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X. The Beginning of the End. A. The CSS Hunley The CSS Hunley was designed and built by Horace L. Hunley The CSS Hunley was designed and built by Horace.

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Presentation on theme: "X. The Beginning of the End. A. The CSS Hunley The CSS Hunley was designed and built by Horace L. Hunley The CSS Hunley was designed and built by Horace."— Presentation transcript:

1 X. The Beginning of the End

2 A. The CSS Hunley The CSS Hunley was designed and built by Horace L. Hunley The CSS Hunley was designed and built by Horace L. Hunley After a successful test run, the Hunley was brought to Charleston, SC in August of 1863 After a successful test run, the Hunley was brought to Charleston, SC in August of 1863 PGT Beauregard, after being relieved of his command after Shiloh, was sent to see to the defenses of Charleston PGT Beauregard, after being relieved of his command after Shiloh, was sent to see to the defenses of Charleston The Hunley was taken to Charleston and placed under his command- not the Navy The Hunley was taken to Charleston and placed under his command- not the Navy The Hunley was given to the Navy shortly after the Union began the bombardment of Charleston from Morris Island The Hunley was given to the Navy shortly after the Union began the bombardment of Charleston from Morris Island

3 It is then that the first crew of the Hunley was assembled It is then that the first crew of the Hunley was assembled The Hunley made its first tragic dive to the bottom on August 29, it was reported that the commander of the ship had stepped on the dive plane causing the submarine to sink dive with the hatches open: 5 of the 9 crew drowned The Hunley made its first tragic dive to the bottom on August 29, it was reported that the commander of the ship had stepped on the dive plane causing the submarine to sink dive with the hatches open: 5 of the 9 crew drowned Within 72 hours, Beauregard had fished the submarine off the bottom and work began to restore it Within 72 hours, Beauregard had fished the submarine off the bottom and work began to restore it H.L. Hunley convinced the navy that they should allow he and others familiar with the sub to man it- they were allowed H.L. Hunley convinced the navy that they should allow he and others familiar with the sub to man it- they were allowed

4 H.L. Hunley gathered a crew of eight for the submarine’s second dive H.L. Hunley gathered a crew of eight for the submarine’s second dive On October 15, 1863, H.L. Hunley and her crew set out on a maneuver to pass underneath a ship- that was their method attacking (torpedo) On October 15, 1863, H.L. Hunley and her crew set out on a maneuver to pass underneath a ship- that was their method attacking (torpedo) An error in the dive, followed by an error in releasing the keel ballasts caused the Hunley to dive and drive itself nose first in the icy harbor bottom- all eight men, including Hunley were lost An error in the dive, followed by an error in releasing the keel ballasts caused the Hunley to dive and drive itself nose first in the icy harbor bottom- all eight men, including Hunley were lost The Hunley was retrieved several days later and was put back under the command of the army & LT. George Dixon The Hunley was retrieved several days later and was put back under the command of the army & LT. George Dixon

5 Lt. Dixon found a crew of nine and led them on what would become a historical mission Lt. Dixon found a crew of nine and led them on what would become a historical mission Improvements had made on the Hunley- instead of dragging the torpedo, they used a spar torpedo (a 10 foot spear with the torpedo attached) Improvements had made on the Hunley- instead of dragging the torpedo, they used a spar torpedo (a 10 foot spear with the torpedo attached) On February17, 1864, Lt. Dixon and the crew of the Hunley set out from Charleston to sink the USS Housatonic On February17, 1864, Lt. Dixon and the crew of the Hunley set out from Charleston to sink the USS Housatonic The spar torpedo impacted the Housatonic and as the Hunley pulled away it exploded sinking quickly The spar torpedo impacted the Housatonic and as the Hunley pulled away it exploded sinking quickly However, the Hunley suffered from the impact as well and sank to the bottom of the harbor However, the Hunley suffered from the impact as well and sank to the bottom of the harbor

