Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Civil War USA vs. CSA Lincoln took office in early 1860. Seven Southern states had seceded. He did not know whether he should declare."— Presentation transcript:
By calling out 75,000 state militiamen, Lincoln forced all states to choose sides. Border states have a tough time deciding which side to fight for.
What should I do? I own slaves but I don’t want to be part of a rebel government?
Half of the Southern population lived in the border states. 2/3 of the whites lived in the border states, including the nation’s best military leaders. They also contained ¾ of the industrial capacity and 3/5 of the food production.
The Civil War forced the country to industrialize even further. Both the USA and CSA saw advancements in: 1.Railroads 2.Weaponry 3.Ironclad ships 4.Cameras (Mathew Brady) 5.Telegraphs 6.Medicine (Clara Barton and the American Red Cross 1881)
Let’s compare the North and South: Item NORTHSOUTH States -Maine, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Vermont, Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Delaware, Maryland, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, California, Oregon, Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia (23) -Virginia, North Carolina, South Caroline, Tennessee, Arkansas, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas (11)
Population -20 million-10 million (4 million were slaves) Army totals -2,128, 948 total (before the war, the entire US army was only 16,350) -Estimated 600,000- 1,500,000 (no way to tell since records were burned in Richmond African Americans -178,895 total -134,111 from slave states -21 Congressional Medal of Honor recipients -54 th Mass Regiment led attack on Ft. Wagner -Not allowed to fight until March 13, 1865 (CSA surrendered on April 9 th, 1865)
Navies-42 ships in 1861 -84,415 white sailors -29,000 black sailors -Blockaded 3,500 mile CSA coast -No Navy at first President-Abraham Lincoln (two terms) -Jefferson Davis Capital-Washington D.C.-Richmond, Va. Commanders -General Irvin McDowell -General Winfield Scott -General George McClellan -General John Pope -General Ambrose Burnside -General Fightin’ Joe Hooker -General George Meade -General Ulysses S. Grant -General Joseph E. Johnston -General Robert E. Lee
Advantages -Leadership of Abe Lincoln -Double Population -9 times more industrial capacity -5 to two advantage in men able to fight -More wealthy -¾ more railroads -2/3 more farm acreage -Controlled shipping -Army grew more talented as war progressed. -More equipped army -Outstanding generals -Strong military tradition -Strong motivation and confidence -Defense!! -Cotton made them valuable to European onlookers
Disadvantages -Ungressive officers -Longer supply lines and communication -3,500 mile enemy coastline (only caught 1/8 of ships with their 33 boats— by 1865-1/2 caught) -Vast land to conquer -European aid to Confederacy -Less confident in battle -Autocratic leadership to Jefferson Davis -Inflation!! -Inferior numbers in med, money and industry -Had to start everything from scratch -Disaffection (“rich man’s war, poor man’s fight”)
Strategy-Capture Richmond -Split the Confederacy by gaining control of the Mississippi (Anaconda Plan) -Blockade the South to cut off trade -Capture Washington -Seize central Pa -Divide Northwest and Northeast -Gain recognition of Confederacy’s independent status -Protect the Army from annihilation Casualties -340,000 deaths-280,000 deaths