhearken to in this brilliant polemic and heartfelt eulogy?
37The principles that our government were founded upon in 1776 We need to make sure that the Union wins the Civil War in order to preserve our form of gov’tThe principles that our government were founded upon in 1776This Civil War is a test to see if these principles will last, because other republics have failed
38Fighting the Civil War: 1863-1865 Under Grant’s leadership, the Union army was more aggressive & committed to destroy the South’s will to fight:Grant appointed William T. Sherman to lead Southern campaignSherman destroyed everything of value to the South & emancipated slaves during his “march to the sea”
39Sherman considered “total war” necessary to defeat the South The Battle of Atlanta was a huge victory for the Union because it took out a major Southern railroad terminus
41Fighting the Civil War: 1863-1865 The election of 1864:Lincoln faced a tough re-election campaign against George McClellanThe North’s war failures were the key election issueWhen Atlanta fell during Sherman’s “March to the Sea,” Lincoln was overwhelmingly reelected
42In his 2nd inaugural address, Lincoln promised a Reconstruction Plan for the Union with “malice towards none & charity for all”
43Appomattox, 1865: Grant defeated Lee at Appomattox ending the Civil War
44The Start and end of the War The McLean House in Appomattox Court House (Royalty-Free/CORBIS)
45On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, ending the fighting of Civil War
46From , the lack of Southern resources & unity as well as the Northern advances into the South led to the end of the Civil WarHow did North win; recap burning richmond? Total warLack of unity in south
47As the Civil War began, politicians and ordinary citizens in both the North and the South were supremely confident of victory. Why did Southerners believe they would triumph? Why did the North ultimately win the war?
48The Death of LincolnNorthern celebration was short lived; On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth
49Effects of the Civil War: Effects of the WarEffects of the Civil War:618,000 troops were dead; More than any other U.S. warThe 13th Amendment was ratified in 1865 ending slaveryThe war forever ended the states’ rights argumentThe South was destroyed; A plan was needed to admit Southern states back into the Union
50Friendly Enemies The man on the right is George Armstrong Custer. The youngest general in the Unionarmy, this brilliant young officer survived the Civil War onlyto lose his life and that of every soldier under his commandto Sioux warriors at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in1876—“Custer’s Last Stand.” The man on the left is aSouthern soldier and prisoner of war. He and Custer hadbeen classmates at West Point.p421
51disarmed Confederates exhibit an out-at the-elbows pride and defiance. “Prisoners from the Front”, by Winslow Homer, 1866 This celebrated painting reflects the artist’sfirsthand observations of the war. Homer brilliantly captured the enduring depths of sectional animosity.The Union officer somewhat disdainfully asserts his command of the situation; the beaten anddisarmed Confederates exhibit an out-at the-elbows pride and defiance.Prisoners from the Front, by Winslow Homer, 1866 This celebrated paintingreflects the artist’s firsthand observations of the war. Homer brilliantly captured theenduring depths of sectional animosity. The Union officer somewhat disdainfully assertshis command of the situation; the beaten and disarmed Confederates exhibit an out-at the-elbows pride and defiance.
52Grave of William H. Johnson, 1864 Johnson was a free black man who worked as Lincoln’s personal valet in Springfield and accompanied him to Washington, D.C. when he assumed the presidency. When lighter-skinned mulatto White House staffers rejected him for his dark skin, Lincoln helped Johnson find other employment in the Treasury and Navy Departments, writing “The bearer of this card, William Johnson (colored), came with me from Illinois, and is a worthy man, as I believe. A. Lincoln.” In November 1863 Lincoln requested that Johnson accompany him to deliver his famous address at Gettysburg, where they both contracted smallpox. Lincoln recovered in a few days; Johnson, with a more severe case, died in January Lincoln arranged for him to be buried at Arlington National Cemetery and wrote the one word epitaph for his tombstone: “Citizen,” a succinct and stinging rebuke of the racist reasoning of the Dred Scott decision.Grave of William H. Johnson, 1864 Johnson was a freeblack man who worked as Lincoln’s personal valet inSpringfield and accompanied him to Washington, D.C. whenhe assumed the presidency. When lighter-skinned mulattoWhite House staffers rejected him for his dark skin, Lincolnhelped Johnson find other employment in the Treasury andNavy Departments, writing “The bearer of this card, WilliamJohnson (colored), came with me from Illinois, and is a worthyman, as I believe. A. Lincoln.” In November 1863 Lincolnrequested that Johnson accompany him to deliver his famousaddress at Gettysburg, where they both contracted smallpox.Lincoln recovered in a few days; Johnson, with a more severecase, died in January Lincoln arranged for him to beburied at Arlington National Cemetery and wrote the one wordepitaph for his tombstone: “Citizen,” a succinct andstinging rebuke of the racist reasoning of the Dred Scottdecision.