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Chapter 14 – The Civil War: 1861-1865 Fort Sumter, 1861 Resolved: States’ rights were the primary cause of the Civil War.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 – The Civil War: 1861-1865 Fort Sumter, 1861 Resolved: States’ rights were the primary cause of the Civil War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 – The Civil War: Fort Sumter, 1861 Resolved: States’ rights were the primary cause of the Civil War

2 Chapter 14 – The Civil War: Battle of Antietam, 1862 Do Now: North-South Economic Advantages & Disadvantages

3 The Start of the Civil War, 1861 When Lincoln was elected in 1860, 7 Southern states seceded from the Union & formed the Confederate States of America The Civil War began when Fort Sumter was fired upon by Confederate soldiers 4 more Southern states seceded in 1861 when Lincoln called for military volunteers to “preserve the Union” 5 Border States: Missouri, Kentucky, W. Virginia (formed in 1863), Maryland and Delaware remained with Union.

4 The Secession Crisis

5 Strategies & Advantages The Union strategy during the war was called the Anaconda Plan:  Blockade the coast, seize the Mississippi River to divide the South, & take control of Richmond, Virginia- the capital of the South  Exploit South’s dependency on foreign trade & its inability to manufacture weapons  Relied on Northern advantages in population, industry, & military

6 Blockade the Southern coast Take control of the Mississippi River Divide the West from South Take the CSA capital at Richmond Ulysses Grant in the West George McClellan was in charge of Army of the Potomac

7 Strategies & Advantages The Confederate strategy during the war was an Offensive Defense:  Protect Southern territory from “Northern aggression” but attack into Union territory when the opportunity presents itself  Get Britain & France to join their cause because of European dependency on “King Cotton”  Drag out the war as long as possible to make the North quit

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9 Political Leadership During the Civil War During the Civil War, President Lincoln used “emergency powers” to protect “national security”: Suspended habeas corpus (Laws requiring evidence before citizens can be jailed) Closed down newspapers that did not support the war During the Civil War, President Jefferson Davis had a difficult time: The CSA Constitution protected states’ rights so state governors could refuse to send him money or troops CSA currency inflated by 7,000% The national government in the USA & CSA relied on volunteer armies in the beginning, but soon needed conscription (draft) to supply their armies with troops

10 New York City Draft Riots

11 Fighting the Civil War

12 Fighting the Civil War: From 1861 to mid-1863, the Confederate army was winning the Civil War:  Defensive strategy carried out by superior Southern generals like Robert E. Lee & Stonewall Jackson  Disagreements among military & political leaders in the North

13 Bull Run (Manassas), 1861: The 1 st battle of the Civil War; Stonewall Jackson kept the Union army from taking the CSA capital at Richmond

14 Shiloh, 1862 (USA) Seven Pines, 1862 (CSA) Seven Days, 1862 (CSA) 2 nd Bull Run, 1862 (CSA) New Orleans, 1862 (USA) From , the CSA had success in the East, but the USA had success in the West

15 Antietam, 1862: General Lee’s 1 st attempt to invade outside the CSA was halted by McClellan

16 Antietam (Maryland), 1862 Bloodiest single day loss of lives: 22,000 dead as McClellan and Lee clashed. Even though the Battle of Antietam ended without a clear winner, it had important effects on the North:  The battle convinced Britain & France not to support the Confederacy in the war  The battle convinced Lincoln that the time was right to make the emancipation of slaves the new focus of the war for the North

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19 Emancipation Proclamation After Antietam, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation:  This executive order freed all slaves in Confederate territories  It did not free slaves in the border states but it gave the North a new reason fight  Inspired Southern slaves to escape which forced Southern whites to worry about their farms “…all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom...”

20 Was the Emancipation too little, too late? How did the emancipation edict affect the politics and military affairs of the North?

21 States Impacted by the Emancipation Proclamation

22 Escaped slaves in NC coming into Union lines Lincoln, “The Great Emancipator”

23 Fredericksburg, 1862 (CSA) Chancellorsville, 1863 The Confederates won, but Stonewall Jackson was killed; Lee said of Jackson: “ He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right arm” After Antietam, the Confederates continued to win in the East

24 Conclusions: Despite being outnumbered & under-equipped, the CSA dominated the fighting in the East from due to better generals & a defensive strategy But, the Union Army was having success in the West under the leadership of Ulysses S Grant By mid-1863, the weight of the Northern population & industrial capacity will begin to turn the tide of the war in favor of the Union

25 Essential Question Essential Question:  What factors helped the Union win the Civil War by 1865? Note-Taking Questions: Note-Taking Questions:  Why was the Confederacy able to win the majority of Civil War battles from 1861 to mid-1863?

26 Fighting the Civil War: When the Civil War began, most expected the fighting to end quickly, but the war lasted until 1865 due to:  The commitment of the Union & Confederacy to “total war”  Excellent Southern generals like Robert E. Lee & Stonewall Jackson  Improved, industrial weaponry

27 Main Thrusts, 1861–1865: Northern strategists at first believed that the rebellion could be snuffed out quickly by a swift, crushing blow. But the stiffness of Southern resistance to the Union’s early probes, and the North’s inability to strike with sufficient speed and severity, revealed that the conflict would be a war of attrition, long and bloody.

