BTLEW Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox Part Two ENTER
BTLEW I. AuthorAuthor II. Fort SumterFort Sumter III. The Battle of GettysburgThe Battle of Gettysburg IV. Chickamauga CampaignChickamauga Campaign V. AppomattoxAppomattox VI. RichmondRichmond VII. The Mexican WarThe Mexican War VIII.Palm SundayPalm Sunday Background Information Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW William Zinsser (1922- ), faculty of Graduate School of Journalism, Columbia University, is a former newspaper reporter, prolific magazine writer, editor, teacher and renowned writing coach. His fifteen books include the classic On Writing Well: The Classic Guide to Writing Nonfiction (now in its 25th anniversary edition), as well as Writing to Learn, How to Write a Memoir, Speaking of Journalism, Writing About Your Life: A Journey to the Past and Inventing the Truth: The Art and Craft of Memoir. I.Author To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW Quotations on Writing I.Author The end of Author. Writing is thinking on paper. Writing is a craft not an art. Examine every word you put on paper. You'll find a surprising number that don't serve any purpose. Keep your paragraphs short. Writing is visual—it catches the eyes before it has a chance to catch the brain. Clutter is the disease of American writing. We are a society strangling in unnecessary words, circular constructions, pompous frills and meaningless jargon. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW America's most tragic conflict ignited at Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, when a chain reaction of social, economic and political events exploded into the Civil War. At the heart of these events was the issue of states rights versus federal authority flowing over the underlying issue of slavery. Fueled by decades of disagreement and confrontation, South Carolina seceded in protest of Lincoln's election and the social and economic changes sure to follow. With Fort Sumter as an unyielding bastion of Federal authority, the war became inevitable. A powerful symbol to both the South and the North, Fort Sumter remains a memorial to all that fought to hold it. II.Fort Sumter Fort Sumter Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox The end of Fort Sumter.
BTLEW On the gently rolling farmlands surrounding the little town of Gettysburg, Pa., was fought one of the great decisive battles of American history. For 3 days, from July 1 to 3, 1863, a gigantic struggle between 75,000 Confederates and 97,000 Union troops raged about the town and left 51,000 casualties in its wake. Heroic deeds were numerous on both sides, climaxed by the famed Confederate assault on July 3 which has become known throughout the world as Pickett's Charge. The Union Victory gained on these fields ended the last Confederate invasion of the North and marked the beginning of a gradual decline in Southern military power. Here also, a few months after the battle, Abraham Lincoln delivered his classic Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the national cemetery set apart as a burial ground for the soldiers who died in the conflict. III.The Battle of Gettysburg "The Battle of Gettysburg" (Pickett's Charge), Peter F. Rothermel. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox The end of The Battle of Gettysburg.
BTLEW IV.Chickamauga Campaign Location: Catoosa County and Walker County Date(s): September 18—20, 1863 Forces Engaged: The Army of the Cumberland (US); Army of Tennessee (CS) Estimated Casualties: 34,624 total (US 16,170; CS 18,454) Result(s): Confederate victory In and around strategically important Chattanooga, Tenn in the autumn of 1863, there occurred some of the most complex maneuvers and hard fighting of the Civil War. The Confederate victory at Chickamauga (September 19—20) gave new hope to the South after the defeats at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in July of that year. Chickamauga Battlefield Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox The end of Chickamauga Campaign.
BTLEW V.Appomattox Petersburg Sayler ’ s CreekSayler ’ s Creek Appomattox Court House Clover Hill Tavern McLean ’ s HouseMcLean ’ s House Joshua L. Chamberlain Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW Petersburg, Virginia, became the setting for the longest siege in American history when General Ulysses S. Grant failed to capture Richmond in the spring of 1864. Grant settled in to subdue the Confederacy by surrounding Petersburg and cutting off General Robert E. Lee's supply lines into Petersburg and Richmond. On April 2, 1865, nine-and- one-half months after the siege began, Lee evacuated Petersburg. A battle demonstration V.Appomattox The end of Petersburg. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW Look out over the Battlefield of Sayler's Creek, the last major engagement between the Army of Northern Virginia and the Army of the Potomac. Before the sunset on April 6, 1865, Lee had lost nearly a fourth of his army, over 8,000 captured. As Lee approached the battlefield, he was met by hundreds of disorganized Confederate soldiers, many without weapons, streaming to the rear. "My God!" he said, "Has the army been dissolved?" Confederate defensive line at Sayler's Creek V.Appomattox The end of Sayler’s Creek. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW On April 9, 1865, Robert E. Lee, commanding general of the Army of Northern Virginia, surrendered his men to Ulysses S. Grant, general-in-chief of all United States forces. Though several Confederate armies under different commanders remained in the field, Lee's surrender signaled the end of the Southern States' attempt to create a separate nation. Here at Appomattox Court House is where the nation reunited. Three days later the men of the Army of Northern Virginia marched before the Union Army, laid down their flags, To be continued on the next page. V.Appomattox Appomattox Court House reconstructed Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW stacked their weapons, and then began the journey back to their homes. Originally the village of Appomattox Court House was known at Clover Hill. It was a stopping-off point on the main Richmond-Lynchburg Stage Road. In 1845 when the county of Appomattox was formed Clover Hill was chosen as the county seat and the town was renamed Appomattox Court House. In 1863 Wilmer McLean and his family left their Manassas, VA home for business purposes and moved to Appomattox Court House. V.Appomattox Appomattox Court House original The end of Appomattox Court House. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW Clover Hill Tavern BUILT: 1819 RESTORED: 1954 Description: 2 stories with full attic, 39'x23'. 