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The Start of the Civil War Chapter 11. Strengths and Weaknesses  Northern Strengths –Larger population –More railroads and factories –Resources (coal,

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Presentation on theme: "The Start of the Civil War Chapter 11. Strengths and Weaknesses  Northern Strengths –Larger population –More railroads and factories –Resources (coal,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Start of the Civil War Chapter 11

2 Strengths and Weaknesses  Northern Strengths –Larger population –More railroads and factories –Resources (coal, iron) –Better balanced economy –More $ –Established government –Army, and navy (could blockade)  Northern Weaknesses –Had to attack to preserve the Union –Less trained leaders –Not total support – some wanted to “let South go”  Southern Strengths –Better military leaders –Defensive position – didn’t have to conquer North, just not be defeated –Familiar territory –Fighting to preserve their way of life (survival) – rabbit and the fox  Southern Weaknesses –Smaller population –Economy primarily based on one crop –Few factories and railroads –Large population of slaves –New government

3 Union Military Strategies  The Anaconda Plan –Naval Blockade  Prevent trade with Europe –Gain control of the Mississippi River – split the Confederacy  Capture Richmond –Public wanted a quick end  Lincoln keeps “border” states (MO, KY, DE, MD) saying he would not interfere w/slavery Gen. Winfield Scott

4 Confederate War Strategy  President Jefferson Davis  War of Attrition –Defensive war –Push back Union advances until they give up (wear them down)  Try to get foreign allies –South produces 75% of world’s cotton –Try to get England and France to help

5 1 st Bull Run (Manassas)  July 21, 1861 –First major battle of the war –General Irvin McDowell (Union) vs. Gen. Beauregard and Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (Confederacy)  Confederate Victory –Confederacy forces Union retreat –Union troops run back to Washington –Showed both sides that the war would not be easy McDowell) Jackson

6 Early Battles  McDowell replaced by McClellan –Respected by men but hesitant –Organizes army of the Potomac  Ulysses S. Grant in the west –Fort Henry & Fort Donelson –Shiloh – first battle with massive casualties; horrified both sides  Union captures New Orleans but unable to capture entire Miss.  Ironclads – Monitor vs. Virginia (Merrimack); ended in draw but end of wooden ships

7 Tactics and Technology  Tactics –Based on European ways of fighting –Slowly changed with the new technology  Technology –Cone shaped bullets rather than round –Repeating rifle –Heavy artillery –Made battle deadly –http://www.history.com /videos/civil-war-tech http://www.history.com /videos/civil-war-techhttp://www.history.com /videos/civil-war-tech

8 Early Battles  Lincoln urges McClellan to attack  Failed to take Richmond (against Lee)  Also another loss at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Lee & Stonewall Jackson instrumental)

9 2. Emancipation and the War  Lincoln and slavery –Originally only wanted to preserve the Union –Did not think he had the right to abolish slavery –Ending slavery became a war strategy  Antietam – bloodiest single day of the war (23,000), MD  Gave Lincoln the victory he needed

10 Emancipation  The Emancipation Proclamation –January 1, 1863, slaves in areas of rebellion against the government would be free –Didn’t apply to border states –Also hoped to stop British support (wouldn’t support a war about slavery)  Reaction to the Proclamation was mixed

11 African Americans Fight  Contraband –Slaves became property of the Union then were freed  African American Soldiers –Gained ability to fight after the proclamation –All black regiments under a white officer –54 th MA Regiment  Robert Shaw  Battle of Ft. Wagner

12 Sec. 3 Politics in the North Financial Measures –1861, first federal income tax, bonds, Homestead Act, tariffs  Emergency Wartime Actions –Martial Law –Draft – could also hire substitutes  Opposition to the War –Riots protesting draft –Copperheads – against war –Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus

13 Politics in the South  Draft –Southerners were not reenlisting –General Lee pushes for a draft – required military service –April 1862, Confederate Congress passes first draft law –18 to 35 required three year service –Exception  Owners of more than 20 slaves  Could hire substitute

