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The Verge of War –1. Win in Mexican War made conflict worse. –2. 1820 population favored the North More seats in the House of Representatives 3. 1849.

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Presentation on theme: "The Verge of War –1. Win in Mexican War made conflict worse. –2. 1820 population favored the North More seats in the House of Representatives 3. 1849."— Presentation transcript:



3 The Verge of War –1. Win in Mexican War made conflict worse. –2. 1820 population favored the North More seats in the House of Representatives 3. 1849 there were 15 free and ___ slave states * Debate over status of new western territories as ______ states. I. North and South Try to Compromise 15 slave A. The Slavery Issue in the West

4 B. Congressional Debate Begins 1.Wilmot’s __________ (condition added to a bill) proposed a ban on slavery in all former __________ territory. 2.Calhoun’s debate called the “Platform of the South” said that Congress couldn’t ban slavery. 3. Stephen Douglas proposed popular sovereignty – allowing each state to vote and decide. Proviso Mexican

5 C. Issues Affect Election Results 1. The (anti-slavery) ____________ Party was formed – its campaign slogan stating “Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men.” 2. 1848 – “Old Rough and Ready” _______________ wins the election – but took no position on slavery. 3. CA and NM wanted to ban (deny) slavery. Free Soil Zachary Taylor

6 D. Compromise of 1850 1.Proposed by Henry Clay 2.Included 5 new laws: –A. CA - _________ state –B. NM organized with ___________________. –C. UT organized with ___________________. –D. The _______ trade must end in Washington, DC. –E. Federal government would provide aid in the ________ of runaway slaves. free Popular sovereignty slave return

7 3.Congressional debate over compromise –A. Calhoun asked, “How can the Union be preserved?” –B. Daniel Webster replied, “I speak today for the ______________________.” 4. In 1850, after President Taylor’s death, President _________________ backed Clay’s compromise. 1844 Political Cartoon showing presidential candidates Polk and Clay. (Andrew Jackson, Daniel Webster, Martin Van Buren look on) What if Clay had won? Could slavery have continued and would there have been a Civil War? preservation of the Union Millard Fillmore

8 E. All Southern States Accepted the Compromise of 1850 With Certain Conditions: 1.Fugitive Slave Law must be obeyed. 2. Congress cannot abolish slavery in Washington, DC. 3. Congress cannot deny new slave territories.

9 F. Conflict Arises - 1.Many Northerners refused to obey the __________________ of 1850. 2. Southern leaders were again claiming state sovereignty. G. Election of 1852 – Franklin Pierce Supported The Compromise And Won By A Landslide. Fugitive Slave Law

10 II.Compromises Fail A.Compromise of 1850 Only Lasts 2 Years Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe  Story about slaves & their owners in South  Stirred up strong feelings:  North – Masterpiece, South - Lie

11  Stowe is from the North - minister’s daughter  History of helping fugitive slaves –A gifted writer - many began to think about slavery

12  Bill introduced by Senator Stephen Douglas  To organize these territories - proposes popular sovereignty  Conflicts with earlier MO Compromise  Would allow a transcontinental RR  E. Coast - Chicago to the W. Coast  Southerners wanted RR to cross TX Purpose of the Gadsden Purchase B.Kansas-Nebraska Act

13  1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act passes  Stirs northern emotions - Whig party splits  South - Democratic majority  North - Free-Soil joins Republicans  “Bleeding Kansas” bloodshed over slave vote May 1856 – While sitting at his desk in the Senate chamber, Senator Charles Sumner is savagely beaten with a cane by Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina

14  John C. Fremont (Republican) vs.  Winner - James Buchanan (Democrat)  Buchanan carries Southern vote C.Election of 1856

15  A black slave in Missouri  Travels (with owner) to (free) Illinois & Wisconsin, but returns to MO  Abolitionists support suing for freedom D. Dred Scott Case

16 Supreme Court Decision:  Where a slave lives does not matter  Slaves have no Constitutional rights  They are property of owners and Congress cannot deny movement of property Outcomes: –1. Missouri Compromise Unconstitutional –2. Slavery is protected under the Constitution –3. Amendment required to abolish slavery

17 III. The South Leaves the Union 1. Abraham Lincoln becomes 16 th President –  Carries the N & W, 40% of popular vote 2. Secession Feared –  Not favored by every slave state - Lincoln pledges not to touch existing slave states A.Election of 1860

