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The End of the Beginning is Upon Us… Chapter 21 Notes, Objectives, and Anticipation Guide Connection.

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Presentation on theme: "The End of the Beginning is Upon Us… Chapter 21 Notes, Objectives, and Anticipation Guide Connection."— Presentation transcript:

1 The End of the Beginning is Upon Us… Chapter 21 Notes, Objectives, and Anticipation Guide Connection

2 The Format: Objective in the Title Anticipation Guide Question to the Left Anticipation Guide Question to the Left Notes to the Right Notes to the Right

3 Objective: Describe the failure of the North to gain its expected early victory in Because of the South’s geographical advantage, the North expected the Civil War to be a long, drawn-out affair. My answer: DISAGREE My answer: DISAGREE Goal: attack at Bull Run 30 miles SW of Washington  Bull Run  move on to the Confederate capital (Richmond) 100 miles south and capture it to win the war Goal: attack at Bull Run 30 miles SW of Washington  Bull Run  move on to the Confederate capital (Richmond) 100 miles south and capture it to win the war If successful, Union would be restored without damage to the economic and social system of the South If successful, Union would be restored without damage to the economic and social system of the South Confederate reinforcements let them win the battle  South got overconfident; North realized it wouldn’t be a “one-punch war” Confederate reinforcements let them win the battle  South got overconfident; North realized it wouldn’t be a “one-punch war”

4 Objective: Explain the significance of Antietam and the Northern turn to a “total war” against slavery 2. After the Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln changed his focus from saving the Union to eliminating slavery from an eventual reunified America My answer: DISAGREE My answer: DISAGREE “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery.” – Lincoln in ’62 “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery.” – Lincoln in ’62 Had McClellan succeeded in taking Richmond and the war had ended in mid-1862, the Union would probably have been restored with minimal disruption to slavery Had McClellan succeeded in taking Richmond and the war had ended in mid-1862, the Union would probably have been restored with minimal disruption to slavery The total war strategy was developed The total war strategy was developed 6 parts: 6 parts: 1. Blockade southern coasts 2. Liberate the slaves to hurt Southern economic foundations 3. Control the Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy in half 4. Send troops through GA and Carolinas 5. Capture the capital at Richmond 6. Engage the South’s main strength and grind it into submission

5 Objective: Explain the significance of Antietam and the Northern turn to a “total war” against slavery Scarcity of Southern goods because of blockades drove prices skyward Scarcity of Southern goods because of blockades drove prices skyward On Antietam: McClellan returned (Lincoln had previously banished him), found Lee’s battle plans wrapped around a packet of 3 cigars dropped by a Confederate officer, and stopped Lee’s attack On Antietam: McClellan returned (Lincoln had previously banished him), found Lee’s battle plans wrapped around a packet of 3 cigars dropped by a Confederate officer, and stopped Lee’s attack The battle was a draw The battle was a draw However, that draw showed renewed Union strength and discouraged France and Britain from entering the war on the side of the Confederates However, that draw showed renewed Union strength and discouraged France and Britain from entering the war on the side of the Confederates

6 Objective: Describe the role that African Americans played during the War 3. Southern slaves felt they were fighting for their freedom in the Civil War My answer: AGREE My answer: AGREE The victory at Antietam let Lincoln feel comfortable issuing the Emancipation Proclamation The victory at Antietam let Lincoln feel comfortable issuing the Emancipation Proclamation Southern slaves understood they were now “forever free”, so they had a cause to fight for (though 1 in 7 slaves escaped to the North) Southern slaves understood they were now “forever free”, so they had a cause to fight for (though 1 in 7 slaves escaped to the North) The Confederates didn’t enlist slaves to fight until the last month of the war The Confederates didn’t enlist slaves to fight until the last month of the war However, slaves in border states were NOT granted freedom, because Lincoln does not want to split the Union However, slaves in border states were NOT granted freedom, because Lincoln does not want to split the Union Where he could free slaves he would not; where he would not, he could Where he could free slaves he would not; where he would not, he could Still, blacks knew their best chance at freedom was through Union victory Still, blacks knew their best chance at freedom was through Union victory For the first time, Lincoln accepted the enlistment of black soldiers in the Union army For the first time, Lincoln accepted the enlistment of black soldiers in the Union army

