Southern Victories General Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia seemed unbeatable
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville Union general, Ambrose Burnside, clashed with Lee near Virginia The Confederates were entrenched Burnside resigned and Joseph Hooker replaced him Before Hooker could launch a full attack, Lee struck at Chancelorsville Although the Rebels won the battle, they suffered many casualties, including Stonewall Jackson
The Battle of Gettysburg Lincoln replaced Hooker with General George Meade. The three-day Battle of Gettysburg: 1 st day- Union cavalry surprised the Rebels, but were completely outnumbered and retreated 2 nd day- The Rebels launched another assault, but a counterattack saved the Union’s position 3 rd day- Pickett’s Charge- About 14,000 Confederate soldiers were easy targets for Union soldiers Lee knew the loss was all his fault
Victory at Vicksburg With the surrender of the Confederates at Vicksburg, the Union now had complete control of the Mississippi River. Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas were sealed off from the Confederacy.
Lincoln at Gettysburg In a two-minute speech, Lincoln expressed what the war had come to mean. The speech helped war-weary Americans look beyond the images of the battlefield and focus on their shared ideals.
Final Phases of the War After his victory at Chattanooga, Lincoln named Ulysses S. Grant commander of all Union armies. Grant devised a plan to cut off Richmond from the rest of the Confederacy that turned into a nine-month siege and cost the Union thousands of lives
The Election of 1864 With a Union victory led by David Farragut in Mobile Bay, Lincoln gained more popularity and easily won reelection
Total War William Sherman’s army began the history “march to the sea” to Savannah, Georgia The army destroyed everything in their path, including farms and rail lines This is known as total war
Victory for the North Through 1864, Grant continued his siege of Petersburg Finally, on April 2 nd 1865, Lee withdrew his troops Richmond fell the same day
Surrender at Appomatox On April 9 th 1865, Lee and his troops surrendered to Grant in a small Virginia village called Appomattox Court House The Confederates had to lay down their weapons and then were free to go home Grant even let them keep their horses Grant also ordered them three days worth of food Jefferson Davis was captured in Georgia on May 10th
Results of the War More than 600,000 deaths resulted The nation is billions of dollars in debt Some Southerners developed bitter feelings that lasted for generations Now the federal government in strengthened and it is clearly more powerful than the states Finally, the war freed millions of African Americans