18 B. Inauguration March 1861 – 7 States Already Seceded C. Confederate States of America Formed  Jefferson Davis – President (former Mississippi senator)  New constitution based on idea of states rights within the Confederacy

19 D.Lincoln Refuses to Recognize the Confederacy  Believed – states have no right to secede * Strategy: If war – Confederates will fire first

20 IV. War Begins – Union vs. Confederacy  Union troops occupied – low on supplies  Confederate orders – Attack if re-supplied  Ships arrive, negotiation fails  Confederate troops bombard for 36 hours * Union surrenders – No battle deaths A. Fort Sumter (Charleston, SC) April 1861

21 B. Battle Sparks Union Patriotism – Support For War D.West Virginia (Union) – Breaks From Virginia C. Border States – MO, KY, DE, MD – Stay In Union

22 E.Sides Are Chosen – Families, Friends, Military Officers, States Robert E. Lee – Initially loyal to Union, but ultimately to VA Gifted military officer

23 F.Northern (Federal) Plan: 1. Gain control of Confederacy’s vast lands 2. Defeat southern armies 3. Destroy Confederacy’s desire & ability to fight –Goals: –a. Capture (Confederate) Capital – Richmond, VA –b. Control the Mississippi River (separates E & W) –c. Stop Confederate trade abroad:  Export: Cotton  Import: Military supplies Slow start – lacked military strength

24 G.Confederate Plan – Defend Home Cause Has skilled military H.First Major Fighting  Battle of Bull Run (Manassas, VA) July 1861  Confederate General Thomas “Stone Wall” Jackson blocks Northern advance  Union troops retreat to Washington, DC Dec. 1862 Battle of Fredericksburg, VA

25 V. The Turning Point – Summer 1863  Union Commander George Meade knows Lee’s intention  Confederate Commander Robert E. Lee – needed surprise attack –1. Battle lasted 3 days  Day 1 – Only partial fighting  Union troops retreat to Cemetery Ridge A. Gettysburg, PA - July 1-3

26 Gettysburg - Days 2 & 3 – Intense fighting –  Pickett’s Charge – final Confederate charge (15K soldiers) –  Forced to retreat & return to VA 2. Union Victory - heavy casualties (both sides)

27 Speech for dedication of Soldiers National Cemetery B. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address (Nov. 1863)

28 C.Vicksburg, Miss. – 3 Months Fighting Ends July 4 th  City heavily defended by Confederate army  Protects the Mississippi River –Union victory separates SE from SW

29 D.Chattanooga, TN – Fall 1863 Union Victory – Gains major communication & transportation center E.Confederate Army Struggles – Union Victory Seems Evident *Grant now Commander of Union forces *General William Tecumseh Sherman in charge of West

30 F.Grant Sends Sherman to Attack Atlanta, GA a. Orders: Destroy Confederates’ ability to fight –1. Occupies Atlanta – Sept. 1864 –2. Moves east & destroys 60 mi. wide path – Atlanta to Savannah –3. Destroyed all supplies for Confederate army

31 b.Sherman enforces the Emancipation Proclamation –  Plantations raided (owners at war) c.Savannah to Columbia, SC – destroys all supply lines in-between

32 G. Naval Battles 1. North imposes a blockade of all southern ports –  Strategy – cut off supply lines * South used fast ships “blockade runners”

33 2. Modern naval warfare begins (1862) –  The ship Merrimac is captured early – Confederates rename it Virginia – it becomes an ironclad battleship –  Union Monitor – ironclad battleship – fights the Virginia –  Battle ends in standoff 3. (1865) Union Navy stronger – blocks most Confederate supply ships

34 H.Richmond Becomes Focus  Grant advances south – meets Lee’s forces  Battle of the Wilderness (northern Virginia)  Spotsylvania  Cold Harbor (10 mi. from Richmond)  Richmond, VA (Confederate capital) – Grant uses siege warfare  Lee’s troops outnumbered 2:1, fight trench warfare 9 month siege – Grant captures Richmond

35 VI.The War Ends - Appomattox Court House, Virginia A. Richmond falls to Union troops – April 1, 1865 B. Grant pursues Lee to Appomattox C. Lee Surrenders April 9

