Presentation on theme: "The Civil War Begins Chapter 11 Section 1"— Presentation transcript:
1The Civil War Begins Chapter 11 Section 1 The secession of Southern states cause the North and South to take up arms.NEXT
2Lincoln’s journey from IL to D.C. Lincoln left his home in Springfield, IL in February of 1861, telling the townspeople who gathered to see him off that he didn’t know when or if he’d ever return. The last stage of his journey, Washington D.C., was in slave territory. In Harrisburg, PA, Lincoln received word that an assassination plot was afoot and that he would be killed if he passed through Baltimore, MD the following day. So Lincoln bypassed Baltimore and went straight to D.C., disguised by wearing a felt hat in place of his usual top hat. This action created an undignified and cowardly picture of Lincoln to his enemies, who in political cartoons, depicted him sneaking into Washington disguised in a Scottish plaid costume.
3The Civil War Begins Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter Fort Sumter 1SECTIONThe Civil War BeginsConfederates Fire on Fort SumterFort SumterConfederate soldiers take over government and military instillations in the South; 7 states have secededFort Sumter in the Charleston, SC harbor remains in Union control2/61: Confeds demand control of the fort, or threaten attackFort supplies and food will last only 6 weeksLincoln’s DilemmaReinforcing the fort by force would be an act of war, may encourage VA to secede and Britain to help SouthEvacuating the fort would show weakness, anger Repubs, and endanger the UnionContinued . . .NEXT
4The Fall of Fort Sumterhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9p7V7GrHjE
5The Civil War Begins Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter First Shots 1SECTIONThe Civil War BeginsConfederates Fire on Fort SumterFirst ShotsLincoln does not reinforce or evacuate, just sends foodFor South, no action would damage legitimacy of the ConfederacyJefferson Davis chooses to turn a peaceful secession into war; fires on Fort 4/12/61Virginia SecedesFall of Fort Sumter unites the North; volunteers rush to enlistVA unwilling to fight against the South; secedes from the Union; anti-slavery western counties secede from VA (West VA)AK, TN, NC secede; border states (MD, DE, KY, MO) remain neutralNEXT
6American Expect a Short War 1SECTIONAmerican Expect a Short WarUnion and Confederate Strategies• Union advantages: # of soldiers, industry, food, railroads• Confed advantages: cotton profits, generals, motivation, home-court• Anaconda Plan: 3-pronged Union strategy to win the war1) blockade Southern ports2) divide Confederacy in two in the west3) capture Richmond, VA (Confed capital)• Confederate strategy: play defense, invade the North if the opportunity arisesBull Run• First large-scale battle, near D.C.; Confeds win• General Thomas J. Jackson nicknamed Stonewall Jackson for standing firm in battleNEXT
7The Anaconda PlanThe strategy was devised to weaken the south without invading it. It was nicknamed the Anaconda Plan because it would strangle the Confederacy the way the anaconda snake constricts its victim. Lincoln had doubts about the plan, and rather than wait for a slow strangulation of the Confederacy to occur, he chose to do battle with the Confederacy in ground campaigns. Yet elements of the Anaconda Plan, such as the naval blockade, did become a reality.
8Battle of Bull RunGeneral Barnard Bee, trying to rally the men on the Confederate side shouted, “Look, there is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Rally behind him”. Bee was killed a little while later. From that day on, Thomas Jackson was known as Stonewall Jackson.
9Union Armies in the West 1SECTIONUnion Armies in the WestProtecting Washington, D.C.After Bull Run, Lincoln calls for 1 million additional soldiersAppoints General George McClellan to lead Army of the PotomacInstitutes the nation’s first income taxForts Henry and DonelsonGeneral Ulysses S. Grant—brave tough, decisive commander in the west2/62: Grant captures Confed Forts Henry, Donelson in TNShiloh3/62: Confed troops surprise Union soldiers at Shiloh Church in TNGrant counterattacks; Confeds retreat; 24,000 dead, woundedShiloh lessons learned: this will be a long, bloody war; Confeds are vulnerable in the westNEXT
10General Ulysses S. Grant The great Union General’s name had originally been Hiram Ulysses, but when he entered West Point in 1839, he found his name had been recorded incorrectly. It was easier for Grant to accept the mistake than for the army to correct its error. Grant had served in the MX War with distinction, but after the war he was stationed at lonely posts in the West. There, the boredom and separation from his wife drove him to drink, and to resign from the army. After that, he tried to be a farmer and a storekeeper, but failed at everything he did…until the Civil War. Grant would go on to serve as President from in a scandal-plagued administration.