6 The Recovery The Hunley was lost for 131 years until it was discovered in 1995 in the harbor The Hunley was lost for 131 years until it was discovered in 1995 in the harbor The Hunley was raised in 2000 and the crew of the Hunley was laid to rest on April 17, 2004 in Magnolia Cemetery with the other 2 crews- 140 years after they perished The Hunley was raised in 2000 and the crew of the Hunley was laid to rest on April 17, 2004 in Magnolia Cemetery with the other 2 crews- 140 years after they perished

7 B. Virginia Campaign March 9, 1864: Ulysses S. Grant is promoted to Lt. General and General-in-Chief March 9, 1864: Ulysses S. Grant is promoted to Lt. General and General-in-Chief –Halleck became strictly administrative, while Grant took field command –Grant eliminated sideshows and concentrated forces Grant’s solution for success Grant’s solution for success –Capturing southern land meant nothing –Union must destroy the two principle armies

8 C. The Final Armies West West –Overall Command: William T. Sherman Army of the Tennessee: Gen. James B. McPhereson Army of the Tennessee: Gen. James B. McPhereson Army of the Cumberland: Gen. George H. Thomas Army of the Cumberland: Gen. George H. Thomas Army of the Ohio: Gen. John M. Schofield Army of the Ohio: Gen. John M. Schofield East East –Overall Command: Ulysses S. Grant Army of the Potomac: Gen. George G. Meade Army of the Potomac: Gen. George G. Meade Army of the James: Gen. Benjamin Butler Army of the James: Gen. Benjamin Butler

9 The CSA had two principle armies fighting the Union The CSA had two principle armies fighting the Union –Army of Northern Virginia: Gen. Robert E. Lee –Army of Tennessee: Gen. Joseph E. Johnston

10 D. Battle of the Wilderness Grant crosses the Rapidan River and marches through the Wilderness Grant crosses the Rapidan River and marches through the Wilderness Grant is headed for Richmond in order to draw Lee out into the open Grant is headed for Richmond in order to draw Lee out into the open Lee catches Grant in the wilderness and hits him there Lee catches Grant in the wilderness and hits him there

11 E. Day 1 of the Wilderness Grant’s numerical & artillery advantage are nullified in the woods Grant’s numerical & artillery advantage are nullified in the woods Union control most of the early fighting Union control most of the early fighting The tide turns when Longstreet arrives and joins the fight The tide turns when Longstreet arrives and joins the fight Fighting was confused and occurred in small patches Fighting was confused and occurred in small patches Forest fires break out & burn through the night killing most of the wounded soldiers Forest fires break out & burn through the night killing most of the wounded soldiers

12 F. Day 2 of the Wilderness Union progress is stopped by General Longstreet Union progress is stopped by General Longstreet Longstreet controls the center and pushes Burnside back Longstreet controls the center and pushes Burnside back CSA attacks fail as well as Union advances CSA attacks fail as well as Union advances Longstreet is shot by his own men Longstreet is shot by his own men

13 G. Spotsylvania Grant sidesteps and tries to get in between Lee and Richmond Lee realizes Grant’s plan and beats him to Spotsylvania Courthouse May 9, 1864 begins 12 days of fighting between the two armies Yellow Tavern: –G–G–G–Gen. Sheridan’s cavalry attempts to raid Richmond –G–G–G–Gen. Stuart’s cavalry cuts Sheridan off at Yellow Tavern –C–C–C–CSA stop Sheridan, but Stuart is mortally wounded and dies in Richmond the next day

14 H. Battle of Spotsylvania Grant had Gen. Hancock attack Ewell at a salient in the CSA line Gen. John B. Gordon stopped the Union advance The fiercest fighting occurred at what was known as the bloody angle Gen. Anderson ends the 4th day of fighting by stopping the Union progress

15 I. Cold Harbor June 3: Grant orders an all out attack on CSA lines June 3: Grant orders an all out attack on CSA lines CSA lines were solid as their trenches were zigzagged- Union soldiers took fire from the front and side CSA lines were solid as their trenches were zigzagged- Union soldiers took fire from the front and side –5 mile killing zone Battle lasted one hour and Union casualties were high (12,000) Battle lasted one hour and Union casualties were high (12,000)