7 Objective: Describe the military significance of the battles of Gettysburg in the East and Vicksburg in the West 4. Lincoln’s words in the Gettysburg Address had more long- lasting impact than the North’s victory at Gettysburg General Meade’s victory at Gettysburg crippled the Confederacy (July 1-3, 1863) General Meade’s victory at Gettysburg crippled the Confederacy (July 1-3, 1863) It was the furthest the South was able to advance in the North; the next 2 years were spent backpedaling towards Richmond It was the furthest the South was able to advance in the North; the next 2 years were spent backpedaling towards Richmond Battle of Vicksburg (July 4) was over a fortress on the Mississippi River protecting Southern supply lines Battle of Vicksburg (July 4) was over a fortress on the Mississippi River protecting Southern supply lines General Grant was successful for the Union, and with the victory the North controlled the Mississippi River (known as “the spinal cord” of the South) General Grant was successful for the Union, and with the victory the North controlled the Mississippi River (known as “the spinal cord” of the South) Britain also stopped delivering Laird rams and France refused to sell six naval vessels to the South Britain also stopped delivering Laird rams and France refused to sell six naval vessels to the South

8 Objective: Describe the political struggle between Lincoln’s “Union party” and the antiwar Copperheads 5. The Copperheads and Presidential candidate McClellan were the last great hope for the South during the Civil War The Congressional Committee on the Conduct of War were Republicans who felt the President had overstepped his powers during the war The Congressional Committee on the Conduct of War were Republicans who felt the President had overstepped his powers during the war When Stephen Douglas died 7 weeks into the war, the Democratic Party divided into War Democrats, Peace Democrats, and Copperheads When Stephen Douglas died 7 weeks into the war, the Democratic Party divided into War Democrats, Peace Democrats, and Copperheads War Democrats supported Lincoln, leading to the formation of the “Union Party” (VP Andrew Johnson had been a small slave owner) War Democrats supported Lincoln, leading to the formation of the “Union Party” (VP Andrew Johnson had been a small slave owner) Copperheads were also extreme Peace Democrats who openly opposed the draft, Lincoln, and emancipation Copperheads were also extreme Peace Democrats who openly opposed the draft, Lincoln, and emancipation Lincoln’s twice-removed General McClellan was the Copperhead candidate Lincoln’s twice-removed General McClellan was the Copperhead candidate Lincoln won by a 212 to 21 electoral vote (though it was only 55% to 45% on the popular vote) Lincoln won by a 212 to 21 electoral vote (though it was only 55% to 45% on the popular vote)

9 Objective: Describe the end of the war and list its final consequences 6. Lincoln’s assassination significantly slowed the progress of African American rights 600,000 men died in action or of disease and over 1 million were killed or seriously wounded 600,000 men died in action or of disease and over 1 million were killed or seriously wounded The war cost $15 billion, without counting pensions and interest on the national debt The war cost $15 billion, without counting pensions and interest on the national debt Five days after Union victory, Lincoln was killed in Ford Theatre by John Wilkes Booth Five days after Union victory, Lincoln was killed in Ford Theatre by John Wilkes Booth Ex-Confederates and some Northern Copperheads rejoiced Ex-Confederates and some Northern Copperheads rejoiced With the assassination, the unprepared Johnson became president With the assassination, the unprepared Johnson became president Some Southerners ultimately perceived Lincoln’s death negatively as they believed he’d have been kinder and less vindictive than Johnson Some Southerners ultimately perceived Lincoln’s death negatively as they believed he’d have been kinder and less vindictive than Johnson


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