4- bays with a full-length porch on South elevation. The porch is supported on brick foundation piers. Served travelers & stage line on the Richmond-Lynchburg Stage Road. After Lee's surrender, paroles for Confederates were printed in the downstairs rooms. Bar & dining room additions once flanked the tavern. Clover Hill Tavern V.Appomattox Parole signed April 9, 1865 by Robert E. Lee and his staff, Library of Congress The end of Clover Hill Tavern. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW The McLean home in the village of Appomattox Court House, Virginia was used on April 9th, 1865 for the surrender meeting between General Robert E. Lee, C.S.A. and Lt. General Ulysses S. Grant, U.S.A. It was the only one with a parlor large enough to hold the meetings. To be continued on the next page. McLean house V.Appomattox Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW Wilmer McLean's house was also used on April 10th for the Surrender Commissioners meeting, and over the next few days as the Headquarters of Major General John Gibbon, U.S.A. McLean’s house V.Appomattox The end of McLean’s house. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain was born Sept. 8, 1828, in Brewer, Maine. He worked on his father's farm and had some experience of teaching school. Entering Bowdoin College in Brunswick in 1848, Chamberlain studied the traditional classical curriculum and showed particular skill at languages. At First Parish Church, he met Fannie Adams, the adopted daughter of the minister; they were to marry in 1855. Turning down the opportunity to become a minister or missionary, he accepted a position at Bowdoin teaching rhetoric and modern languages. To be continued on the next page. V.Appomattox Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW When the sectional crisis led to the Civil War in 1861, Chamberlain felt a strong urge to fight to save the union. Offered a year's travel with pay in Europe in 1862 to study languages, he instead volunteered his military services to Maine's governor. He was soon made lieutenant colonel of the 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment. From Antietam in 1862 to the triumphal grand review of the armies in May of 1865, Chamberlain saw much of the war in the East, including 24 battles and numerous skirmishes. He was wounded six times—once, almost fatally—and had six horses shot from under him. To be continued on the next page. V.Appomattox Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW He is best remembered for two great events: the action at Little Round Top, on the second day of Gettysburg (July 2, 1863), when then-Colonel Chamberlain and the 20th Maine held the extreme left flank of the Union line against a fierce rebel attack, and the surrender of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox, when Grant chose Chamberlain to receive the formal surrender of weapons and colors (April 12, 1865). Always a chivalrous man, Chamberlain had his men salute the defeated Confederates as they marched by, evidence of his admiration of their valor and of Grant's wish to encourage the rebel armies still in the field to accept the peace. To be continued on the next page. V.Appomattox Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW Chamberlain returned briefly to his academic duties at Bowdoin, but was soon elected as a popular war hero to four terms as governor of Maine—helping establish a century of domination of Maine politics by the Republican Party. Throughout the 1870s and 1880s, he continued to write, teach, lecture, and participate actively in the G.A.R. and other veterans' groups. In 1900 Chamberlain was appointed Surveyor of the Port of Portland, where he lived until his death in 1914 at age 85. The end of Chamberlain. V.Appomattox Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW When the Civil War broke out Richmond was named the capital of the Confederacy, despite the fact that Virginia had voted two-to-one against secession from the Union just a month before. The massive Tredegar Iron Works, now a dedicated visitor center-cum-museum, became the main engine of the Confederate war machine. For four years the city was the focus of Southern defenses and Union attacks, but despite an almost constant state of siege—General McClellan came within six miles as early as 1862, and General Grant steamrolled remorselessly towards it through the last months of the war—it held on until the very end. It was less than a week after the fall of Richmond, on April 3, 1865, that General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox, a hundred miles west. VI.Richmond To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW After the war, Richmond was devastated. Much of its downtown was burned, allegedly by fleeing Confederates who wanted to keep its stores of weapons, and its warehouses full of tobacco, out of the victors' hands. Rebuilding, however, was quick, and the city's economy has remained among the strongest in the South. Today's Richmond is a remarkably elegant city, with an extensive inventory of architecturally significant older buildings alongside its modern office towers. Tobacco is still a major industry—machine-rolled cigarettes were invented here in the 1870s, and Marlboro-maker Phillip Morris runs a huge manufacturing plant just south of downtown. Richmond is also a leading banking center. VI. Richmond Ruins of Richmond, National Archives The end of Richmond. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW VII. The Mexican War The Mexican War (1846—1848) between the United States and Mexico began with a Mexican attack on American troops along the southern border of Texas on Apr. 25, 1846. Fighting ended when U.S. Gen. Winfield Scott occupied Mexico City on Sept. 14, 1847; a few months later a peace treaty was signed (Feb. 2, 1848) at Guadalupe Hidalgo. In addition to recognizing the U.S. annexation of Texas defeated Mexico ceded California and, New Mexico (including all the present-day states of the Southwest) to the United States. General Scott’s entrance into Mexico City The end of the Mexican War. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW Palm Sunday occurs on the Sunday before Easter Sunday in the Western Christian liturgical calendar. It signals the upcoming end of Lent and the beginning of Holy Week. The day commemorates the spreading of palms and clothing in Jesus' path as He entered Jerusalem prior to His crucifixion: They brought the donkey and the colt, placed their cloaks on them, and Jesus sat on them. A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, while others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. The crowds that went ahead of him and those that followed shouted, "Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!" (Matthew 21:7-9) Many churches re-enact Jesus' return to Jerusalem with a processional in which participants wave palm branches. VIII. Palm Sunday The end of Palm Sunday. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
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