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11.1 The Civil War Begins Objectives: A. What were the North’s and the South’s strategies to win the war? B. What were some of the reasons that the war.

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Presentation on theme: "11.1 The Civil War Begins Objectives: A. What were the North’s and the South’s strategies to win the war? B. What were some of the reasons that the war."— Presentation transcript:

1 11.1 The Civil War Begins Objectives: A. What were the North’s and the South’s strategies to win the war? B. What were some of the reasons that the war was longer and deadlier than people predicted?

2 George McClellan Robert E Lee Ulysses S. Grant Stonewall Jackson David G. Farragut Three in One “90 Day War” Anaconda Shiloh First Bull Run Second Bull Run Ft. Sumter Ft. Donelson Antietam New Orleans 1.First shots fired in the Civil War. 2.First battle between armies of North and South. 3.The over-cautious commander for the Union during the attempt to capture Richmond in Bloodiest single day of the Civil War 5.The general who saved the day at First Bull Run for the South.

3 George McClellan Robert E Lee Ulysses S. Grant Stonewall Jackson David G. Farragut Three in One “90 Day War” Anaconda Shiloh First Bull Run Second Bull Run Ft. Sumter Ft. Donelson Antietam New Orleans 1.General who took over for the South after the Battle for Richmond. 2.Union Naval officer in charge of controlling the Mississippi and New Orleans. 3.The official Northern strategy for winning the war. 4.Bloodiest single day of the Civil War 5.The general who saved the day at First Bull Run for the South.

4 George McClellan Robert E Lee Ulysses S. Grant Stonewall Jackson David G. Farragut Three in One “90 Day War” Anaconda Shiloh First Bull Run Second Bull Run Ft. Sumter Ft. Donelson Antietam New Orleans 1.First shots fired in the Civil War. 2.The general who saved the day at First Bull Run for the South. 3.Battle that made Ulysses Grant famous. 4.Overcautious Union general who was in charge at the battle of Antietam. 5.First official battle between armies of the North and South in the Civil War.

5 Lincoln’s Union (?) March 4, 1861 – Lincoln’s Inauguration, 7 states seceded: TX, LA, MISS, ALA, GA, FL, SC Lincoln’s inaugural address: “Physically speaking, we cannot separate.” Why?

6 Charleston Harbor S.C.. Bombardment of Fort Sumter.

7 Ft. Sumter: Cause & Effects CAUSES: Geography: Fort was in mouth of harbor of Charleston, SC Time: Fort needed more provisions to hold on Compromise? Lincoln would provision garrison, but not reinforce it.

8 Fort Sumter Flag Note that there are 33 stars. Why is that important?

9 Fort Sumter (Library of Congress) Fort Sumter Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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11 Ft. Sumter: Cause & Effects EFFECTS: April 12, 1861: Confederates bombard Ft. Sumter, Federal garrison surrenders after 36 hours NORTH: unifies and settles in for a long fight, volunteers enlist, blockade begins SOUTH: Becomes aggressor, boosts overconfidence BORDER STATES: First blood drawn by South, therefore, most stay with the Union

12 Whose War? War for What? After Sumter: Who goes next? ARK, TENN, NC, AND VA Capital of Confederacy moves to Richmond, VA BORDER STATES: MD, DEL, W.VA, KY, MO, Indian Territory West Virginia formed by “mountain whites” who DO NOT want to be part of the Confederacy Lincoln suspends habeas corpus in MD – Baltimore is site of first blood spilt in war.

13 Maryland, My Maryland –I The despot's heel is on thy shore, –Maryland! His torch is at thy temple door, –Maryland! Avenge the patriotic gore That flecked the streets of Baltimore, And be the battle queen of yore, –Maryland! My Maryland! –VI Dear Mother! burst the tyrant's chain, –Maryland! Virginia should not call in vain, –Maryland! She meets her sisters on the plain- "Sic semper!" 'tis the proud refrain That baffles minions back again, –Maryland! Arise in majesty again, –Maryland! My Maryland!

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15 Lincoln’s Cause: UNION, NOT ABOLITION. WHY? Lincoln cannot loose of Southern Ohio, Indiana, & Illinois NOR the Border States. “I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game. Kentucky gone, we cannot hold Missouri, nor, I think, Maryland. These all against us. And the job on our hands is too large for us. We would as well consent to separation at once, including surrender of this capital.”

16 Unionists of East Tennessee swearing by the flag Like the citizens in western Virginia, people in eastern Tennessee remained faithful to the Union. Men like those shown here swore allegiance to the United States flag and tried to split the state in two--one rebel and the other loyal--but Confederate troops put a stop to their efforts. (Library of Congress) Unionists of East Tennessee swearing by the flag Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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18 lis/Civil_War/tables/BorderPop1860. html

19 Balance of Power SOUTH Defensive Strategy Better officers Military Culture Limited transportation Limited manufacturing Limited population (slave revolution?) NORTH Offensive Strategy Incompetent/Hesitant Officers Urban culture Extensive ports& transportation system Extensive Manufacturing Immigration/Population booming

20 WAR STRATEGIES THE NORTH’S “ANACONDA” PLAN 1.Naval blockade of Southern ports 2.Control the Mississippi and split Confederacy in two 3.Capture Richmond, the Confederate Capital THE SOUTH’S PLAN 1.Fight a defensive war 2.Secure recognition and support from Europe 3.Negotiate an armistice

21 Scott's Great Snake General Winfield Scott's scheme to surround the South and await a seizure of power by southern Unionists drew scorn from critics who called it the Anaconda plan. In this lithograph, the "great snake" prepares to thrust down the Mississippi, seal off the Confederacy, and crush it. (Library of Congress) Scott's Great Snake Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

22 Bull Run (1 st Manassas) & 90 Day War Optimism runs high, on both sides: Lincoln calls up militia for 90 days Pressure to engage South leads to Bull Run. Union outnumbers South, but “Stonewall” Jackson holds and Southern reinforcements win the field. Union drive to Richmond ends in a humiliating retreat to DC EFFECTS: 1. South overconfident, invades MD and PA 2. Lincoln and North begin to consider emancipation. 3. Lincoln replaces McDowell and appoints George McClellan commander.

