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The Overland Campaign Spotsylvania May 8 – 19 North Anna May 23 - 26 Wilderness May 5 - 6 Cold Harbor June 1 - 3 Union Confederate Petersburg U. S. Grant.

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Presentation on theme: "The Overland Campaign Spotsylvania May 8 – 19 North Anna May 23 - 26 Wilderness May 5 - 6 Cold Harbor June 1 - 3 Union Confederate Petersburg U. S. Grant."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Overland Campaign Spotsylvania May 8 – 19 North Anna May Wilderness May Cold Harbor June Union Confederate Petersburg U. S. Grant City Point Richmond R. E. Lee Washington Civil War Logistics Federal Center Chapter June 29, 2011

2 City Point, Virginia “ ‘That’s Logistics’, Long Before UPS”

3 City Point, Virginia The James River Plantation owned by the Epps family for generations. Current owner, Dr. Richard Epps, Confederate surgeon.

4 City Point, Virginia June 1864 Grant’s Headquarters Appomattox Manor Original Wharf AppomattoxRiver JamesRiver

5 Grant in front of his HQ tent

6 Grant’s HQ in the field

7 Appomattox Manor

8 TelegraphOffice Damaged during Civil War Quartermaster’sOffice Bedroom DiningRoom

9 Construction of Grant’s HQ Grant wanted to live in tents. He did not want permanent structures built Grant wanted to live in tents. He did not want permanent structures built His objective was to rapidly end the siege, defeat Lee, and win the war His objective was to rapidly end the siege, defeat Lee, and win the war With the oncoming winter, Grant’s staff urged that more permanent structures be built With the oncoming winter, Grant’s staff urged that more permanent structures be built In November 1864, Grant had to leave City Point for a few days and the construction corps built cabins to house Grant and his staff In November 1864, Grant had to leave City Point for a few days and the construction corps built cabins to house Grant and his staff

10 Building Winter Quarters

11 Grant’s Cabin 14’ 25’ 9’ Bedroom Office Grant is seated at center GRANT’S CABIN

12 Interior of Grant’s Cabin

13 Receiving and Storage Facilities Eight wharves were built, by commodity, over a mile long and covering 350,000 square feet. They included general supply, forage, ordnance, subsistence, medical, maintenance, mail landing, and transfer Eight wharves were built, by commodity, over a mile long and covering 350,000 square feet. They included general supply, forage, ordnance, subsistence, medical, maintenance, mail landing, and transfer Warehouses over 100,000 square feet were located on the wharves Warehouses over 100,000 square feet were located on the wharves A plank road and rail lines ran along wharf A plank road and rail lines ran along wharf Supplies were either put into storage or loaded onto wagons or railroad cars and taken to the front Supplies were either put into storage or loaded onto wagons or railroad cars and taken to the front

14 USMRR City Point, VA Benjamin Epps, father of Dr. Richard Epps who owned the plantation in 1864, built the railroad from the James River to Petersburg in 1836 – 1838 Benjamin Epps, father of Dr. Richard Epps who owned the plantation in 1864, built the railroad from the James River to Petersburg in 1836 – 1838 By 1864 the railroad was in a state of disrepair. Between June 18 th and July 7 th, 1864, it was rebuilt and delivering men and supplies between City Point and the front lines By 1864 the railroad was in a state of disrepair. Between June 18 th and July 7 th, 1864, it was rebuilt and delivering men and supplies between City Point and the front lines USMRR expanded the rail lines from 9 miles to 22 miles to support the Union armies USMRR expanded the rail lines from 9 miles to 22 miles to support the Union armies At its height up to 24 locomotives pulled an average of 1400 tons of supplies, and troops to the front each day and returned with sick and wounded At its height up to 24 locomotives pulled an average of 1400 tons of supplies, and troops to the front each day and returned with sick and wounded

15 U S Military Railroad (USMRR) & Wharves Main Rail line Ordnance Wharf Commissary Depot & Bakery Ingalls HQ Grant HQ Transfer Wharf Forage Wharf Mail Hospital Commissary Wharf Stables

16 Railroad Track and Storage Facilities

17 Shipping into City Point More than 390 ships routinely connected Union supply sources with City Point More than 390 ships routinely connected Union supply sources with City Point At any time, approximately 40 steamships and tugs, 75 sailing ships, and 100 barges were in service at Eastern ports, en route, or anchored at City Point At any time, approximately 40 steamships and tugs, 75 sailing ships, and 100 barges were in service at Eastern ports, en route, or anchored at City Point Up to 25 ships could be offloaded at one time at the wharves Up to 25 ships could be offloaded at one time at the wharves

18 Ships Offloading at City Point

19 African-Americans Receiving Supplies Most stevedores were freed slaves

20 Supply Support at City Point Over 280 buildings were erected at City Point Over 280 buildings were erected at City Point In the nine months City Point was open, over 600,000 tons of supplies were delivered from the wharves and warehouses to the front lines In the nine months City Point was open, over 600,000 tons of supplies were delivered from the wharves and warehouses to the front lines A daily transaction report was submitted to Quartermaster General Rufus B. Ingalls listing receipts and issues A daily transaction report was submitted to Quartermaster General Rufus B. Ingalls listing receipts and issues