11A Revolution in Warfare Technology 1SECTIONA Revolution in Warfare TechnologyThe IroncladsDestroy wooden ships, repel cannon fire, resist burning3/62: The North’s Monitor & the South’s Merrimack fight a legendary duel to a drawThe era of wooden ships in battle was over…development of early submarinesNew Weapons and Style of FightingRifles and minie balls, the Gatling gun https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmoFVdxvARoGrenades, land mines, airballoons, ambulance corps, torpedoesBeginning of trench warfareNEXT
12The War for the Capitals 1SECTIONThe War for the CapitalsRichmondLincoln and the North’s public mock General McClellan’s extreme cautiousness/reluctance to fightOn the way to Richmond, McClellan encounter’s General Robert E . Lee’s forcesMcClellan retreats after losing the Seven Days’ Battles to LeeAntietamLee moves towards Washington D.C.Lee faces McClellan in the town of Antietam in MDBloodiest battle in American history (26,000 dead)More than the War of 1812 and MX War combinedConfeds lose ¼ of its armyMcClellan fails to pursue the damaged Confed. army that could have ended the Civil WarLincoln fires McClellanNEXT
13The Politics of War Chapter 11 Section 2 By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln made slavery the focus of the war.NEXT
14General Ambrose Burnside After Lincoln fired General McClellan, he turned to Ambrose Burnside to lead the Union forces. Burnside cultivated a unique growth of facial hair in a style that came to be known as “burnsides” in his honor. By a reversal of syllables, it became known as “sideburns”.
15The Politics of War Britain Remains Neutral Economic Factors 2SECTIONThe Politics of WarBritain Remains NeutralEconomic Factors• Britain no longer dependent on the South for cotton• New sources of cotton in Egypt and India• Northern wheat and corn just as impt. as cottonThe Trent Affair• Confederates sent two diplomats to Britain to gain support aboard the ship the Trent• American warship stops the ship and arrests the two men• British threaten war against the Union• Lincoln releases the men to avoid warContinued . . .NEXT
16Proclaiming Emancipation 2SECTIONProclaiming EmancipationLincoln’s View of SlaveryDisliked slavery, but felt the fed gov’t didn’t have power to abolish it in the existing slave statesBelieves the Civil War’s main objective is to save the UnionLincoln evolves as the war goes onEnding slavery became a weapon of warEmancipation would discourage the strongly anti-slavery Brits from helping ConfedsEmancipation ProclamationEmancipation Proclamation: issued 1/1/63Only applies to areas behind Confederate linesDoes not apply to Southern territory already occupied by the Union, or to the border statesNEXT
17Reactions to the Proclamation 2SECTIONcontinued Proclaiming EmancipationReactions to the ProclamationFor the North, it gave the war a moral purposeFree blacks can now enlist in the armyNorthern Democrats believe it will prolong the war by antagonizing the SouthConfederates outraged; more determined to winContinued . . .NEXT
18Both Sides Face Political Problems 2SECTIONBoth Sides Face Political ProblemsNorthern DissentIn MD, Lincoln suspends habeas corpus: a court order that requires authorities to bring a person held in jail before the court to determine why they are being jailedArrest Copperheads: Northern Democrats who advocated peace with the SouthJefferson Davis denounces Lincoln’s actions, then suspends habeas corpus himselfConscriptionBoth sides enact conscription: draft forcing serviceBoth sides allow men to pay $300 for a substituteHowever, very few members of the army were draftees (about 10% on both sides)NEXT
19Draft Riots 2 Summer 1863, New York City SECTIONcontinued Both Sides Face Political ProblemsDraft RiotsSummer 1863, New York CityPoor white workers, especially Irish immigrants, protestBelieve it’s unfair that they should have to fight a war to free slaves who will compete with their jobsWhen they begin to be drafted, mobs rampage through the cityThe rioters attack:Draft officesPoliceRepublicansAnti-slavery leadersThe richAfrican AmericansFederal troops end the riots100 dead https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TKJ_OOKQVrUContinued . . .NEXT
20Life During Wartime Chapter 11 Section 3 The Civil War brought about dramatic social and economic changes in American society.NEXT
