Presentation on theme: "Ch. 21 PPT Notes The Furnace of Civil War. Bull Run Ends the “Ninety-Day War” July 1861 - Battle of Bull Run: At first, battle went well for the Union,"— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 21 PPT Notes The Furnace of Civil War
Bull Run Ends the “Ninety-Day War” July Battle of Bull Run: At first, battle went well for the Union, but Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson stood firm. Confederate reinforcements arrived – Union army fled. Significance: Overconfidence in the South – Soldiers deserted; some feeling the war was over. North – Realized the war wasn’t going to be over quickly
“Tardy George” McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign General McClellan: Commander of Army of Potomac Great organizer and morale booster, but overcautious –continued to drill troops and didn’t move, so Lincoln ordered him to advance. Peninsula Campaign- McClellan approaches Richmond via rivers – captures Yorktown; continues toward Richmond, but driven back by Robert E. Lee in the Seven Days’ Battle (Summer 1862) Significance: If Union had captured Richmond, South wouldn’t have lost much of their way of life. However, Lincoln decided that South can’t try to break apart the govt., then come back into the Union without consequences. So Lincoln began to draft an Emancipation Proclamation.
Peninsula Campaign 1862
Name that General!
What was the North’s Military Plan to win the Civil War?
Northern Military Plan: 6 Parts Suffocate South by sea blockade. Free slaves to undermine South’s economy. Seize control of Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy in half. Send troops to Georgia and the Carolinas. Capture Richmond. Engage the South’s main strength and overtake them.
The War at Sea Blockade wasn’t complete, but focused on South’s main ports. (coast too large to cover all) Blockade running occurred using swift steamers– risky but large profits; exchanged arms for cotton. Northern Navy enforced blockade by seizing British freighters. Southerners plated the sides of the Merrimack (renamed Virginia) with iron railroad rails. Merrimack destroyed two wooden Union ships. North Response: Union sent the ironclad Monitor to attack the Merrimack. Confederates eventually destroyed the Merrimack so the Union wouldn’t get a hold of it.
Pivotal Point: Antietam Aug. 1862: Second Battle of Bull Run – Gen. Robert E. Lee against Union Gen. John Pope. South won! Battle of Antietam, Maryland: General Lee against Union General McClellan. Lee’s battle plan was found so General McClellan successful in stopping General Lee’s march on Border State of Maryland. (battle was a draw). Lee went South, and McClellan didn’t go after him. McClellan lost his command. Significance: This “victory” for the North became the springboard for Lincoln to launch a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in Sept “After Jan. 1, 1863, the character of the war will be changed…the South is to be destroyed and replaced…”
A Proclamation Without Emancipation Sept – Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation Jan. 1, 1863 – Emancipation Proclamation: Declared “forever free” the slaves in the Confederates states in rebellion. Slaves in Border States weren’t affected since Lincoln concerned they would break away. “Thus the Emancipation Proclamation was stronger on proclamation than emancipation.” Thousands of slaves flocked to Union armies. 1 in 7 slaves ran away to Union camps. Strengthened moral cause of the Union and removed any chance of negotiated settlement. Military desertions increased sharply as not everyone agreed with the Proclamation.
Blacks Battle Bondage North: Beginning of war – no Blacks in the army. Union Navy had Blacks as cooks, stewards, and firemen. Need for manpower – Blacks eventually accepted and by end of war about 180,000 Blacks served in the Union army. High casualties – more than 38,000 died. If captured, many were put to death as slaves in revolt.
Blacks in the South South: Didn’t enlist Blacks until a month before war ended. However, tens of thousands of Blacks forced into war related labor. Slave resistance: slowdowns, strikes, defiance, and undermined discipline. Slaves served as: Union spies, guides, scouts, or provided shelter to war prisoners. At end of war: half million slaves fled from the plantations. Many who stayed negotiated new working conditions in factories or on farms.
