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Description of Forest Hill, Toronto Forest Hill is among the city's most prestigious neighbourhoods. It is characterized by gently sloping hills,

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Presentation on theme: "Description of Forest Hill, Toronto Forest Hill is among the city's most prestigious neighbourhoods. It is characterized by gently sloping hills,"— Presentation transcript:

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7 Description of Forest Hill, Toronto Forest Hill is among the city's most prestigious neighbourhoods. It is characterized by gently sloping hills, winding roads, large brick and stone homes on spacious lots, and numerous quaint parks. Forest Hill's old building codes and by laws, dating back to the 1920's and 30's, required that all Forest Hill houses be designed by an architect, and that a tree be planted at the front of each property; leaving a legacy of beauty that enhances its reputation as one of Toronto's three wealthiest and most exclusive communities. Many of Forest Hill's specialty shops and boutiques are located in an enclave near Spadina and Lonsdale Road. This area has the appeal of cozy village shopping, and caters to the needs of the affluent locals. Along with outstanding public schools, two of Canada's most prestigious private schools are located within Forest Hill's boundaries of Briar Hill Avenue, Heath Street, the Cedarvale Ravine and Avenue Road: Upper Canada College for boys and Bishop Strachan School for girls. The Allen Expressway is easily accessed from Eglinton Avenue West, and Forest Hill is well served by TTC buses that wind through the neighbourhood.

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14 Description of Home for sale in West Vancouver “Radcliff by the Sea! A completely remodeled residence with stunning views of the ocean and coastal views. Outdoor veranda with complete luxury kitchen and heaters. Walk to the habour and natural areas….an hour away from Whistler.”

15 Chapter 12 – The Residential Kaleidoscope Examines the “classic” arrangement of residential subareas in US and European cities prior to 1970s. Examines social interaction and residential segregation – focusing on physical distance, social distance, and patterns of social interaction. Both of these attributes contribute to social interaction and residential segregation (We will examine the Chicago School’s notion of “Human Ecology”, which became the benchmark of urban theory until the mid 20 th century.) Examine neighborhood differentiation in terms of residential segregation (based on social status, household type, ethnicity, and lifestyles.) Look at new forms of social groups, household organization and new lifestyle orientations have been imprinted on the social map

16 Territoriality Territoriality – The tendency for particular groups to establish some form of control, dominance, or exclusivity with a localized area. Used as a focus or symbol for group membership and identity and to control social interaction Since the rise of industrial society, “appearential ordering” was no longer an effective means of determining group/class membership. Led to spatial ordering, or “group territoriality” determining and maintaining “social distance”. (Marking of “turf” by gangs to the walls/gates of wealthy enclaves

17 The Foundations of Residential Segregation Based on social status, household type, ethnicity, and lifestyle – each of these factors influence people’s social distance. Social Status - Educational qualifications, occupation, and income Class formation – conscious collectives of people based on class structure (formal category) and class fractions (ex. professionals) and class structuration (division of labor; institutional barriers to social mobility; system of authority; and dominant consumption patterns of a time) Importance of schools in certain neighborhoods guarantee a passport to higher-paid, higher status occupation for next generation (idea of “social reproduction”) Distance Decay Effect – Role of spatial segregation in ensuring social reproduction through marriage. (People usually marry their social equals, which are usually found in the same neighborhood) Neighborhood Effect –Residence of an area conform to voting patterns, style of dress, speech patterns, and consumer choices (same car) over time. Can lead to stereotyping.

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19 Ethnicity Covers any group that may be characterized by race, religion, nationality, or culture. Text argues that these groups are seen as minorities with in- migration to a city (whether past or current) (Americans of Africa, Chinese, Jewish, Mexican or Vietnamese heritages may fall into this category) Charter Group – Host society, dominated culturally by a - combination of race, religion and national origin (U.S. Anglo- Saxon) Most minorities are initially highly segregated from Charter group - (in US) function of socioeconomic status and degree of assimilation Assimilation – ability of newcomer to absorb host culture (comprehensive change of lifestyle) as well as host community allowing these changes – leads to a hybrid form of identity.

20 Ethnicity Rate and Degree of assimilation depends on –1) external factors (willingness of host group to allow past the gate of opportunity) (2) Internal group cohesion – desire of group to maintain cultural identity (not allowing for cross cultural marriages) Behavioral Assimilation – Ethic group acquires language norms and values of charter group (acculturated to mainstream) Structural Assimilation – Diffusion of members of a minority ethnic group through social and occupational strata of charter group Congregation or cluster of ethnic group is important for the following reasons: Defensive Functions (Chinatown in Vancouver; Support Functions (familiarity and strength); Cultural Preservation (preserve and promote a distinctive cultural heritage, religion as well); Attack functions (ethnic neighborhood serves as a base for action, politically and otherwise)

21 Ethnicity Colonies – Port of Entry for newcomers. Ethnic community eventually becomes dispersed into host society Enclaves – Ethnic concentrations over several generations. Inhabitants choose to congregate for functional reasons Ghettos – Ethnic concentrations that exist over several generations due to prohibitive nature of charter group (gatekeeping and so on)

22 The Chicago School: Human Ecology The Industrial City brought about a radical transformation of urban space in the form of sectors and zones, with specialized land use. Immigrants continued to move to the inner city Long time residents with financial resources moved to the suburbs Idea of residential sorting and resorting. Robert Park, Ernest Burgess, and Roderick McKenzie of the University of Chicago created a theory of residential segregation and urban residential structure that became the benchmark of urban theory. “A mosaic of little worlds that touch but do not interpenetrate” Argued that each neighborhood in Chicago was an ecological unit. Each made up of a particular mix of people that dominate an urban niche City was seen as a social organism with social interaction governed by a “Struggle for Existence.” Influenced by Darwinism. (Social sciences were trying to establish credibility.)

