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The Civil War ( ) Chapter 2

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1 The Civil War (1861-1865) Chapter 2

2 I. Background Info. Civil War – war between the northern states (Union) and the southern states (Confederacy) Northern States – United States, Union, Yankees, Blue Southern States – Confederate States of America, Confederacy, Rebels, Secess, Gray                                  


4 I. Background Info. 1850s – North and South moving in opposite directions – Why? Contrasting Economies – North relied on industry (urban) – South relied on agriculture (rural – slave labor)


6 I. Background Info. Slavery and Western Expansion – divided the nation – northerners did not want slavery in the West, southerners did Remember: Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850


8 II. Early Stages of the War
First Battle of Bull Run: -July 1861 -Bull Run is a stream north of Manassas, VA -1st major battle of the war -Gen. Irwin McDowell led the poorly trained Union troops towards Richmond, VA -took McDowell 4 days to march 28 miles


10 II. Early Stages of the War
-gave Conf. time to call in more troops -Union began to push Conf. lines back -some Conf. soldiers, led by Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson refused to give up -Union advance was stopped and forced to retreat back to Wash. D.C.


12 II. Early Stages of the War
-Conf. won the battle -casualties (killed, wounded, missing) Union – 2,900 Conf. – 1,900 -after the battle, Lincoln replaced McDowell with Gen. George McClellan -the battle convinced both sides the war would not end quickly


14 II. Early Stages of the War
Union Advantages: Greater Population – 21.5 million to 9 million Controlled most of the railroads – move troops and supplies More factories – produced more/better war supplies More money Better political leadership – esp. Lincoln


16 II. Early Stages of the War
Confederate Advantages Did not have to win the war, only had to keep from being beaten Defending their own land – most of the war fought in the South Fighting for a cause – to protect way of life Better military leadership – esp. Lee


18 II. Early Stages of the War
Union War Strategies: Blockade southern coast to cut off trade with Europe Take control of Miss. River to split Conf. into two sections Capture Richmond (capital of Conf.)


20 II. Early Stages of the War
Conf. War Strategies: Withhold cotton from the world – wanted to force England and France to help them – backfired Hoped northerners would get tired of fighting and give up


22 II. Early Stages of the War
Tactics and Technology: -both sides fought by the book – problem: every book on battle tactics in 1860 were out of date but no one knew it -early war manuals were written for the smooth-bore musket: used a round ball – very inaccurate and took too long to load


24 II. Early Stages of the War
-basic battlefield alignment: (draw diagram) -offense always had the better position -new weapon introduced during the war: rifle musket- fired a bullet shaped mini-ball out of a spiraled gun barrel – more accurate (up to 400 yards) and quicker to load -made the cavalry less important -rifle musket allowed the defense to now have the better position


26 II. Early Stages of the War
Artillery: the Napoleon Gun fired a 12lb smooth-bore ball – fired 3 types of projectiles: Explosive shells Solid shot/ball (rolling) Case shot – 2 types: a. Grape shot (golf-ball sized) b. Canister shot (metal, nails, sawdust, etc.


28 II. Early Stages of the War
The Civil War was fought on 2 fronts: Eastern Front – east of Appalachian Mts. Western Front – west of Appalachian Mts. 22 major battles in the war (at least 600,000 casualties) Many battles had 2 names: -North used physical features (rivers, mountains, etc.) -South used closest town


30 II. Early Stages of the War
War in the West: -where the Civil War was won and lost – fought for control of the Miss. River -Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant took control of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in TN in Feb. 1862


32 II. Early Stages of the War
Battle of Shiloh: -April 1862 -TN / Miss. border -largest battle in the West -Conf. led by Gen. Albert Sidney Johnson stationed at Corinth, MS – Grant at Pittsburg Landing, TN -Conf. launched a surprise attack on April 6 – Grant away from camp


34 II. Early Stages of the War
-Conf. decided to wait until the next day to finish off Union -Grant attacked the next morning and retook the positions he had lost -Union victory (held the ground at the end of the battle) -casualties: Union- 13,000 Conf.-11,000


36 II. Early Stages of the War
Naval War in 1862 -the South made one major attempt to break the Union blockade – rebuilt the U.S.S. Merrimac and renamed it the C.S.S. Virginia -ironclad – wooden ship covered with iron plate armor