14 Life in the War  Southern Economy –Food production declines –Cotton production continues –Inflation  Northern Economy –Most northern industries were helped by the war –Women fill jobs –Some profited from war  Prison Camps –Andersonville, Georgia –Prisoner exchange ended  Medical Conditions –Attempt to control disease but most casualties resulted from this –Amputations common –Clara Barton  Creates the Red Cross

15 Union vs. Conf. Soldiers  http://www.history.com/videos/conf ederate-vs-union-soldiers http://www.history.com/videos/conf ederate-vs-union-soldiers http://www.history.com/videos/conf ederate-vs-union-soldiers

16 4. Turning Points  Chancellorsville & Fredericksburg 1862 – key Conf. victories  Jackson killed  http://www.history.com /videos/stonewall- jackson http://www.history.com /videos/stonewall- jackson http://www.history.com /videos/stonewall- jackson  The Siege of Vicksburg - city surrounded, people starved, surrendered July 4, 1863  Cut South in half – one of their main goals

17 Gettysburg - 1863  July 1 –Union takes position along Cemetery Ridge –Confederacy takes position along Seminary Ridge  July 2 –Longstreet slow to attack, Meade gets reinforced –Little Round Top – Joshua Chamberlain, bayonets –http://www.history.com/videos/chamberlain- defends-little-round-top3 http://www.history.com/videos/chamberlain- defends-little-round-top3http://www.history.com/videos/chamberlain- defends-little-round-top3 –Lee orders a direct assault on the center of the line –Pickett’s Charge – “I have no division.”

18 Results of Gettysburg  Union –23,000+ casualties  Confederates –28,000+ casualties  July 4 th, Confederates retreat  No other invasions of North  Turning point

19 Gettysburg  http://www.history.com/videos/getty sburg-battle-strategy http://www.history.com/videos/getty sburg-battle-strategy http://www.history.com/videos/getty sburg-battle-strategy  Pickett’s Charge  http://www.history.com/videos/last- charge-at-gettysburg http://www.history.com/videos/last- charge-at-gettysburg http://www.history.com/videos/last- charge-at-gettysburg

20 The Gettysburg Address  November 19, 1863  Lincoln speaks briefly  Powerful and moving speech  New definition of the United States

21 Grant Takes Command  1864 - Grant given full control of the Union army  Lincoln about Grant “He fights.”  VA – attempt to take Richmond - Battle of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg –Huge toll on Confed.  TOTAL WAR – civilians, economy, materials, break the will of the people  William T. Sherman in control in the west Grant

22 Sherman in Georgia  Battle of Kennesaw Mountain – brief victory for South  Atlanta falls eventually and much is burned  600 mile path of destruction  Part of “total war”  Sherman’s March to the Sea

23 Sherman

24 Election of 1864  Lincoln fears losing –Andrew Johnson named Vice-President candidate (Democrat from TN)  Democrats nominate George McClellan  With Sherman taking Atlanta, Lincoln easily wins  Thirteenth Amendment –Ratified on December 6, 1865 –Ended slavery in the U.S.

25 5. End of the War  Grant controls Richmond after siege  Sherman begins to move north –Destroys South Carolina  Appomattox Court House –April 9, 1865, Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House, VA –Solemn and dignified

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27 Lincoln’s Assassination  John Wilkes Booth leads failed plot to kill General Grant, Vice President Johnson, Secretary of State Seward, and President Lincoln  April 14, 1865 –5 days after war’s end –Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C. –Booth mortally wounds Lincoln  Died the next morning –Booth killed in a tobacco warehouse in Virginia

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30 Why the North won  Better technology  Large population  Abundant resources  Fearless leaders who would do anything to win (Grant, Sherman)  Steady leadership of Lincoln  Decision to proclaim emancipation

31 Impact  600,000 dead  Hundreds of thousands more wounded  Harsh reality of total war  Southern terrain devastated  New opportunities for southern blacks but also obstacles  War helped cement federal authority  Matthew Brady – Civil War photographs  How will the South rebuild?


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