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Slide 1 The Civil War – Part 1 1861-1865 Major Carlos Rascon.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 The Civil War – Part 1 1861-1865 Major Carlos Rascon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 The Civil War – Part Major Carlos Rascon

2 Slide 2 References Dupuy and Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History, pp Dupuy and Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History, pp Fuller, A Military History of the Western World, Vol. III, pp Fuller, A Military History of the Western World, Vol. III, pp Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp

3 Slide 3 Learning Objectives Know the different strategies used by the North and South Know the different strategies used by the North and South Know the significance of the first battle of Bull Run to the North and South Know the significance of the first battle of Bull Run to the North and South Comprehend and compare the initial invasions conducted by the North Comprehend and compare the initial invasions conducted by the North Comprehend and interpret Lee’s significance as a Great Captain Comprehend and interpret Lee’s significance as a Great Captain

4 Slide 4 Resources NORTH –23 million in 22 states –4 million ages –2.4 million mobilized –Industrial Economy –109,000 plants –22,000 miles of integrated railway SOUTH –9 million in 11 states –1.14 million age –1 million mobilized –Agricultural economy –31,000 plants –9,000 miles of non- uniform railway

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7 Slide 7 Military Leadership 1,080 officers active 1,080 officers active –286 went South (184 from West Point) 900 West Pointers in civilian sector 900 West Pointers in civilian sector –99 joined South 55 of 60 largest battles were led by West Point graduates 55 of 60 largest battles were led by West Point graduates Three most qualified Union generals joined South (Lee and two Johnstons) Three most qualified Union generals joined South (Lee and two Johnstons)

8 Slide 8 Union Strategy Aggressive offensive to crush rebellion Aggressive offensive to crush rebellion Gen Winfield Scotts’ Anaconda Plan Gen Winfield Scotts’ Anaconda Plan –Links economics and combat Naval blockadeNaval blockade Seizure of ports and suppliesSeizure of ports and supplies Two armies to constrict ConfederacyTwo armies to constrict Confederacy –Only half-heartedly implemented by Lincoln

9 Slide 9 Union Strategy (cont.) Take Richmond Take Richmond –Thought to be CSA center of gravity –Ironworks –Urgency due to 3 month enlistments Allow no rest for Confederates Allow no rest for Confederates Napoleonic tactics Napoleonic tactics

10 Slide 10 Confederate Strategy Defend and delay Union until tires Defend and delay Union until tires Similar tactics of Revolutionary War Similar tactics of Revolutionary War –War of attrition –Foreign support & recognition Threaten Washington & defend Richmond Threaten Washington & defend Richmond Lee favored tactical defense Lee favored tactical defense –Dug in regiment ties down division as rest of forces maneuver and attack

11 Slide 11 Inventions & Innovations Telegraph Telegraph –Davis uses to gather forces at Shiloh –Fredericksburg sees first use on battlefield Railway Railway –Changes logistics and maneuver –North had uniform system; South did not Video 9 mins – Repeating rifle Video 9 mins – Repeating rifle Cavalry used for reconnaissance Cavalry used for reconnaissance

12 Slide 12 First Bull Run 21 Jul 1861 Political pressure demanded action despite lack of training Political pressure demanded action despite lack of training 16 Jul – Gen McDowell ordered 35,000 south to Richmond 16 Jul – Gen McDowell ordered 35,000 south to Richmond –Beauregard – 20,000 CSA troops waiting –Johnston – 12,000 CSA 40 miles away –Patterson (union) – 18,000 ordered to block Johnson –Patterson tricked into defensive, Johnston escapes McDowell arrives 18 th, attacked 21 st McDowell arrives 18 th, attacked 21 st –Gave time for Johnston to link up with Beauregard

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14 Slide 14 Analysis McDowell’s plan was too complicated McDowell’s plan was too complicated South developed false sense of security South developed false sense of security Southern victory impressed Europe Southern victory impressed Europe Woke up the Union Woke up the Union –Reality of long war –Fear of attack on Washington 22 Jul – McClellan put in charge of long-term volunteers 22 Jul – McClellan put in charge of long-term volunteers Ended era of romantic war Ended era of romantic war

15 Slide 15 McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign 1862: North focus on Richmond vice destroying CSA Army 1862: North focus on Richmond vice destroying CSA Army Precise methods differ Precise methods differ –Lincoln favored overland (Army between Washington and Richmond) –McClellan favored waterborne move (envelopment) Johnston withdrew to Fredericksburg Johnston withdrew to Fredericksburg –Half way between capitals –Astride McClellan’s prospective routes of advance

16 Slide 16 McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign McClellan’s plan had promise McClellan’s plan had promise –Utilized federal control of the seas –Useful base of operation at Ft. Monroe –Fewer rivers to cross Union Monitor neutralized CSS Virginia on 9 March Union Monitor neutralized CSS Virginia on 9 March –Eliminated naval threat to SLOC –Absence of good road on peninsula –Limited room for maneuver also a problem

17 Slide 17 McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign 4 Apr 1862: McClellan’s slow advance on Richmond hampered by 4 Apr 1862: McClellan’s slow advance on Richmond hampered by –Jackson became active in Shenandoah Valley to distract from Richmond –Gen Magruder Entrenched 15,000 troopsEntrenched 15,000 troops Used dummy guns and feigned activiesUsed dummy guns and feigned activies First engagement at Seven Pines leads to Johnston’s death; replaced by Lee First engagement at Seven Pines leads to Johnston’s death; replaced by Lee

18 Slide 18 Battle of Seven Days 26 Jun – 2 Jul Jun – 2 Jul 1862 Lee shows his military superiority over McClellan: Lee shows his military superiority over McClellan: –Pretended to reinforce Jackson in Shenandoah, but secretly ordered him to Richmond to reinforce(87,000 vs 110,000 US) –Defends south of Chickahominy River with 28,000 –Remaining 59,000 attack Union flank –Lee pursues and saves Richmond

19 Slide 19 Analysis Union now more concerned about safety of Washington Union now more concerned about safety of Washington North/South strategy revolve around capitals North/South strategy revolve around capitals McClellan removed from command McClellan removed from command –Didn’t attack vigorously –Failed to apply principle of offensive –Failure may have been more due to genius of Lee than incompetence

20 Slide 20 Tactics Napoleonic tactics invalid due to advancing technology Napoleonic tactics invalid due to advancing technology –Repeating rifles, rifled cannons, fortifications –Union continues to use these tactics Column of troops w/bayonets fixed on fortified positionsColumn of troops w/bayonets fixed on fortified positions Cavalry charges torn apart by longer range riflesCavalry charges torn apart by longer range rifles Caused heavy casualitiesCaused heavy casualities Lee was a master of defense Lee was a master of defense

21 Slide 21 Mounted Infantry

22 Slide 22 Summary Advantages and disadvantages of North and South Advantages and disadvantages of North and South Strategies of both sides Strategies of both sides Battles to take Richmond Battles to take Richmond Tactics and Analysis of battles Tactics and Analysis of battles

23 Slide 23 Questions?


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