38 II. Early Stages of the War
-March 9, 1862 – Virginia sunk 2 ships in Chesapeake Bay – worse day in the history of U.S. Navy until 1941 -Virginia came back the next morning and saw the U.S.S. Monitor, the Union’s ironclad -March 10, 1862 – 1st battle between ironclads -problem with the Virginia: had to maneuver


40 II. Early Stages of the War
-Virginia was damaged the worst – hit 98x’s -battle was a draw – never met again -changed the future of naval warfare – wooden ships became obsolete April 1862 – major Union victory at New Orleans by Adm. David Farragut– helped take control of Miss. River


42 II. Early Stages of the War
Peninsular Campaign: -March-June 1862 -peninsula SE of Richmond -Union’s 2nd attempt to take Richmond -Union led by McClellan – great organizer of troops but very cautious -Union won minor battle at Yorktown -McClellan waited a month before moving on to Richmond


44 II. Early Stages of the War
-gave Conf. time to retreat to Richmond -Gen. Robert E. Lee took command of Conf. troops -Conf. victory -Richmond saved again -beginning of Lee’s rise to fame -McClellan lost command


46 II. Early Stages of the War
Second Battle of Bull Run -Aug. 1862 -McClellan’s troops placed under command of John Pope -Lee divided his army by sending Jackson to attack behind Pope’s army -Pope turned to attack Jackson and Lee attacked from the other side -Conf. victory – Richmond saved again


48 II. Early Stages of the War
Battle of Antietam -Sept. 1862 -in Maryland -Lee wanted a victory on northern soil to hopefully get support from Europe -early Sept. Lee slipped into Maryland -McClellan had no idea where Lee was until…


50 II. Early Stages of the War
…a Union soldier found Lee’s battle plans rolled up into 3 cigars -McClellan waited 16 hrs. before attacking Lee (STUPID!) -gave Lee time to plan a defense -armies met near Antietam Creek – bloodiest single day of war (“the creek ran red”) -Union victory -casualties: Union-12,000 Conf.- 14,000


52 III. The Tide of the War Turns
After Antietam, McClellan replaced by Gen. Ambrose Burnside Battle of Fredericksburg: -Dec in VA -Burnside marched with 122,000 towards Richmond -Lee stationed at Fredericksburg – great defensive position


54 III. The Tide of the War Turns
-Burnside attacked – major mistake -Conf. victory -casualties: Union- 13,000 Conf.- 5,000 -Burnside resigned and was replaced by Gen. Joseph Hooker


56 III. The Tide of the War Turns
Battle of Chancellorsville -May 1863 – in VA -Hooker moved around Fred. and attacked from behind -Lee sent Jackson behind Hooker and he attacked -Hooker forced to retreat -Conf. victory -Stonewall Jackson killed (major loss for South)


58 III. The Tide of the War Turns
-some northerners called for peace -Hooker resigned and was replaced by Gen. George Meade -Lee moved into PA to look for supplies


60 III. The Tide of the War Turns
Battle of Gettysburg -July 1-3, 1863 – in PA -turning point in the war -largest battle ever fought in N.A. – Union had 88,000 - Conf. had 75,000 -July 1 – Conf. soldiers looking for shoes met Union soldiers in Gettysburg – both sides took positions outside of town


62 III. The Tide of the War Turns
-July 2 – day of movement and positioning – Lee ordered Gen. James Longstreet to attack the southern Union line -Conf. tried to take Little Round Top hill (great position for artillery) but failed -July 3 – Lee decided to attack the Union center – Longstreet opposed – after 2 hrs. of artillery fire the South attacked


64 III. The Tide of the War Turns
-Conf. Gen. George Pickett organized 15,000 troops to march across the one mile long wide open field towards Cemetery Ridge (Pickett’s Charge) - complete disaster for Conf. – only ½ returned -Union victory -Casualties: Union – 23,000 Conf. – 28,000 -bloodiest battle of the war – Lee blamed himself and retreated back to VA – lost 1/3 of his army


66 III. The Tide of the War Turns
Gettysburg Address (Nov. 19, 1863) – 15,000 met at the cemetery to honor the Union dead – Edward Everette gave a 2 hr. speech – Lincoln then gave a 2 min. speech


68 III. The Tide of the War Turns
Siege at Vicksburg: -May-June 1863 in Miss. -Grant began the siege in late May – siege (tactic where the enemy is surrounded and starved in order to make them surrender) -Union victory -30,000 Conf. forced to surrender -Union finally gains control of the Miss. River and Grant was moved to the east to fight Lee