16 J. Sherman’s Campaign and Atlanta Sherman went directly after Joe Johnston and the CSA Sherman went directly after Joe Johnston and the CSA Every time Sherman hit, Johnston would retreat further south Every time Sherman hit, Johnston would retreat further south Sherman’s overconfidence led to a massive Union defeat at Kennesaw Mountain Sherman’s overconfidence led to a massive Union defeat at Kennesaw Mountain Though, Johnston won Kennesaw Mt., he continued the retreat toward Atlanta Though, Johnston won Kennesaw Mt., he continued the retreat toward Atlanta Fed up with this tactic, Davis replaces Johnston with Gen. John B. Hood Fed up with this tactic, Davis replaces Johnston with Gen. John B. Hood Gen. Hood was not the best selection- he had no use of his arm and his right leg was amputated Gen. Hood was not the best selection- he had no use of his arm and his right leg was amputated

17 Hood proceeds to attack the Union Hood proceeds to attack the Union Hood attacks McPhereson and fails- Hood suffers 8,000 casualties but McPhereson is killed Hood attacks McPhereson and fails- Hood suffers 8,000 casualties but McPhereson is killed Hood attacks Sherman and fails- 2,500 casualties Hood attacks Sherman and fails- 2,500 casualties Sherman opens the artillery on the city of Atlanta Sherman opens the artillery on the city of Atlanta Sherman cuts the last rail line to the city and Hood evacuates in September of 1864 Sherman cuts the last rail line to the city and Hood evacuates in September of 1864

18 K. Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman dispatches 30,000 men under Gen. Thomas to guard Nashville Sherman dispatches 30,000 men under Gen. Thomas to guard Nashville Sherman’s line was 60 miles wide as he destroys everything in his path Sherman’s line was 60 miles wide as he destroys everything in his path Sherman met no resistance until Savannah Sherman met no resistance until Savannah –9,000 men guarded the city Sherman takes Savannah on December 21 Sherman takes Savannah on December 21 Sherman sends a message to Lincoln: “I beg to present to you a Christmas Gift, the city of Savannah Sherman sends a message to Lincoln: “I beg to present to you a Christmas Gift, the city of Savannah

19 L. 1 st Assault on Petersburg Significance of Petersburg Significance of Petersburg –23 miles south of Richmond –The hub of 5 RR –The rail lifeline of Richmond Petersburg was well guarded by trenches and 55 artillery batteries Petersburg was well guarded by trenches and 55 artillery batteries Grant’s Plan: Grant’s Plan: –June 6: Grant sends Sheridan & the cavalry on diversionary attacks in Charlottesville forcing Lee to dispatch Wade Hampton & the CSA cavalry –July 12: Grant sends Butler with his 2 corps across the James River headed for Petersburg

20 Butler crossed over a pontoon bridge near Petersburg Butler crossed over a pontoon bridge near Petersburg PGT Beauregard had been shifted to the defense of Petersburg PGT Beauregard had been shifted to the defense of Petersburg Butler attacks the CSA in small groups capturing parts of the CSA line Butler attacks the CSA in small groups capturing parts of the CSA line Lee dispatches A.P. Hill to Petersburg as reinforcement- Beauregard faced a force of 60,000 compared to his 10,000 Lee dispatches A.P. Hill to Petersburg as reinforcement- Beauregard faced a force of 60,000 compared to his 10,000 Butler’s attacks are driven back Butler’s attacks are driven back Grant calls for more attacks, but the Union is driven back by Lee’s veterans- the Union must now engage in a siege of Petersburg Grant calls for more attacks, but the Union is driven back by Lee’s veterans- the Union must now engage in a siege of Petersburg