28 New Weapons but Old Tactics New weapons:  Long-range artillery & the Gatling gun (1 st machine gun)  Cone-shaped bullets & grooved barrel rifles for more accuracy  Ironclad naval ships like the USS Monitor & CSS Virginia Old tactics such as massed formations & frontal assaults. Led to huge casualty rates

29 Technology of Battle The Technology of Battle  Repeating Weapons  Importance of the Railroad  The Telegraph War by Railroad (NARA)

30 The Course of Battle Soldiers guard a train on a Union Army-built trestle on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad near Manassas, Virginia, c (Royalty-Free/CORBIS)

31 Killing Fields of Antietam, 1862 Dead Union Soldiers at Antietam, 1862 (Library of Congress) Why was Antietam such a “turning point” in the Civil War?

32 The Tide of the War Turns in 1863 By 1863, the Confederacy was having difficulty sustaining the fight:  Attempts to lure Britain & France into the war had failed  The Union blockade, limited Southern manufacturing, & lack of grain fields left CSA soldiers ill-supplied  To pay for the war, the CSA printed money leading to massive inflation

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34 Gettysburg, 1863: In July, Robert E Lee decided to take advantage of his victory at Chancellorsville & attack Northern soil to end the war quickly by crushing Union morale Gettysburg proved to be the turning point of the war; Lee was halted, the CSA never again attacked Union soil, & the Union army began winning the war Vicksburg, 1863: Grant cut off Southern access to Mississippi River & divided the South into two halves; Grant was then promoted to lead the entire Union army

35 Watch Gettysburg 1, 2, 3123

36 The most famous speech in American history is also one of the shortest, President Lincoln's Gettysburg Address of  Why does Lincoln say the Union is fighting this war?  How does this differ from his earlier pronouncements earlier in the conflict?  To what elements of the American ideological tradition does Lincoln hearken to in this brilliant polemic and heartfelt eulogy?

37 The principles that our government were founded upon in 1776 This Civil War is a test to see if these principles will last, because other republics have failed We need to make sure that the Union wins the Civil War in order to preserve our form of gov’t

38 Fighting the Civil War: Under Grant’s leadership, the Union army was more aggressive & committed to destroy the South’s will to fight:  Grant appointed William T. Sherman to lead Southern campaign  Sherman destroyed everything of value to the South & emancipated slaves during his “march to the sea”

39 Sherman considered “total war” necessary to defeat the South The Battle of Atlanta was a huge victory for the Union because it took out a major Southern railroad terminus

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41 Fighting the Civil War: The election of 1864:  Lincoln faced a tough re-election campaign against George McClellan  The North’s war failures were the key election issue  When Atlanta fell during Sherman’s “March to the Sea,” Lincoln was overwhelmingly reelected

42 In his 2 nd inaugural address, Lincoln promised a Reconstruction Plan for the Union with “malice towards none & charity for all”

43 Appomattox, 1865: Grant defeated Lee at Appomattox ending the Civil War

44 The Start and end of the War The McLean House in Appomattox Court House (Royalty-Free/CORBIS)

45 On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, ending the fighting of Civil War

46 From , the lack of Southern resources & unity as well as the Northern advances into the South led to the end of the Civil War

47 As the Civil War began, politicians and ordinary citizens in both the North and the South were supremely confident of victory. Why did Southerners believe they would triumph? Why did the North ultimately win the war?

48 The Death of Lincoln Northern celebration was short lived; On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth

49 Effects of the War Effects of the Civil War Effects of the Civil War:  618,000 troops were dead; More than any other U.S. war  The 13 th Amendment was ratified in 1865 ending slavery  The war forever ended the states’ rights argument  The South was destroyed; A plan was needed to admit Southern states back into the Union

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51 “Prisoners from the Front”, by Winslow Homer, 1866 This celebrated painting reflects the artist’s firsthand observations of the war. Homer brilliantly captured the enduring depths of sectional animosity. The Union officer somewhat disdainfully asserts his command of the situation; the beaten and disarmed Confederates exhibit an out-at the-elbows pride and defiance.

52 Grave of William H. Johnson, 1864 Johnson was a free black man who worked as Lincoln’s personal valet in Springfield and accompanied him to Washington, D.C. when he assumed the presidency. When lighter-skinned mulatto White House staffers rejected him for his dark skin, Lincoln helped Johnson find other employment in the Treasury and Navy Departments, writing “The bearer of this card, William Johnson (colored), came with me from Illinois, and is a worthy man, as I believe. A. Lincoln.” In November 1863 Lincoln requested that Johnson accompany him to deliver his famous address at Gettysburg, where they both contracted smallpox. Lincoln recovered in a few days; Johnson, with a more severe case, died in January Lincoln arranged for him to be buried at Arlington National Cemetery and wrote the one word epitaph for his tombstone: “Citizen,” a succinct and stinging rebuke of the racist reasoning of the Dred Scott decision.

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55 Dead on the Battlefield

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