21Life During Wartime African Americans Fight For Freedom 3SECTIONLife During WartimeAfrican Americans Fight For FreedomAfrican American SoldiersBy war’s end, they would make up 10% of the Union armyStill suffered discrimination; segregated units commanded by white officersEarn less than white soldiersMany POWs were executed by Confeds on the spotMassacre at Fort Pillow in TN: 200 killedSlave Resistance in the Confederacy• Slaves seek freedom as Union army push into Confed. territory• Slaves on plantations engage in sabotage• Slave resistance gradually weakens plantation system--By 1864, many Confeds realize that slavery is nearing the end.NEXT
22The 54th MassachusettsThe Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment was the first military unit consisting of black soldiers to be raised in the North during the Civil War. Col. Robert Gould Shaw, the 25 year old son of very wealthy abolitionist parents, was chosen to command. On May 28, the well equipped and drilled 54th paraded through the streets of Boston and then boarded ships bound for the coast of South Carolina on July 18 came the supreme test of the courage and valor of the black soldiers; they were chosen to lead the assault on Fort Wagner, a Confederate fort on Morris Island at Charleston. More than a century after the war the Fifty-fourth remains the most famous black regiment of the war, due largely to the popularity of the movie "Glory", which recounts the story of the regiment prior to and including the attack on Battery Wagner.
23The War Affects Regional Economies 3SECTIONThe War Affects Regional EconomiesSouthern Economic DeclineSouthern food shortagesLoss of men to the armyUnion occupation of farm areasLoss of slavesFood prices skyrocketInflation and currency chaosNorthern Economic Growth• Army need for war supplies leads to econ boom• Women obtain gov’t jobs for the first time, but earn less than men• War profiteering, corruption rampantContractors supply uniforms and blankets made of “shoddy”: fibers made from ragsContinued . . .NEXT
24Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides 3SECTIONSoldiers Suffer on Both SidesLives on the Line• Poor living conditions, diet, medical care• Lack of garbage disposal and bathrooms• Disease (dysentery, typhoid, malaria) rampant• Barely edible foodMedicineUnited States Sanitary Commission formed to improve hygieneRecruits and trains nurses3000 serve for the UnionDorothea Dix becomes superintendent of woman nursesClara Barton known as “angel of the battlefield” for caring for the sick and woundedContinued . . .NEXT
253SECTIONcontinued Soldiers Suffer on Both SidesMedicineSurgeons never sterilize instruments; effects of bacteria unknown at the timeBlood typing, X-rays, antibiotics non-existentAnesthetics were in its infancyEther or chloroformContinued . . .NEXT
26Prisons 3 The worst Confederate camp was Andersonville, GA SECTIONcontinued Soldiers Suffer on Both SidesPrisonsThe worst Confederate camp was Andersonville, GA33,000 men in overcrowded campNo shelterDrank from same stream that was their sewer1/3 diedPrison camps in the North only slightly better15% of Union prisoners VS. 12% of Confed prisoners diedNEXT
27The North Takes Charge Chapter 11 Section 4 Key victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg helped the Union wear down the Confederacy.NEXT
28Stonewall Jackson shot by his own troops When Jackson was accidentally shot by his own troops on this day in 1863, his arm was amputated to save his life. His chaplain couldn’t bear to see the general’s arm thrown on a pile of amputated limbs from the Battle of Chancellorsville, so he gave the arm a Christian burial in a private cemetery nearby.
29The North Takes Charge 1863: The War rages on Gettysburg Vicksburg 4 SECTIONThe North Takes Charge1863: The War rages onGettysburg• Lee decides to invade the North; pushes into PA• Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) = the most decisive battle of the war• Union forces win 3 days of intense fighting• Total casualties = 30%--Union losses = 23,000 killed or wounded--Confed losses = 28,000 killed or wounded• Lee gives up hope of invading North; the Confederacy would never recoverVicksburgGrant continues western campaignVicksburg, MS and Port Hudson, LA = the only two holdouts preventing the Union from taking control of the MS RiverStarving Confeds surrender both positions; the Confederacy was finally cut in twoNEXT
30Gettysburg Address"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."