21 Quartermaster Depot

22 Outside Storage

23 Ordnance Wharf and Lumber Storage

24 Supply Support at City Point Supply support was on a “pull” system Supply support was on a “pull” system Requirements were consolidated at regimental level Requirements were consolidated at regimental level Commanding Generals of the two armies signed the requirements Commanding Generals of the two armies signed the requirements Quartermaster Generals of both armies submitted a detailed listing of requirements on the 25 th of the month for the following month Quartermaster Generals of both armies submitted a detailed listing of requirements on the 25 th of the month for the following month Ingalls and his staff checked for availability, submitted requisitions for items not available, and planned deliveries to support monthly requirements Ingalls and his staff checked for availability, submitted requisitions for items not available, and planned deliveries to support monthly requirements Ingalls insisted on accountability. Nothing left City Point without his authorization Ingalls insisted on accountability. Nothing left City Point without his authorization

25 Rail Deliveries from City Point Supplies were delivered by rail from the depot directly to brigade supply areas, nine round trip runs each day Supplies were delivered by rail from the depot directly to brigade supply areas, nine round trip runs each day Response time for routine requests dropped to less than 24 hours and to several hours for emergencies Response time for routine requests dropped to less than 24 hours and to several hours for emergencies

26 Wagon Train Deliveries from City Point What wasn’t delivered by rail was delivered by wagon

27 Subsistence Support Most likely the best fed army up to that time, certainly in the Civil War Most likely the best fed army up to that time, certainly in the Civil War Commissary wharf – 581 ft long and 40,000 square feet Commissary wharf – 581 ft long and 40,000 square feet One herd of cattle numbering 2500 was maintained at City Point. Another herd of 2500 was maintained across the James River One herd of cattle numbering 2500 was maintained at City Point. Another herd of 2500 was maintained across the James River Fresh meat and vegetables were provided to the troops when available Fresh meat and vegetables were provided to the troops when available Bakery produced 100,000 loaves of bread per day Bakery produced 100,000 loaves of bread per day Requirement for storage of 16,000 tons of food for troops (30 days) and 17,000 tons for animals (20 days) at all times Requirement for storage of 16,000 tons of food for troops (30 days) and 17,000 tons for animals (20 days) at all times

28 Slaughterhouse at City Point

29 Menu Items Menus included the following: Menus included the following: salt pork, fresh beef, ham and bacon, hard bread, soft bread, potatoes, onions, flour, beans, split peas, rice, dried apples, desiccated vegetables, coffee, tea, sugar, molasses, vinegar, pepper and salt Wagons with fresh produce, when available, were driven down the lines Wagons with fresh produce, when available, were driven down the lines

30 Thanksgiving Day 1864 Businessman George Blunt raised money to provide Thanksgiving dinner to the troops Businessman George Blunt raised money to provide Thanksgiving dinner to the troops Coordinated by New York Union Club co- founder Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. Coordinated by New York Union Club co- founder Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. Delmonico’s and other NYC restaurants provided thousands of dinners of turkeys and other fowl with all the trimmings. Delmonico’s and other NYC restaurants provided thousands of dinners of turkeys and other fowl with all the trimmings. Results were mixed Results were mixed Primary benefit was morale Primary benefit was morale

31 Thanksgiving 1864 “our defenders, City Point”

32 Maintenance and Repair Repair depot commander: Brevet LTC E. J. Strang Repair depot commander: Brevet LTC E. J. Strang Repair depot workforce numbered over 1,800 carpenters, wheelwrights, blacksmiths, saddlers, teamsters and corral hands Repair depot workforce numbered over 1,800 carpenters, wheelwrights, blacksmiths, saddlers, teamsters and corral hands Repair depot wharf covered 190 feet of waterfront and consisted of 26,000 square feet of storage space Repair depot wharf covered 190 feet of waterfront and consisted of 26,000 square feet of storage space

33 Maintenance and Repair (cont.) In nine months of operation, the depot repaired 3,653 wagons and 2,414 ambulances In nine months of operation, the depot repaired 3,653 wagons and 2,414 ambulances 19,618 horses and 31,628 mules were shod 19,618 horses and 31,628 mules were shod Department issued 31,386 horses, 18,891 mules, 1,536 wagons and 370 ambulances Department issued 31,386 horses, 18,891 mules, 1,536 wagons and 370 ambulances Colonel Strang provided repair teams of blacksmiths, carpenters and wheelwrights to front line units to shoe animals and repair equipment Colonel Strang provided repair teams of blacksmiths, carpenters and wheelwrights to front line units to shoe animals and repair equipment

