Presentation on theme: "The American Pageant The Furnace of Civil War 1861-1865."— Presentation transcript:
The American Pageant The Furnace of Civil War 1861-1865
July 21, 1861 Manassas, VA Irvin McDowell (Union) vs. Johnston and Beauregard Union plan: attack, win, march to Richmond Reality: Both sides unprepared Confederates victorious when “Stonewall” Jackson stands his ground, until reinforcements arrive
Given command of Union army after McDowell defeated Meticulous in planning Bad in implementation Served only 4 months
Union launched in SE Virginia by McClellan March – July 1862 Union goal: Avoid Confed. army in VA by using waterways to sneak up and capture Richmond Reality – McClellan held ground with Johnston, but then was easily defeated by Robert E. Lee (Confed. victory)
Union landed at Ft. Monroe but surprised to find Confed. defensive line Battle of Yorktown (union victory) Started Confed. withdraw Battle of Williamsburg (Union victory) 1 st battle of campaign Continued Confed. withdraw Battle of Drewry’s Bluff (Confed victory) Unsuccessful attempt of Navy to access Richmond via James River Battle of Seven Pines (draw) Johnston wounded Replaced by Robert E. Lee
June 25 – July 1, 1862 Six Major battles (10 total) Confed. General Lee vs. Union General McClellan Confederates pushed McClellan’s army back down the peninsula Lee then turned North to ready for future campaigns 36,000 casualties
Northern blockades at principal ports Merrimack Confed. steel plated wooden ship Effective at breaking through blockades Many weapons and large but very slow Monitor Union’s ironclad ship Fast and small; few weapons Merrimack vs. Monitor March 9 th, 1862 (draw)
August 29 – 30 th, 1862 General Lee vs. General Pope (Union) First major offensive battle by Confederacy Confederate Victory Casualties Union – 10,000 Confed. – 1,300 Union General John Pope
“Stonewall” Jackson captured union supplies at Manassas Severed link with Washington D.C. Confed. and Union stalemate at Stony Ridge Gen. Longstreet (Confed.) met up with Jackson after light resistance Pope unaware of Longstreet, continued to fight Jackson Union easily defeated by largest simultaneous mass assault of the war (25,000 confed. troops)
BATTLE of ANTIETAM September 17 th, 1862 Why was Lee invading the North, and especially a border state at this time? What were his goals? Why was it especially critical for the Union to have a victory at this time?
First major battle on Northern soil (MD) Bloodiest single day battle (23,000) Lee vs. McClellan Lee outnumbered 2 to 1, but McClellan sent in less than ¾ of army Lee able to withdraw, when McClellan failed to follow Tactical Draw; Stopped advance towards D.C.
Called for the freeing of all slaves "the rebels could not experiment for 10 years trying to destroy the government and if they fail still come back into the Union unhurt.“ Confiscation Act of 1862 punished "traitors" by declaring their slaves property of war who shall be free. Not enforced in the border states Removed chances of negotiation between north and south Made the Civil War also a moral war
McClellan replaced with General Burnside after Antietam Battle of Fredericksburg, VA (12/13/1862) Union defeated Gen. Burnside replaced with General Hooker Battle of Chancellorsville, VA (May 1863) Union defeated “Stonewall” Jackson mortally wounded General Hooker replaced by General Meade
Largest # of casualties (approx 50,000) Major turning point of the war Lee vs. Meade Confed. Goal Move north into PA, win, and truce Union victory Ended the war in the north Led turn to Confed. defensive war, rather than offensive
Early Confed. gains Pushed Union back to Cemetery Hill General Reynolds killed; replaced by Doubleday
Pickett’s Charge Confed. attack on Union middle Preceded by artillery shooting Confed. – 50% casualties Ended the Battle of Gettysburg Union victory
Congressional Committee on the Conduct of War Abused powers during war Led by Salmon P. Chase (Sec of Treasury) Democratic Split War Democrats: Pro-Lincoln Peace Democrats: – Anti-Lincoln Copperheads Radical peace democrats Vallandigham – Banished to South
Started as Union volunteer Captured Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson in Feb 1862 Battle of Shiloh April 1862 Union Victory Given command at Vicksburg Union victory July 4 th, 1863 Control of Mississippi River for rest of war Became Lieutenant General of U.S. Army after victory at Chattanooga
Captured and burned Atlanta in September 1864 Captured Savannah December 1864 Captured and burned Columbia February 1865 Purpose to destroy supplies and lower morale
Union Party – War Democrats + Republicans Lincoln: President Johnson (War Democrat): Vice President Democrats (including Copperheads) George McClellan Lincoln overwhelmingly reelected Another defeat for the South
April 9 th, 1865 Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House in Richmond, VA following Wilderness Campaign War Death Total – 600,000 Cost - $15 Billion
April 14 th, 1865 Ford’s Theater (DC) John Wilkes Booth Andrew Johnson takes over as president
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