2What happened at Harpers Ferry? Who was John Brown?What happened at Harpers Ferry?What were some of the reactions to the raid at Harpers Ferry?David Hunter Strother, John Brown, Pierre Morand Memorial, Special Collections, Library of Virginia.
3Mahala DoyleMitchell's Sectional Map of Kansas, Library of Congress Geography and Map Division.Moved to Kansas in 1855 with her husband and five children.Her husband was pro-slavery.On a night in May 1856, John Brown and a company of men took her husband and two eldest sons out of their house and murdered them.Brown was not arrested for the murders.
4Photographic Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia. “Harper’s Ferry—The Scene Of The Late Insurrections,” Harper’s Weekly, October 29, 1859,Photographic Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia.
5Porte Crayon, “The School-House in the Mountains, Used by Brown as an Arsenal,” Harper’s Weekly, November 12, Photographic Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia.
6“U. S. Marines Storming Engine House at Harper’s Ferry,” Frank Leslie’s Weekly, October 29, Photographic Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia.
7John Brown, his son, and another of the Outlaws awaiting examination,” Harper’s Weekly, November 5, Photographic Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia
8“John Brown’s Raid: The Guard-room, with Wounded Prisoners in same,” Harper’s Weekly, November 5, Photographic Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia.
9Porte Crayon, “The arraignment of John Brown and the other prisoners before Judge Parker,” Harper’s Weekly, November 12, Photographic Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia.
10Norfolk and Portsmouth Herald November 22, 1859 . . . it does not require the stimulus of false rumors and imaginary fears to convince us of the strict propriety of the measures taken by Governor Wise to defeat the naturally-to-be expected efforts of the Abolitionists to rescue from the gallows the hoary traitor, murderer and insurrectionist, John Brown.
11Norfolk and Portsmouth Herald November 26, 1859 . . . “he avowed himself an abolitionist, and asserted that there were many in Norfolk and Portsmouth, but that they were afraid to say so; but he was free, white, and twenty one, and had no hesitation in declaring that if he had five hundred or five thousand dollars he would give one half of it for the release or rescue of John Brown.”The by-standers, were highly indignant at such language, and immediately had information of it lodged with [the Justice of the Peace] who thereupon issued his warrant for the apprehension of Fletcher.
12NewspapersWhat does the article from the Norfolk and Portsmouth Herald on November 26, 1859, reveal about the limits of free speech during controversial times?At what other times in American history have we seen similar crackdowns?
13“You are very Eloquent in denouncing old Brown, as a Vile traitor Because he wished to free the Poor Black Slaves;But how different you are in speaking of George Washington; theChief of the White Rebels.”
14“If Mr. Brown commited an error it was an error of the head—not of the heart. But Sir, "Too err is human. to forgive divine." You have it in your power to prove you can be magnanamous to a noble foe. do it—and the blessings of millions shall be yours—Fail to do it—and you shall have touched a chord that shall not cease to vibrate till ‘The bonds of the oppressor shall be broken and the oppressed go free.’”
15LettersWhat is significant about the letters from Anonymous and “Brutus”?What rhetoric did these writers use in their letters?
16"Treason" Broadside, 1859 November 4 "Treason" Broadside, 1859 November 4. Virginia Governor (1856–1859: Wise). Executive Papers of GovernorHenry A. Wise, 1856–1859. Accession State Government Records Collection, Library of Virginia.
17"Anti-Slavery Mass Meeting" Broadside, 1859 December 8 "Anti-Slavery Mass Meeting" Broadside, 1859 December 8. Virginia Governor (1856–1859: Wise). Executive Papers of Governor Henry A. Wise, 1856–1859. Accession State Government Records Collection, The Library of Virginia, Richmond, Va.
18Think About ItWhat do these primary sources reveal about reactions to John Brown's Raid?How did the authors of these sources view Brown?What bias is evident in the sources? What terms or phrases reveal this?
19Interpret John Brown’s actions at Harpers Ferry. Examine his legacy.Should he have been put to death for his crime?
20John Brown’s Body http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jso1YRQnpCI Written: 1861 (The song originated with soldiers of the Massachusetts 12th Regiment and soon spread to become the most popular anthem of Union soldiers during the Civil War. The Brown tune inspired Julia Ward Howe, after she heard troops sing the song while parading near Washington, to write her lyrics for the same melody, "The Battle Hymn of the Republic."
21Old John Brown's body lies a-mouldering in the grave, While weep the sons of bondage whom he ventured all to save; But though he lost his life in struggling for the slave, His truth is marching on. Chorus: Glory, Glory, Hallelujah! His truth is marching on! John Brown was a hero, undaunted, true and brave; Kansas knew his valor when he fought her rights to save; And now though the grass grows green above his grave, His truth is marching on. Chorus He captured Harpers Ferry with his nineteen men so few, And he frightened "Old Virginny" till she trembled through and through, They hung him for a traitor, themselves a traitor crew, But his truth is marching on. ChorusJohn Brown was John the Baptist for the Christ we are to see, Christ who of the bondsman shall the Liberator be; And soon throughout the sunny South the slaves shall all be free. For his truth is marching on. Chorus The conflict that he heralded, he looks from heaven to view, On the army of the Union with its flag, red, white, and blue, And heaven shall ring with anthems o'er the deeds they mean to do, For his truth is marching on. Chorus Oh, soldiers of freedom, then strike while strike you may The deathblow of oppression in a better time and way; For the dawn of old John Brown was brightened into day, And his truth is marching on. Chorus