21 M. Siege and the Battle of the Crater The CSA could not afford to give up the town The CSA could not afford to give up the town The Union had good supply lines, while the CSA sometimes went weeks without food rations The Union had good supply lines, while the CSA sometimes went weeks without food rations During the siege, the 48 th PA coal miners devised a plan to dig a tunnel underneath the CSA trenches During the siege, the 48 th PA coal miners devised a plan to dig a tunnel underneath the CSA trenches –They began on June 25 and finished 1 month later –They packed the shaft with 4 tons of black powder –The explosion occurred on July 30 around 5pm –The hole created was 30 ft. deep, 80 ft. wide, and 170 ft. long The CSA lost 278 men and a battery of artillery The CSA lost 278 men and a battery of artillery

22 The Union sent 2 divisions into the crater Lee’s artillery and infantry fired directly into the crater at the trapped Union soldiers- this was disastrous for the Union Grant then realized, the only way to take Petersburg was to exploit his numerical advantage and overextend the CSA lines 1864 closes with Lee’s 50,000 men fighting off starvation and trying to survive the winter The final assault on Petersburg the following spring saw Grant extend his trenches in a circle around the city- 50 miles long Lee realizes he can no longer defend Petersburg or Richmond

23 N. Five Forks Major intersection that led to the last rail line open to the CSA Major intersection that led to the last rail line open to the CSA –Lee sent George Pickett –Grant sent Sheridan Lee gave strict orders to take the intersection at all costs Lee gave strict orders to take the intersection at all costs –Pickett arrived first, poorly placed his men, and then attended a shad bake Sheridan plowed over the CSA defenses and the Union took control of the intersection Sheridan plowed over the CSA defenses and the Union took control of the intersection Pickett was relieved of command Pickett was relieved of command

24 O. Fall of Richmond Lee informed Davis that he could no longer protect Richmond and Lee withdraws to Amelia Lee informed Davis that he could no longer protect Richmond and Lee withdraws to Amelia Grant orders an all-out assault on Richmond Grant orders an all-out assault on Richmond April 2: Richmond is evacuated April 2: Richmond is evacuated –Davis and his cabinet are moved to Danville, VA –CSA set fire to the military equipment- blaze gets out of hand and half the city burns –A.P. Hill is shot and killed back at Petersburg Lee is desperate to get to Lynchburg to join up with Johnston, but his army needs food- they receive a train load of supplies, but no food Lee is desperate to get to Lynchburg to join up with Johnston, but his army needs food- they receive a train load of supplies, but no food Lee continues the retreat on April 6 Lee continues the retreat on April 6

25 Along the retreat, at the rear of the column, Gen. Ewell and 1/3 of Lee’s men are captured at Saylor’s Creek Along the retreat, at the rear of the column, Gen. Ewell and 1/3 of Lee’s men are captured at Saylor’s Creek Grant asks Lee to surrender Grant asks Lee to surrender Lee tries to push on to rejoin Johnston, but when he reached Appomattox Courthouse, he found Sheridan in his way Lee tries to push on to rejoin Johnston, but when he reached Appomattox Courthouse, he found Sheridan in his way The CSA were strong enough to move him and Grant was closing in from behind The CSA were strong enough to move him and Grant was closing in from behind

26 P. Lee Surrenders April 9, 1865: Lee met Grant at the house of Wilmur McClean in Appomattox April 9, 1865: Lee met Grant at the house of Wilmur McClean in Appomattox Surrender Terms: Surrender Terms: –CSA must lay down their arms and supplies –Officers may keep side arms (swords) –Soldiers must sign paroles- no federal troop will bother a CSA soldier returning home in peace –Grant allowed the men with their own horses to keep them for the plowing season –Grant ordered 25,000 rations to be given to CSA soldiers

27 When news reached outside the house, cheering erupted Grant put a stop to the celebration saying: “The rebels are our countrymen again” The formal surrender: –A–A–A–April 12: The surrender would take place without Lee & Grant –I–I–I–It took place between the soldiers: Gen. John B. Gordon surrendered to Gen. Joshua L. Chamberlain Other surrenders: –A–A–A–April 26: Johnston surrenders to Sherman –M–M–M–May 26: Gen. Kirby Smith surrenders to Gen. Edmund Canby


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