23 Map: McClellan's Campaign McClellan's Campaign The water route chosen by McClellan to threaten Richmond during the peninsular campaign. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

24 McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign 1861: George B. McClellan given command of Army of the Potomac Good organizer and drillmaster  trained troops well, popular with them Overcautious, slow to commit, and some say arrogant Spring 1862: McClellan moves, finally, on Richmond Union stalls at Richmond, routed in Lee’s counter- attack, the Seven Day’s Battles HOW WOULD A VICTORY FOR McCLELLAN HAVE CHANGED THE WAR?

25 Map: McClellan's Campaign McClellan's Campaign The water route chosen by McClellan to threaten Richmond during the peninsular campaign. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

26 Robert E. Lee Lee takes command of Confederate forces after Johnson is wounded at Richmond during the Peninsular Campaign. Responsible for aggressive Southern strategy during Seven Days Battles. Both General Grant and General Lee were West Point graduates and had served in the U.S. Army during the War with Mexico. Their bloody battles against each other in 1864 stirred northern revulsion to the war even as they brought its end in sight. (National Archives) Robert E. Lee Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

27 EFFECTS OF PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN McClellan removed from command Hardens North’s resolve Move toward total war Embrace Anaconda Plan and Emancipation as strategies (vs. moral decisions) Invade Mississippi and Ohio rivers, spreading war to the west and deep south

28 War in the West Ulysses S. Grant surprises all, seizing control of western rivers with gunboats, securing Tennessee and Kentucky Shiloh, hotly contested battle for West, brings Grant national attention Admiral David G. Farragut captures New Orleans for North, moves up Mississippi.  Anaconda Plan is beginning to work!

29 Ulysses S. Grant, 1864 by Mathew Brady Both General Grant and General Lee were West Point graduates and had served in the U.S. Army during the War with Mexico. Their bloody battles against each other in 1864 stirred northern revulsion to the war even as they brought its end in sight. (National Archives) Ulysses S. Grant, 1864 by Mathew Brady Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

30 Map: The Anaconda Plan and the Battle of Antietam Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

31 Second Bull Run (2 nd Manassas) After Richmond defeat McClellan replaced by Gen. Pope as commander of Army of the Potomac Lee moves north toward Washington, DC Gen. Pope engages Lee at Second Bull Run, August 29-30, 1862, and is crushed. Lee and Army of Northern Virginia move into MD, hoping to stir rebellion. MD stays neutral Armies meet at Antietam Creek, Maryland on Sept. 17, 1862

32 Map: The War in the East, The War in the East, Union advances on Richmond were turned back at Fredericksburg and the Seven Days' Battles, and the Confederacy's invasion of Union territory was stopped at Antietam. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

33 Antietam, September 17, 1862 McClellan returned to command Lee swings north and crosses the Potomac Lee’s battle plans are discovered, showing his division of forces; McClellan does not act on info for 18 hours! It is the bloodiest day of the war: 23,000 (2x the number of dead and wounded on D-Day) Some consider Antietam the high water mark of the South’s chances for victory (vs. Gettysburg) because foreign powers never come as close to endorsing Conf. cause again - see Killer Angels Is it McClellan’s greatest blunder? Could have ended war?

34 Antietam In the photograph of Antietam, dead rebel gunners lie next to the wreckage of their battery. (Library of Congress) Antietam Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

35 Antietam by James Hope A painting of the Antietam battlefield by James Hope, a Union soldier of the Second Vermont Infantry, shows three brigades of Union troops advancing under Confederate fire. The building in the painting, a Dunker church, was the scene of furious fighting. (Antietam National Battlefield, Sharpsburg, Maryland) Antietam by James Hope Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

36 Antietam dead, Confederates lined for burial This photograph of corpses awaiting burial was one of ninety-five taken by Mathew Brady and his assistants of the Antietam battlefield, the bloodiest single day of the war. It was the first time Americans had seen war depicted so realistically. When Brady's photographs went on display in New York in 1862, throngs of people waited in line to see them. (Library of Congress) Antietam dead, Confederates lined for burial Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

37 Confederate Dead at the Dunker Church by Mathew Brady An exhibition of photographs from the Battle of Antietam, taken by Mathew Brady, opened in October of 1862 in New York City. Although few knew it, Brady's vision was very poor, and this photograph of Confederate dead was actually made by his assistants, Alexander Gardner and James F. Gibson. (Library of Congress) Confederate Dead at the Dunker Church by Mathew Brady Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

38 1.Lee’s attempt to invade Maryland and encourage an uprising against the North ended with the battle of ____________. 2.The first battle of the Civil War was at ___________. 3.Union General Grant led troops at ______, which was a near disaster for the Union. 4.The Union admiral who captured New Orleans and seized control of the lower Mississippi was __________. 5.This general was in charge of Union forces at Antietam.

39 THEME: The North effectively brought to bear its long term advantages of industrial might and human resources to wage a devastating total war against the South. The war helped organize and modernize northern society, while the South, despite heroic efforts, was economically and socially crushed.


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