70 IV. A New Birth of Freedom
March 1864 – Grant given command of Union troops in Wash. – Gen. William Sherman replaced Grant in the west After Gettysburg and Vicksburg, Lee knew the South was in trouble Grant decided to move towards Richmond in early May 1864 with 120,000 men – Lee had only 65,000 – Grant forced Lee to protect Richmond and 3 battles occurred:

71 IV. A New Birth of Freedom
1) Battle of the Wilderness (May 5-6, 1864) – armies met near Chancellorsville in dense forest – the forest caught on fire during the fighting – Grant took heavy losses – battle was a draw (but favored the Union)


73 IV. A New Birth of Freedom
2) Battle of Spotsylvania (May 8-19, 1864) – Conf. attacked – two week battle – heavy Union casualties again – Grant kept moving towards Richmond


75 IV. A New Birth of Freedom
3) Battle of Cold Harbor (June 3, 1864) – only 8 miles from Richmond – heavy Union casualties (7,000 in one hr.) – Conf. victory


77 IV. A New Birth of Freedom
Unable to take Richmond, Grant moved around the city and attacked Petersburg, a railroad center south of Richmond – wanted to cut off shipments of food to Richmond – the attack failed Siege at Petersburg (June 18, 1864 – Apr. 2, 1865) – cut off supplies to the city and pounded it with artillery – trying to starve them out


79 IV. A New Birth of Freedom
Lee built up defenses around Richmond and waited for the northern election in Nov – wanted Lincoln to lose and the North to give up – he knew it was their last chance Sherman’s March to the Sea: -moved southward from Chattanooga, TN towards Atlanta, GA – captured Atlanta on Sept. 2, 1864 -Nov – burned Atlanta and marched towards Savannah, GA (on the coast) – destroyed everything on their way


81 IV. A New Birth of Freedom
Election of 1864: -Lincoln thought he would lose – so, he chose a democrat, Andrew Johnson, as the V.P. candidate -the democrats nominated McClellan -Sherman’s capture of Atlanta led to Lincoln’s re-election 13th Amendment (Feb. 1865) – abolished slavery


83 IV. A New Birth of Freedom
The End of the War: -Sherman began to move northward through SC and NC burning everything -Lee arrived at the small VA town of Appomattox Court House on Apr. 9, 1865 – met with Grant and surrendered because the Conf. were down to 35,000 starving men -Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on Apr. 14, 1865 at Ford’s Theater in Wash.



86 V. Reconstruction the South was the main battleground of the Civil War and its largest casualty – hardly a farm or family remained undamaged by the end of the war the federal government’s controversial effort to repair the damage to the South and to restore southern states to the Union is known as Reconstruction (carried out from and involved 4 Presidents)

87 V. Reconstruction War’s Aftermath:
-Physical Toll – destroyed 2/3rds of southern shipping and 9,000 miles of railroads – also devoured farmland, farm buildings, and farm machinery; work animals and 1/3 of all livestock; bridges, canals, and levees; and thousands of miles of roads – factories, ports, cities burned – the value of southern property dropped 70%

88 V. Reconstruction -Human Toll – destroyed a generation of young men, fathers, brothers, and husbands – North lost 364,000 soldiers – the South lost 290,000 soldiers, 1/5 of its adult white men – one out of every three southern men were killed or wounded – the North’s decision to destroy southern homes and property resulted in countless civilian lives – children were made orphans and brides became widows

89 V. Reconstruction -Southerners’ Hardships: the postwar South was made up of three major groups of people – each group faced its own hardships and fears: 1) Black Southerners – some 4 million freed people were starting their new lives in a poor region with slow economic activity – as slaves, they had received food and shelter – now found themselves homeless, jobless, and hungry

90 V. Reconstruction 2) Plantation Owners – planters lost slave labor worth about $3 billion – the federal government seized $100 million in southern plantations and cotton – with worthless Confederate money, some farmers couldn’t afford to hire workers and others had to sell their property to cover debts

91 V. Reconstruction 3) Poor White Southerners – many white laborers could not find work any more because of the new job competition from freedmen – poor white families began migrating to frontier lands such as Mississippi and Texas to find new opportunities

92 V. Reconstruction Three Reconstruction Plans
most southerners accepted the war’s outcome and focused on rebuilding their lives – however, the fall of the Confederacy and the end of slavery raised some tough questions:

