Presentation on theme: "Civil War Battles and The Homefront. Fort Sumter- April 1861 First Battle, Confederates taking federal forts, mints, arsenals. Strategic location- harbor."— Presentation transcript:
Civil War Battles and The Homefront
Fort Sumter- April 1861 First Battle, Confederates taking federal forts, mints, arsenals. Strategic location- harbor of Charleston, SC Union Major Robert Anderson running out of supplies, asked for more. Lincoln’s Dilemma: let it fall and look weak or lose other states (only deep S. had seceded) Resupply but without armies or arms Confederates attacked, Anderson surrendered Results: 0 dead, AK, NC, TN & VA. secede. DE, KY, MD, MO loyal to Union, also W. VA.
Advantages and Disadvantages North/Union Larger population More factories More Railroads Navy __________________ Had to conquer south South/Confederacy Smaller Population Fewer Factories Fewer Railroads __________________ Excellent Generals (Lee, Jackson) Outdoor tradition- experience with guns Defensive War
Strategies North/Union Capture Richmond (confed. capital) Anaconda Plan- strangle the south Gain control of Mississippi River Naval blockade Utilize superior numbers & resources but this took time South/Confederacy Capture Washington DC, invade the North Demoralize the Union Help from 3.5 million slaves Cotton diplomacy- help from England & France
July 1861 First Bull Run Lincoln ordered general to Richmond w/barely trained troops, People came w/picnics to watch Met Confederates, dug in on high ground behind a creek (Bull Run) Union winning until Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson and men stopped them, shouting Rebel Yell: “woh-who-ey! Who-ey!” (eerie sound, chills thru Union troops) Union retreat, spectators horrified, ran Results: Both sides realize war longer than 3 months North shocked/shamed, South proud
Soldiers’ Experiences Enthusiasm to enlist, boredom set in during training (baseball invented during rest time) Shortages: food, uniforms (Union-blue, Confederacy- Gray), shoes Illnesses (influenza, typhoid, pneumonia) & lack of sanitary medical treatment & anesthesia (pain-killers)- many died from infected wounds (including Stonewall Jackson) As war continued became “a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight,” desertion common
Homefront Women replaced male factory workers (100,000 jobs in arsenals, factories, sewing rooms) Mary Boykin Chestnut- diary of a southern woman: frustrated with failures of southern leaders, watched “with horror and amazement (as) the only world we cared for, (was) literally kicked to pieces” (Boyer, 378) Mary Boykin Chestnut Source: jpg
Battle of New Orleans- April 1862 Importance: cut off supplies to Western Confederacy & move troops up Mississippi R. Farragut and ships attacked 2 forts guarding approach from Gulf of Mexico Unsuccessful shelling, decided to sail past, 17 warships during 4/24 am All but 4 made it to NO, 4/29 city surrendered Results: Union morale up, victories in the west. South had lost 50,000 square miles of territory, 1000 miles of rivers, 2 state capitals, largest city
September 1862 Antietam key turning point AL waiting to issue Emancipation Proclamation to free slaves in rebel areas but not in border states Lee on offensive, wanted Brit support (wanted to see if could win on Union soil) Lee crossed into MD. (55,000 men, 5000 lost) Union troops found battle plans around cigar box. McClellan planned counterattack, 75,000 men met Lee at Antietam Creek MD.
September 1862 Antietam Results: bloodiest single day battle in U.S. history (Confed 13,000 casualties/Union 12,000+) AL fired McClellan for letting Confed escape to VA. Raised confidence in the north, Lee Can BE DEFEATED. Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation South lost hope of support from Europe- Britain would not enter a war fought against slavery.