36 D. Confederate President Jefferson Davis captured May 10 * May 26 – Last Confederate Army Surrenders

37 Study Guide – Civil War Unit 1.Plan proposed by Henry Clay to keep the number of slave and free states equal ___________________ 2.Proposed law to ban slavery in lands won from Mexico ______________ 3.Loyalty to a state or section rather than to the country as a whole ____________ 4.Policy that would allow the people of a territory to decide for themselves whether to allow slavery ________________ Directions: Write the term that best fits each description. Missouri Compromise Wilmot Proviso sectionalism Popular sovereignty

38 5.War between people of the same country ___________ 6.Antislavery author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin ___________________ 7.President who supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act ______________ 8.Slave who sued for his freedom because he had lived in free territory__________ 9.Law proposed by Stephen Douglas of Illinois that allowed territories to organize and choose whether they would become free or slave states ________________ 10.They rejoiced at the Dred Scott decision___________ 11.Democratic candidate that was elected President in 1856_________________ civil war Harriet Beecher Stowe Franklin Pierce Dred Scott Kansas-Nebraska Act southerners James Buchanan

39 12.Proposal by Henry Clay that involved five new laws on the issue of slavery, it was negotiated between North & South before it became law __________________ 13. Law that caused great conflict in the North because it required escaped slaves to be returned to their owners _________________ 14. Former slave and abolitionist, he had two sons fighting with the Massachusetts 54 th, the all black regiment that attacked Fort Wagner____________ 15. Slave state that chose to remain in the Union during the Civil War _________ Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Law Frederick Douglass Maryland

40 16.________________________ was the Union general who led the “march to the sea” after capturing Atlanta, destroying the Confederacy’s ability to fight. 17.The Battle of _________ was seen as being a turning point in the Civil War. 18.The Civil War ended on April 9, 1865, when Lee surrendered to Grant at _______________________. 19.Location where the first shots of the Civil War were fired was ____________. 20.Part of the __________ plan was to gain control of the enemy’s vast lands and destroy their desire to fight. William Tecumseh Sherman Gettysburg Appomattox Court House Fort Sumter Federal

41 21.President Lincoln appointed _______________ as commander of the Union forces in 1864. 22.______________ was president of the Confederate States of America (CSA). 23.The ____________ had an early advantage because they possessed many skilled military officers. 24.____________________ was located along the Mississippi River and a key battle location, where fighting lasted three months. 25.At the end of the war, __________________ became the focus of the Union’s advances because it was the capital of the Confederacy. Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Confederacy Vicksburg, Mississippi Richmond, Virginia


43 Objectives: T.B.A. (link to UbD Civil War Unit & State Standards)

44 Preview – The Civil War: The Verge of War – I. North and South Try to Compromise: –A. The Slavery Issue in the West –B. Congressional Debate Begins –C. Issues Affect Election Results –D. Compromise of 1850 –E. All Southern States Accept the Compromise of 1850 With Certain Conditions –F. Conflict Arises

45 Preview – Continued: II. Compromises Fail: –A. Compromise of 1850 Only Lasts 2 Years –B. Kansas-Nebraska Act –C. Election of 1856 –D. Dred Scott Case III. The South Leaves the Union: –A. Election of 1860 –B. Inauguration Jan. 1861 – 7 states already seceded –C. Confederate States of America Formed –D. Lincoln Refuses to Recognize the Confederacy

46 Preview – Continued: IV. War Begins – Union vs. Confederacy –A. Fort Sumter – B. Battle Sparks Union Patriotism – Support for War –C. Border States – MO, KE, DE, MD-Stay in Union –D. West Virginia – Breaks From Virginia –E. Sides Are Chosen – Families, Friends, Military Officers, States –F. Northern Plan: –G. Confederate Plan – Defend Home Cause

47 Preview – Continued: H. First Major Fighting V. The Turning Point – Summer 1863 –A. Gettysburg, PA – July 1-3 –B. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address –C. Vicksburg, Miss. – 3 mos. Fighting Ends July 4 th –D. Chattanooga, TN – Fall 1863 –E. Confederate Army Struggles – Union Victory Seems Evident –F. Grant Sends Sherman to Attack Atlanta, GA –G. Naval Battles –H. Richmond Becomes Focus

48 Preview – Continued: VI. The War Ends – Appomattox Court House, Virginia –A. Richmond Falls to Union Troops - April 1, 1865 –B. Grant Pursues Lee to Appomattox –C. Lee Surrenders - April 9 –D. Confederate President Jefferson Davis Captured –E. May 26 – Last Confederate Army Surrenders

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