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Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Secession and the Civil War 15

2 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Storm Gathers Election of Lincoln caused seven states to leave union Secession of seven states does not necessarily mean war One last attempt to reconcile North and South Federal response to secession debated In order for war, compromise must fail and military action must be taken

3 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Deep South Secedes December 1860: South Carolina first to secede February, 1861: Confederate States of America formed – Included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas

4 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Secession

5 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Deep South Secedes Government headed by moderates Confederate constitution similar to U.S. except: Restrictions on the finance of internal improvements Weak central government Guarantee of slavery Prohibition of protective tariffs Protection of slavery in the territories Aim to restore country as it was before Republican Party Southerners hope to attract Northern states into Confederacy

6 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Failure of Compromise Crittenden Plan: Extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Lincoln rejects compromise – Does not think it will end secession – Viewed as repudiation of majority rule

7 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands And the War Came North seeks action to preserve Union Lincoln – maintain federal authority without provoking war with South Lincoln wants South to be responsible for starting war April 1861: First shots fired at Fort Sumter, (Charleston) S.C., falls April–May: Upper South secedes after violence Border states remain in union – local Unionism and federal intervention Attack on Fort Sumter unites North War defined as struggle to preserve Union

8 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Adjusting to Total War North must win by destroying will to resist Total War: a test of societies, economies, political systems as well as armies Lincoln called for 75,000 troops for 90 days

9 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861

10 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Prospects, Plans, and Expectations Southern advantages: fight in familiar, friendly terrain, better generals South adopts defensive strategy Northern advantages: industrial superiority, larger population, more natural resources, superior railroad system Lincoln adopts two-front strategy: – Capture Confederate capitol, Richmond, VA – Seize control of the Mississippi River – Deploy navy to blockade Southern ports

11 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Overview of Civil War Strategy

12 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Mobilizing the Home Fronts In beginning – more troops than needed 1862: North and South begin conscription (draft) Northern mobilization – Finance war through taxes, bonds, paper money – Private industry supplies Union armies well

13 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Mobilizing the Home Fronts South moves capital to Richmond, Virginia South goes to war in a mood of optimism and jubilation During war, South had food shortages Government arsenals supply Confederate armies – Efforts to finance lead to runaway inflation – Transportation system inadequate

14 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Political Leadership: Northern Success and Southern Failure Lincoln and Davis learned that conduct of the war required active, executive leadership Lincoln expands wartime powers (individual freedoms vs security of all) – Declares martial law – Imprisons 10,000 “subversives” without trial – Suspended writ of Habeas Corpus – Briefly closes down a few newspapers Jefferson Davis appears weak – Concerned mainly with military duties – Neglects homefront problems, economy – planters refuse to grow food instead of cotton – Lacks influence with state governments

15 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Early Campaigns and Battles Northern achievements by 1862 – Total naval supremacy – Confederate troops cleared from West Virginia, Kentucky, much of Tennessee – New Orleans captured Confederate achievements by First Battle of Bull Run won by South – Stall campaign for the Mississippi at Shiloh – Defend Richmond from capture

16 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Civil War, 1861–1862

17 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Diplomatic Struggle England – South thinks the need for cotton will make England and France form alliances in war France: Confederacy not recognized unless England does so first Policy of “King Cotton” has little influence on foreign policy of other nations Union goal – prevent England and France from becoming allies to the South King Cotton Diplomacy Fails

18 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Coming of Emancipation Antietam is bloodiest battle of war and prompts Emancipation Proclamation 1863: Proclamation put into effect for areas still in rebellion – freed only slaves in the Confederacy – committed the North to abolishing slavery Used as weapon against South’s economic system African Americans flee to Union lines Confederacy loses thousands of laborers

19 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands African Americans and the War 200,000 African American Union troops serve in segregated unions Many others labor in Northern war effort Lincoln pushes further for black rights Blacks receive less pay doing heavy labor and make contribution to North’s victory

20 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Tide Turns May, 1863: War-weariness – New York riots against draft turned violent – Riots caused by racial prejudice and class conflict – Wealthy in North and South can avoid military by providing a substitute (Enrollment Act) – Anti-war activists like Congressman Clement Vallandigham arrested – Grant bogged down at Vicksburg – Union defeated at Chancellorsville – Democrats “Copperheads” militant antiwar activists who oppose Lincoln

21 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Tide Turns July, 1863 – Confederate invasion of North fails at Battle of Gettysburg – Vicksburg falls and give Union control of the Mississippi River

22 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Last Stages of the Conflict March 9, 1864: Grant made supreme commander of Union armies Grant is most effective Union general Union invades the South on all fronts – William Sherman marches through Georgia and destroys everything of economic and military value – Grant lays siege to Richmond, Petersburg September - Sherman takes Atlanta November - Lincoln re-elected because of Northern victories

23 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Election of 1864 Candidate PartyPopular VoteElectoral Vote LincolnRepublican2,213, McClellanDemocratic1,805, *Out of a total of 233 electoral votes. The eleven secessionist states— Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia—did not vote.

24 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Civil War, 1863–1865

25 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Last Stages of the Conflict Sherman’s March to the sea through Georgia “Scorched earth” policy April 1865: Grant takes Richmond April 1865: Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse, Va April 14, 1865: Lincoln assassinated April 18, 1865: Last major Confederate force under Joseph Johnston surrenders

26 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Effects of the War 620,000 troops dead Nation paid an enormous human and economic cost Women seek non-domestic roles Four million African Americans free, not equal The South became poorer while the North tended to prosper

27 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Casualties of War

28 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Effects of the War Federal government supreme over states Federal government takes activist role in the economy –Higher tariffs, free land, national banking system

29 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands An Organizational Revolution Modern bureaucratic state emerges Individualism gives way to organized, cooperative activity Catalyst for transformation of American society in the late nineteenth century


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