34 Maintenance Facilities Repair shops at City Point maintained and repaired over 5,000 wagons and 60,000 animals that supported Grant’s armies Repair shops at City Point maintained and repaired over 5,000 wagons and 60,000 animals that supported Grant’s armies

35 USMRR Roundhouse and Repair Facility

36 Hospital Facilities City Point Hospital covered two hundred acres City Point Hospital covered two hundred acres Hospital handled more than 10,000 patients during summer of 1864 Hospital handled more than 10,000 patients during summer of 1864 Twelve hundred tents lined the streets Twelve hundred tents lined the streets Capable of providing 6,000 patients warm quarters during winter of 1864 – 1865 in 90 (20’ X 50’) log huts Capable of providing 6,000 patients warm quarters during winter of 1864 – 1865 in 90 (20’ X 50’) log huts

37 City Point Hospital

38 Hospital Ambulances

39 Hospital Facilities Drugs and medical supplies were plentiful Drugs and medical supplies were plentiful Patients had a bed with clean sheets and pillows Patients had a bed with clean sheets and pillows Hospital featured running water and laundry facilities – 2 four HP steam engines pumped water Hospital featured running water and laundry facilities – 2 four HP steam engines pumped water

40 Steam Engines at the City Point Dock

41 Defense was critical Confederate lines were close by and there was always the threat of cavalry raids Three significant attacks were made on City Point Entrenchments at City Point

42 On August 9, 1864 – an explosion shook City Point On August 9, 1864 – an explosion shook City Point – A munitions barge at the wharf exploded – Estimated 75,000 rounds of small arms ammunition and 20,000 rounds of artillery ammunition exploded – At least 43 killed and 126 wounded – Destroyed several large buildings and 180 feet of wharf – Two million dollars worth of supplies and munitions were destroyed 1 st Attack on City Point

43 August 9, 1864 (cont.) August 9, 1864 (cont.) ● Grant could have been a casualty. Several of his staff surrounding him were wounded ● Grant did not even get up to see what had happened. After it was over, he received a report and went directly to the telegraph office to report the incident ● City Point was back to nearly full operation in nine days 1 st Attack on City Point

44 Another View of the Devastation Note: Rail cars and wagon train along the wharf The incident was considered an accident until seven years later. A former Confederate agent, John Maxwell, admitted to setting a time bomb, which he called a “horological torpedo ”

45 Ordnance Wharf with Sentry

46 2 nd Attack on City Point September 17, 1864 ● Lee learned of cattle movement by tapping Union telegraph lines between City Point and Washington ● Wade Hampton’s cavalry stole 2,500 head of cattle and delivered them to Lee’s army

47 January 25, 1865 January 25, 1865 – Three ironclads, three wooden vessels and flotilla of torpedo boats headed down the James River towards City Point – Objective: Run past the batteries, take City Point and cut off Union supply lines – A large Confederate force was massed north of the river to attack once City Point was reached 3 rd Attack on City Point

48 January 25, 1865 (cont.) January 25, 1865 (cont.) – The ships got past the batteries of guns – The ironclads ran aground and the other boats turned back The attack was a total failure The attack was a total failure – If it had been successful, Union armies would have temporarily been cut off from supplies – If Lee had taken City Point, even for a short time, stolen supplies would have resupplied his army for months Attacks on City Point

49 President Abraham Lincoln Visit to City Point, VA March 24 – April 9, 1865 After his wife’s suggestion, Grant invited President Lincoln to visit City Point on March 20, 1865 After his wife’s suggestion, Grant invited President Lincoln to visit City Point on March 20, 1865 Lincoln arrived at City Point on March 24, 1865 Lincoln arrived at City Point on March 24, 1865

50

51 President Abraham Lincoln Visit to City Point, VA March 24 – April 9, 1865 ● Lincoln visited units and patients in military hospitals ● While at City Point, Lincoln was in constant communication with the government in Washington via telegraph ● A meeting between Lincoln and his major commanders, General Grant, General Sherman and Admiral Porter was held on the “River Queen,” on March 28 th

52 “The Peacemakers” George P. A. Healy

53 President Abraham Lincoln Visit to City Point, VA March 24 – April 9, 1865 President Lincoln visited Richmond, two days after its capture on April 4, 1865 President Lincoln visited Richmond, two days after its capture on April 4, 1865 Lincoln left City Point to return to Washington on April 9th, the day Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Lincoln left City Point to return to Washington on April 9th, the day Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox He was shot at Ford’s Theater on April 14, 1865 and died the following morning He was shot at Ford’s Theater on April 14, 1865 and died the following morning Lincoln spent two of his last three weeks on earth at City Point Lincoln spent two of his last three weeks on earth at City Point

54 City Point’s Legacy "There has been no army in the United States where the duties of Quartermaster have been so well performed.“ "There has been no army in the United States where the duties of Quartermaster have been so well performed.“ Ulysses S. Grant Commanding General Commanding General

55 Quartermaster General Rufus B. Ingalls

56 The End Rufus Ingalls’ English Spotted Coach Dog


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