Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Civil War USA vs. CSA Lincoln took office in early 1860. Seven Southern states had seceded. He did not know whether he should declare."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to the Civil War USA vs. CSA
Lincoln took office in early Seven Southern states had seceded. He did not know whether he should declare war on them or accept the Southern secession.
His decision was made easy when the Confederate forces in Charleston, South Carolina fired on Fort Sumter on April 12 th, 1861.
Major Robert Anderson surrendered the fort two days later to General Beauregard of the CSA. After the battle, 4 more upper southern states seceded.
The “Civil War” was underway….
By calling out 75,000 state militiamen, Lincoln forced all states to choose sides. Border states have a tough time deciding which side to fight for.
What should I do? I own slaves but I don’t want to be part of a rebel government?
Half of the Southern population lived in the border states. 2/3 of the whites lived in the border states, including the nation’s best military leaders. They also contained ¾ of the industrial capacity and 3/5 of the food production.
Virginia was so torn it split into two states!
The war tore families apart, as brothers, cousins and friends often chose opposing sides.
The most important state in the Confederacy was Virginia and they set up their permanent capital in Richmond.
Virginia, the most populated Southern state contained more industrial capacity than all other Southern states combined.
The Confederacy elected Jefferson Davis as their president.
Both sides prepared for war.
Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Lee of Virginia rejected Lincoln’s offer to lead the Union Army stating, “I cannot draw my sword against my country, Virginia”!
One in every three U.S. army officers resigned to join the Confederate Army and fight against their former comrades.
The Civil War forced the country to industrialize even further. Both the USA and CSA saw advancements in: 1.Railroads 2.Weaponry 3.Ironclad ships 4.Cameras (Mathew Brady) 5.Telegraphs 6.Medicine (Clara Barton and the American Red Cross 1881)
Let’s compare the North and South: Item NORTHSOUTH States -Maine, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Vermont, Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Delaware, Maryland, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, California, Oregon, Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia (23) -Virginia, North Carolina, South Caroline, Tennessee, Arkansas, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas (11)
Population -20 million-10 million (4 million were slaves) Army totals -2,128, 948 total (before the war, the entire US army was only 16,350) -Estimated 600,000- 1,500,000 (no way to tell since records were burned in Richmond African Americans -178,895 total -134,111 from slave states -21 Congressional Medal of Honor recipients -54 th Mass Regiment led attack on Ft. Wagner -Not allowed to fight until March 13, 1865 (CSA surrendered on April 9 th, 1865)
Navies-42 ships in ,415 white sailors -29,000 black sailors -Blockaded 3,500 mile CSA coast -No Navy at first President-Abraham Lincoln (two terms) -Jefferson Davis Capital-Washington D.C.-Richmond, Va. Commanders -General Irvin McDowell -General Winfield Scott -General George McClellan -General John Pope -General Ambrose Burnside -General Fightin’ Joe Hooker -General George Meade -General Ulysses S. Grant -General Joseph E. Johnston -General Robert E. Lee
Advantages -Leadership of Abe Lincoln -Double Population -9 times more industrial capacity -5 to two advantage in men able to fight -More wealthy -¾ more railroads -2/3 more farm acreage -Controlled shipping -Army grew more talented as war progressed. -More equipped army -Outstanding generals -Strong military tradition -Strong motivation and confidence -Defense!! -Cotton made them valuable to European onlookers
Disadvantages -Ungressive officers -Longer supply lines and communication -3,500 mile enemy coastline (only caught 1/8 of ships with their 33 boats— by /2 caught) -Vast land to conquer -European aid to Confederacy -Less confident in battle -Autocratic leadership to Jefferson Davis -Inflation!! -Inferior numbers in med, money and industry -Had to start everything from scratch -Disaffection (“rich man’s war, poor man’s fight”)
Strategy-Capture Richmond -Split the Confederacy by gaining control of the Mississippi (Anaconda Plan) -Blockade the South to cut off trade -Capture Washington -Seize central Pa -Divide Northwest and Northeast -Gain recognition of Confederacy’s independent status -Protect the Army from annihilation Casualties -340,000 deaths-280,000 deaths