Battles Continue Lincoln replaced McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac with General Burnside Dec. 1862: Battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia – Union General Burnside attacked General Lee’s position. Union lost the battle - about 12,000 casualties. May 1863: Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia – General Lee divided his forces and sent “Stonewall” Jackson to attack much larger Union force lead by General Joseph Hooker. Lee won a brilliant victory, but unfortunately “Stonewall” Jackson was mistakenly shot by his own men and died. General Lee: “I have lost my right arm.”
Rest in Peace Great General: Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
Battle of Gettysburg July 1863: Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (Northernmost point reached by Confederate Army) For 3 days, Union troops led by General George Meade fought Confederate troops led by Gen. Lee and General George Pickett. On 3rd day, Confederate General Pickett’s brave charge up Cemetery Ridge failed. Confederate army retreated. Significance: Last real chance for Confederacy to win the war, but this loss broke the heart and back of the Confederate cause. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address: invoked principles of human equality and to ensure that democracy would remain a possible form of government
The War in the West Feb. 1862, General Ulysses S. Grant: 1st success in Tennessee – Captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. Significance: Kentucky more secured to the Union and opened gateway to Tennessee and Georgia. April 1862: Battle of Shiloh, TN – Confederate forces launched surprise attack on Gen. Grant. North won! May 1863: Battle of Vicksburg, Miss. - Grant’s best fought campaign; Union General Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Miss. River - drove Confederate army & Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton into defensive lines surrounding city of Vicksburg: 5 days later Port Hudson fell - South loses control of Miss. River.UnionGrantArmy of the Tennessee ConfederateLt. Gen.John C. Pemberton
Election of 1864
The Election of 1864 Lincoln’s re-election depended on keeping Republican support and defeating the threat from Peace Democrats and Copperheads. VP running mate = Andrew Johnson. Republican party joined with War Democrats to become the Union party. Democrat candidate: Gen. George McClellan Lincoln benefited from Northern victories in battle, plus Northern soldiers were furloughed home to vote for Lincoln. Peace Democrats and Copperheads: Northern Democrats who opposed Civil War, wanting immediate peace settlement with Confederates. Most famous Copperhead was Ohio's Clement L. Vallandigham, a Congressman.Civil War ConfederatesClement L. Vallandigham
Grant Outlasts Lee After Gettysburg, General Grant replaced Meade. General Lee had fewer men. April 1865: Northern troops captured Richmond and cornered Lee at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. Gen. Grant met with Gen. Lee - made terms and signed surrender document Confederate Gen JosephJoseph JohnstonJohnston's army was still fighting the Union ArmyUnion Army General Grant
Lincoln Assassinated April 14, 1865 – only 5 days after Gen. Lee’s surrender: pro-Southern stage actor, John Wilkes Booth fatally shot Pres. Lincoln at Ford’s Theater. Southerners realize Lincoln’s death was a calamity for them. Lincoln’s moderation would have been better than viewpoint of the Congress. Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes president. Booth was shot less than 2 weeks later by a union soldier
Aftermath of Civil War Over 600,000 killed and over 400,000 wounded. Cost about $15 billion. Nation was re-united politically, though for generations still divided by the war. South collapsed - both economically and socially. 13 Amendment: passed by Senate, April 8, 1864; passed by the House on Jan. 31, 1865; and adopted Dec. 6, 1865.
What does the Federal government need to do to re-unite North and South? (What does North and South need to do to re-unite politically?
Why is Antietam considered the turning point in the Civil War?
Why did Lincoln declare his Emancipation Proclamation? What did it really achieve?
Essential Questions Why did both the North and the South believe that it would be a short war? Why is Antietam considered the turning point in the Civil War? Why did Lincoln declare his Emancipation Proclamation? What did it really achieve? To what extent did both free and enslaved blacks contribute to the war effort? What was the significance of Gettysburg? How did General Sherman’s military strategy presage modern warfare of the 20th century? What finally led to Lee’s surrender at Appomattox? How did Lincoln’s assassination change the outcome of the Civil War? What are some of the long-term influences of the Civil War? To what extent did the Civil War benefit the freed slaves?