31The Confederacy Wears Down 4SECTIONThe Confederacy Wears DownConfederate Morale DownAfter Gettysburg and Vicksburg, people all over the South begin to openly call for an end to warSoldiers begin to desertConfed gov’t ineffective; loose confederacy led to disagreementsGrant Appoints Sherman3/64: Lincoln appoints Grant commander of all Union forcesGrant appoints William Tecumseh Sherman commander of western forcesBoth men believe in “total war”: fighting not only the armies and gov’t, but also the citizensNEXT
32Grant vs. Lee…Sherman Marches to the Sea 4SECTIONcontinued The Confederacy Wears DownGrant vs. Lee…Sherman Marches to the SeaMay-June 1864- Grant loses 60,000 men- Lee loses 30,000 men- Union can replace them; Confeds cannotSherman marches southeast through GACreates a path of destruction (ie: total war)Burns every home/building in its pathBurns Atlanta to the groundSets out towards the coastSherman’s troops turn North to meet up with GrantBehind were 25,000 slaves seeking freedomContinued . . .NEXT
33Sherman’s March...As night drew its sable curtains around us, the heavens from every point were lit up with flames from burning buildings. Dinnerless and supperless as we were, it was nothing in comparison with the fear of being driven out homeless to the dreary woods. Nothing to eat!
34Surrender at Appomattox 4SECTIONcontinued The Confederacy Wears DownSurrender at AppomattoxBy March 1865, it’s clear the end of Confed. near- Grant approaching Richmond, VA from west- Sherman approaching Richmond from the south- Union can replace them; Confeds cannotPresident Jefferson Davis and his gov’t leave the capitalLee and Grant meet to arrange Confed surrender in a courthouse in the VA village AppomattoxApril 9, 1865: the Civil War endsContinued . . .NEXT
35The Legacy of the War Chapter 11 Section 5 The Civil War settled long-standing disputes over state’s rights and slavery. The War caused great political, economic, technological, and social change.NEXT
36The War Changes the Nation 5SECTIONThe War Changes the NationPolitical ChangesThe Federal gov’t assumed supreme authority/powerNo longer is secession ever discussedStates’ rights weakened, but does not disappearIncome tax, paper currency, conscription made the federal gov’t directly involved in people’s livesEconomic ChangesIndustry increases; national railroad system builtNational Bank Act sets up a series of federal banksNorthern industry increased; large-scale agriculture beginsThe war destroyed southern slave-based economySherman’s march wiped out econ. potential for decadesNEXT
37Costs of the War 5 Great human cost SECTIONcontinued The War Changes the NationCosts of the WarGreat human cost- 360,000 Union soldiers vs. 275,000 Confed soldiers died- 275,000 Union soldiers vs. 225,000 Confed soldiers wounded- 2.4 million men served in the war…lives disruptedUnion and Confeds spent $3.3 billionTwice what the gov’t spent the previous 80 yearsWar debt and veterans’ pensions consume federal budget for decadesContinued . . .NEXT
38The War Changes Lives New Birth of Freedom 5 SECTIONThe War Changes LivesNew Birth of FreedomEmancipation Proclamation had only freed slavery in the states that secededWhat about the border states where slavery was still legal?13th Amendment passed“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States”.NEXT
39Assassination of Lincoln 5SECTIONcontinued The War Changes LivesAssassination of LincolnApril 14, 1865: four days after Lee surrenderedLincoln and his wife went to Ford’s Theatre in Washington to see a comedic play called Our American CousinJohn Wilkes Booth (26 yr. old actor and Southern sympathizer) shoots Lincoln in the back of the head and jumps from the balcony to the stageBreaks his leg and shouts “Sic semper tyrannis” (Death to Tyrants)… “The South has been avenged”.Booth escapes the theatre and is caught by Union troops in a VA barn and shot.Lincoln’s funeral train travels for 14 days from D.C. to his hometown in Springfield, IL…7 million view the funeral processionThe ConspiratorContinued . . .NEXT