Presentation on theme: "SECESSION AND THE CIVIL WAR BEGINS Advantages…Disadvantages… Strategies…Moliblization… TOTAL WAR."— Presentation transcript:
SECESSION AND THE CIVIL WAR BEGINS Advantages…Disadvantages… Strategies…Moliblization… TOTAL WAR
The Storm Gathers Secession does not necessarily mean war One last attempt to reconcile North & South? Federal response to secession debated…
The Failure of Compromise Crittenden Plan: extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Lincoln rejects – does not think it will end secession – viewed as being in opposition to Republican principles Buchanan had taken no action to stop secession Some wish to “let the South depart in peace” !
The Deep South Secedes December 20,1860--South Carolina secedes February Confederate States of America formed – included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas –Wrote a constitution (patterned on US constitution) that supported states’ rights philosophy –Elected representatives to the Confederate government – controlled by moderates –Aim to restore pre-Republican Party Union –Southerners hope to attract Northern states into Confederacy ALL THIS WAS DONE BEFORE LINCOLN TOOK THE OATH OF OFFICE
And the War Came North seeks action to preserve Union April 13, Fort Sumter, S.C, falls April 15--Lincoln calls out Northern state militias to suppress Southern insurrection April-May--Upper South secedes Border states--slave states remain in Union War defined as effort to preserve Union
Total War North must win by destroying South’s will to resist! Total War--a test of societies, economies, political systems as well as armies
Capital City North Washington, D.C. South Richmond, Va. President North Abraham Lincoln South Jefferson Davis
Political Leadership: Northern Success and Southern Failure Lincoln expands wartime powers – declares martial law – imprisons 10,000 "subversives" without trial – briefly closed down a few newspapers Jefferson Davis – concerned mainly with military duties – neglects civilian morale, economy – lacks influence with state governments
Advantages in War North –Population –Diverse economy – industry & agriculture –Leadership of Lincoln South –Military leadership –High troop morale –Cause to fight for –Home turf –Sympathy from Europeans & “Cotton Diplomacy”
Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861
Disadvantages in War North –Long supply lines –Difficult to blockade long coastline –Lack military leadership South –Small population –“King Cotton” –Lack industries to supply war effort –Poor transportation –States’ Rights philosophy- citizens resist a national gov’t authority
Strategy North The Anaconda Plan - Blockade the South - Split at the Mississippi River - Squeeze from all directions to force surrender - Capture Richmond South Defense -Defend independence (Even a tie is a victory) -Capture Washington,D.C.
Overview of Civil War Strategy
Mobilizing the Home Fronts North & South begin conscription Northern mobilization – finance war through taxes, bonds, paper money – private industry supplies Union armies well Confederate mobilization – government arsenals supply Confederate armies – efforts to finance lead to runaway inflation – transportation system inadequate
The Diplomatic Struggle England – belligerent rights extended to Confederacy Not recognized as sovereign nation, but given rights of a sovereign nation…access to foreign ports, etc. – conditions recognition of independence on proof that South can win independence – Institution of slavery is obstacle to English support France –Confederacy not recognized unless England does so first "King Cotton" has little influence on foreign policy decisions of other nations.
Weapons of Mass Destruction Most soldiers were issued smoothbore muskets that were difficult to load and could be fired at an accurate range of only about 100 yards, only three times in one minute. Rifled muskets were much more accurate and deadly with a range of up to 500 yards.
Destruction from Artillery In the Civil War, some Cannons were rifled for better accuracy and more power. Rifled cannons could accurately lob shells for almost 2000 yards; that is almost one mile!. Smoothbore cannons were not as accurate and could be lobbed 500 yards.
Lincoln’s Goal: to preserve the Union
At 6 feet 4 inches tall, Lincoln towered over most of his contemporaries. Acquired this hat from J.Y. Davis, a Washington hat maker. Lincoln had the black silk mourning band added in remembrance of his son, Willie. The last time Lincoln war this top hat was to go to Ford’s Theatre on April 14,1865.
Actions taken by Lincoln Never recognized the existence of the Confederate States – Union is one and indivisible! Called out state militias, increased size of navy, ordered naval blockade of south, approved funds for military expenses (acting as Commander in Chief”) Ordered arrest of Southern sympathizers in Md. & Del. to prevent further secession –Suspended the writ of habeas corpus (charged with a crime) –Declared martial law (military in charge of gov’t)
Important Document (Motivate the Union) Emancipation Proclamation 1.September 22, 1862, issued 2.January 1,1863, take effect 3. Lincoln’s statement that if the Southern states did not stop the rebellion, it would become a war to free slaves (in the rebelling territories) 4. Authorized the use of African American soldiers by the North Ended any chance of European help to the South now that this was a war about slavery 5. South ignores him!...Doesn’t consider him their President!!! (Jefferson Davis is CSA president) The Gettysburg Address 1. November 19, Lincoln’s speech at the dedication of a cemetery after the Battle of Gettysburg 3. Motivation to keep fighting and not negotiate a peace treaty…Reminder that democracy often requires sacrifice.