Opposition to the War North/Union Copperheads- northerners who sympathized with the South Lincoln suspended habeas corpus- jailed them without trials for the duration of the war Draft Riots, e.g. in NY after Emancipation- wanted to fight for the Union, not for slaves. South/Confederacy Opposed the draft- Confederacy passed 1 st conscription act in US history Poor ended up fighting more- plantation owners bought their way out of service Argued for state’s rights
British Cartoon Showing Pensive Lincoln after NY Draft Riots: shows fears about emancipation, racism among northern whites Source:
April 1863 Chancellorsville AL switched to “Fighting Joe” Hooker daring plan Divide troops into 3: cut off supplies, attack both flanks Men in forest wilderness, near Chancellorsville, VA. Lee divided his troops, Stonewall Jackson + 30K through wilderness to outflank Hooker Hooker heard movements, assumed confed retreat Lee & Jackson attacked from 2 sides, Hooker withdrew in defeat Results: Jackson died (shot by own troops in arm, infection, 8 days later died) South morale boost, AL turned “ashen”, Sumner “…all is lost”
July Gettysburg Fresh off victory, Lee decided to invade north Resupply & feed troops with seized goods Lee to PA. With 75K troops, AL ordered Hooker to attack, Hooker hesitated & was replaced w/Meade Confed near Gettysburg, scouts heard of shoe supply 2 Union brigades on high ground NW of Gettysburg, fired on approaching shoe raiders Day 3: Pickett’s Charge: ordered 15K men to rush Union atCemetery Ridge, ½ survived, no 2 nd attack Lee retreated, Meade could not pursue (bad weather)
July Gettysburg Results: Union: 23,000 casualties, Confed 20,000 Gettysburg Address-dedication of cemetery- statement of democratic ideals: “Four Score and 7 years ago our fathers brought forth … a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal” “It is rather for us to… highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” Turning point: Union won, but failed to end the war Lincoln “Our Army held the war in the hollow of their hand and they would not close it.”
Charleston, SC July th Massachusetts Infantry July 1862 act and Emancipation Proc encouraged blacks to enlist Union unable to gain control of forts near Charleston 6,000 troops in desperate frontal attack on Fort Wagner at entrance to harbor, 54 th led the charge (expected great losses) July 18, night, 54 th clawed their way to top of sloping walls, Siege ended September 6 when confed evacuated. But African Americans not given =: less than ½ pay until 6/1864, no command)
May 1863 Vicksburg Grant had to take Vicksburg to gain control of Mississippi River. Plan: march into enemy territory, bottled up 1 force in Jackson, raced west to trap other enemy force inside Vicksburg 6 week Siege of Vicksburg, prevented confederate reinforcements, eating mules/rats July 3, 1863 Grant and Pemberton under oak tree, surrendered next day July 8 confederates at Port Hudson, LA. also fell Results: Union gained total control of Mississippi River, cut off Ark, LA., TX from confed.
Summer 1864 Campaign Lincoln promoted Grant to chief general b/c able to use N. soldiers/supplies War of attrition: Grant’s plan to march on Richmond, until S. out of men/supplies/will Pushed into Wilderness (Chancellorsville) losing men, pushed on May Spottsylvania Court House, VA losing men, kept on Mid-June Petersburg VA. RR center, called off assault, siege to Petersburg Results: 60,000 Union casualties, but strategy succeeding because the Union had more men
Sherman’s March to Sea Union general William Tecumseh Sherman Sherman commander of Ten army, campaign to destroy S. RR/industries 100,000 troops toward Atlanta, outmaneuvered Johnston, defeated Hood Atlanta fell September 2, 1864, Sherman burned it Result: Confed. Lost last RR link across Appalachian mts. President Lincoln (in danger of not getting nomination) re-elected over McClellan Renewed hope that conflict would soon end
Sherman’s March to Sea Sherman towards Savannah, took supplies, destroyed things for Confederates Uprooted crops, burned farmhouses, slaughtered livestock, tore up RR Strategy of total war against troops and economic resources, “must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war…” Result: effective but left deep/bitter scars across the South Reached Savannah in 12/1864, resupplied by Union navy (Xmas gift to AL)
April Appomattox April 2, 1865, Lee withdrew from Richmond, army ½ size of Grant’s Lee tried to flee westward to join more troops, Grant cut him off Lee asked for surrender terms: house in tiny village, talked of Mexican War days Confederate officers could keep side arms Soldiers fed and allowed to keep horses/mules None tried for treason
April Appomattox Conciliatory tone (quotations, p. 395) Lee rode off, Union troops celebrating, Grant silenced them: “the war is over, the rebels are our countrymen again.” Lee to his men, did all I could, you did duty, leave rest to God, return home April 26, 1865 General Joseph Johnston surrendered to Sherman under similar terms at Durham Station, NC