93 V. Reconstruction 1) How and when should southern states be allowed to resume their role in the Union? 2) Should the South be punished for its actions, or be forgiven and allowed to recover quickly? 3) Now that black southerners were free, would the races have equal rights? 4) If so, how might those rights be protected? 5) What branch of government would be responsible for Reconstruction? (executive, judicial, or legislative)

94 V. Reconstruction the Constitution didn’t answer these questions
Lincoln’s Plan: Lincoln’s plan did not require the new constitutions to give voting rights to African Americans – nor did it “readmit” southern states to the Union, since in Lincoln’s view, their secession had not been constitutional

95 V. Reconstruction Much of Lincoln’s opposition came from a group of congressmen from his own party – the group, known as Radical Republicans, believed that the Civil War had been fought over the moral issue of slavery the Radicals viewed Lincoln’s plan as too lenient (easy) on the South – they presented their own plan which Lincoln then vetoed

96 V. Reconstruction Before a compromise could be reached between Lincoln and the Radicals, he was assassinated – Now what?


98 V. Reconstruction Johnson’s Plan:
when Johnson took office in April 1865, Congress was in recess until December – during those 8 months, Johnson pursued his own plan for the South – his plan, known as Presidential Reconstruction, was even more generous to the South

99 V. Reconstruction Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction:
defeat in the war had not changed the fact that white people still dominated southern society one by one, southern states met Johnson’s Reconstruction demands and were restored to the Union – the first order of business in these new, white-run governments was to enact black codes, or laws that restricted freedmen’s rights – the black codes established virtual (near) slavery with provisions such as these:

100 V. Reconstruction -curfews – generally, African-Americans could not gather after sunset -vagrancy laws – freedmen convicted of vagrancy (not working) could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor -labor contracts – freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work (those that quit in the middle of the year lost all the wages they had earned)

101 V. Reconstruction -limits on women’s rights – mothers who wanted to stay home and care for their families were forced instead to do farm labor -land restrictions – freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas – forced them to live on plantations

102 STOP

103 V. Reconstruction in early 1866 Congress passed a Civil Rights Act that outlawed the black codes – Johnson vetoed it – Congress overrode the veto 14th Amendment – guaranteed all citizens equal protection of the laws – ultimately granted African Americans citizenship rights

104 V. Reconstruction Radicals in Congress passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867– these are the key provisions: This is the plan actually used during Reconstruction for every southern state except TN (readmitted under Johnson’s plan)

105 V. Reconstruction It put the South under military rule, dividing it into 5 districts, each governed by a northern general 2) It ordered southern states to hold new elections for delegates to create a new state constitution 3) It required states to allow all qualified male voters, including African Americans, to vote in elections

106 V. Reconstruction It temporarily barred southerners who had supported the Confederacy from voting It required southern states to guarantee equal rights to all citizens It required the states to ratify the 14th Amendment


108 V. Reconstruction on Feb. 24, 1868 House members voted to impeach Johnson (to accuse him with wrongdoing in office) – Johnson became the first President to be impeached If 2/3 of the Senate were to vote for conviction, Johnson would become the first and only President ever removed from office – Johnson was able to escape conviction by 1 vote

109 V. Reconstruction 15th Amendment – guaranteed African American males the right to vote (suffrage) northern Republicans who moved to the postwar South became known as carpetbaggers – southerners gave them this nickname, which referred to a type of cheap suitcase made from carpet scraps – they were depicted as greedy men seeking to grab power or make some fast cash


111 V. Reconstruction in the postwar South, to be white and a southerner and a Republican was to be seen as a traitor - southerners had a nickname for those people as well, scalawag (Scottish word meaning scrawny cattle) – many had opposed secession – most were poor small farmers who hated the rich planters

112 V. Reconstruction in March 1870 the last southern states were restored to the Union – however, the U.S. was far from united - from 1868 through 1871, groups of white southerners launched a violent counterattack against Radical Reconstruction

113 V. Reconstruction Ku Klux Klan (KKK) – started in 1866 as a social club in Pulaski, TN - quickly evolved into a terrorist organization – membership consisted largely of ex-Confederate officers and plantation owners - most professions were eventually represented in the Klan

114 V. Reconstruction during Reconstruction, the Klan sought to eliminate the Republican Party in the South by intimidating Republican voters, both white and black – the Klan’s long-term goal was to keep African Americans in the role of submissive laborers

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