23 The Chicago School: Human Ecology Chicago School saw “natural areas” as being dominated by one group or another. (Zorbaugh’s The Gold Coast and the Slum.) Natural areas were not fixed. – Through numbers and growing market power, groups could alter the attractiveness of a certain area. Group could also move to a different natural area – called Invasion and Succession

24 The Chicago School: Human Ecology Became a “benchmark” in urban studies for describing urban structure Could only be applied to cities that were heavily industrialized and had constant streams of immigrants Came under heavy criticism in the late ’30s and ’40s Failed to explore the ‘cultural’ dimension of social organization, people make “irrational” and “sentimental” values – thus, social values could overrride economic competition as the basis for social interaction and residential segregation Social theories based on biotic analogies were also seen as dangerously simplistic (Nazi regime)

25 Human Ecology and Factorial Ecology Ecological ideas were reformulated to see an urban “ecology” of discrete territories “social areas” or “Neighborhood types” (distinct socioeconomic characteristics) Led to Factorial Ecology – involved the use of statistical analysis of socioeconomic data. Used multivariate stats to understand urban sociospatial differentiation (factor analysis). Helped to move away from Classic sectors/zones (scioeconomic/family/ethics) to new frameworks

26 Factorial Ecology and Fundamental Changes to the Foundation of Residential Segregation New Factors –Migrant Status –Ethnic Differentiation with arrival of new immigrant groups –Occupational differentiation –Welfare dependency –Poverty and substandard housing –Increased social and spatial differentiation between post- Boomers/young adults and the elderly Since 1970s, growing occupational polarization- rise in high paid jobs and low paid service sector jobs (loss of well paid manufacturing jobs and decline of suburbs) Baby Boomers divorcing, DINKS, never marrying Gen X, Boomer DINKS and Retirees moving “Back to Downtown” – Walkability factor and close to food, entertainment, and culture Americans of Africa heritage and new ethnic groups are moving to the suburbs (Ethnoburbs)

27 Mass Transit Becoming a big concern for high tech and biotechnology companies when trying to entice young professionals Regarding infrastructure, the Skytrain is a fabulous feature of the Vancouver landscape. This is the infrastructure that is going to attract people and business to Vancouver. When I make presentations in Seattle, and I show them Vancouver’s Skytrain, people become very interested to learn more. See, if the Company X Canada Innovation Centre sit on the Skytrain [line] this is a fabulous experience for my employees, which in turn makes their work experience more enjoyable……. Our employees are looking for this type of transportation experience when traveling to work. ~Managing Director, Company X September 2008

28 Walkability Score Developed by FrontSeat – A Seattle based software company (http://www.walkscore.com)http://www.walkscore.com Will tell you how many amenities you have within a walkable range from your home Used by real estate agencies, firms, families, and companies Hi Kathrine, It was great to meet you at my open house this past Sunday. Attached are listings of single family homes in the general downtown San Jose area. All are priced under $700,000. Let me know if any interest you. I presume that since you work at SJSU, you will want to be within walking distance. If not, I bet we could find something close to lightrail which would also be handy. If you need a lender, I really like Janet Velez with Bank of America. I look forward to hearing from you soon!! Take care,Tom

29 Ethnoburbs Term coined by Wei Lei. Over the past two decades a new type of ethnic area has emerged, the ethnoburb Suburban ethnic clusters of residential areas and business districts – characterized by vibrant ethnic economies that depend on local ethnic minorities Area is seen as an “outpost” in the international economic system via business transactions, capital accumulation, & flows of entrepreneurs and other workers Can be described as a multiethnic community in which one ethnic group has a significant concentration, but does not comprise a majority. Replicates an some features of an ethic enclave and a suburb lacking a single ethnic identity. Ethnic imprint is more obvious than other types of suburbs San Gabriel Valley, Diamond Hill, Hacienda Heights, Rowland Heights, and Walnut, California; Richmond, B.C., Surrey, B.C.

30 Ethnoburbs – Richmond, B.C.

31 A Comparison of Selected Features of the Populations of Richmond, British Columbia and Redmond, Washington FACTOR Richmond, British Columbia Redmond, Washington Total Population173,56554,340 Total Visible Minorities65.1%24.4% - Visible Minorities from Asia Asian Indian8.0%8.8% Chinese43.6%5.6% Filipino5.5%0.5% Japanese1.9%2.6% Korean0.7%0.5% Other Visible Minorities 1% (West Asia- Iran and Afghan) 7% (Hispanic) Source: Statistics Canada 2006 data for Richmond, British Columbia and the American Community Survey data for Redmond, Washington


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