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THE CIVIL WAR THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865 Adapted from Mr. Long’s Presentation

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Presentation on theme: "THE CIVIL WAR THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865 Adapted from Mr. Long’s Presentation"— Presentation transcript:

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2 THE CIVIL WAR THE CIVIL WAR Adapted from Mr. Long’s Presentation

3 GUIDING QUESTIONS How did the Union win the war? How did the Union win the war? How did the Civil War change the United States politically, socially and economically? How did the Civil War change the United States politically, socially and economically?

4 THE SECESSION CRISIS

5 1860 Presidential Election Abraham Lincoln Republican John Bell Constitutional Union Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democrat John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat

6 1860 Election Results 1860 Election Results

7 Election of 1860: Popular Vote Percentages

8 Secession: The Lower South secession “fire-eaters” Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis

9 Crittenden Compromise Senator John J. Crittenden

10 Lincoln’s Inauguration, March 4, 1861 Lincoln’s position on secession Lincoln’s position on secession Lincoln’s Inauguration, March 4, 1861

11 Lincoln’s inaugural address in front of the Capitol

12 U.S. Capitol, 1860

13 Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861

14 Secession & the Upper South

15 Slavery & Secession % Whites in Slave- owning Families % Slaves in Population Original Confederate States 38%47% Upper South States that Later Joined the Confederacy 24%32% Border States Remaining in Union 14%15% Source: Henretta, et al., America’s History, 5 th ed.

16 TWO SOCIETIES AT WAR

17 The Divided Nation

18 United States Flag in 1863

19 Lincoln Feb. 23, 1861 (Library of Congress) Lincoln by Alexander Gardner, 1861 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

20 Confederate States of America Official Flags

21 Confederate Battle Flags Eastern Army Battle Flag Navy flag

22 Jefferson Davis, President, CSA

23 Comparing the North & the South

24 Men Present for Duty in the Civil War

25 Resources : North vs. South

26 Railroad Lines, 1860

27 Overview of Civil War Strategy “Anaconda” Plan v Aggressive Defense/Attrition Overview of Civil War Strategy “Anaconda” Plan v Aggressive Defense/Attrition

28 Confederacy –War of Attrition –Foreign Intervention –Influence Northern Public Opinion/Politics –Blockade Runners –The “Trent Affair” –Cotton Embargo

29 Characteristics of War Old Methods/New Tech Rifled Weapons Repeating Carbines Trench Warfare?

30 THE WAR IN THE EAST

31 Battle of Bull Run (1 st Manassas), July, 1861

32 Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson

33 The Battle of the Ironclads, M arch, 1862 The Monitor vs. the Merrimac

34 USS Monitor Deck and Turret

35 The War in the East:

36 Union General George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee General, CSA

37 The War in the East:

38 The Battle of Antietam September 1862 Bloody Lane (Library of Congress)  Bloodiest single day of the war:  Union: 12,410 casualties, double those of D-Day (June 6, 1944)  Lee lost 10,700 men, 25% of his Army.  Tactical draw, strategic victory – McClellan halted Lee’s invasion.  Enabled Lincoln to an- nounce his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation 5 days later.  Along with the Emancipa- tion Proclamation, caused Great Britain to rethink recognizing the C.S.A.

39 After Antietam Lincoln Meets with McClellan and Staff

40 Union General Ambrose Burnside

41 DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENTS

42 Opposition and Lincoln’s Response  Peace Democrats  “copperheads”  Clement L. Vallandigham  Republicans: moderate vs. “radical”  Lincoln’s use of executive power  habeas corpus  martial law  Ex parte Milligan (1866)

43 Significant Legislation Passed in Congress  Morrill Tariff Act (1861)  Income tax  Legal Tender Act (1862)  “greenbacks” - $430+ million  National Banking Acts (1863 & 1864)  Pacific Railway Acts (1862 & 1864)  Union Pacific Railroad Co.  Central Pacific Railroad Co.  Homestead Act (1862)  Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)  Emancipation Proclamation (1862)  Morrill Tariff Act (1861)  Income tax  Legal Tender Act (1862)  “greenbacks” - $430+ million  National Banking Acts (1863 & 1864)  Pacific Railway Acts (1862 & 1864)  Union Pacific Railroad Co.  Central Pacific Railroad Co.  Homestead Act (1862)  Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)  Emancipation Proclamation (1862)

44 New York Draft Riots - Battle in Second Avenue (Collection of Picture Research Consultants & Archives) Mobilizing Armies & Social Unrest Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.  Conscription Act (March 1863)  New York City Draft Riots (July 1863) Recruiting station, New York City

45 Role of Women and Health  U.S. Sanitary Commission  Dorothea Dix  Nurses – Clara Barton  women at home

46 Election of 1864 Abraham Lincoln and son Tad, February 1864 (Library of Congress) George B. McClellan  Union Party  Andrew Johnson  George B. McClellan

47 Presidential Election of 1864

48 Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address March 4, 1865

49 A NEW BIRTH OF FREEDOM The Civil War and African-Americans

50 Civil War and African-Americans  Conservative Republican view  Radical Republicans  Thaddeus Stevens – Rep PA  Charles Sumner – Senator Mass  Benjamin Wade – Senator OH  Confiscation Act  “contraband of war”

51 Civil War and African-Americans  Emancipation Proclamation  Did Lincoln “free the slaves”?  “a high crime against the Constitution”

52 Emancipation in 1863

53 The Southern View of Emancipation

54 Civil War and African-Americans  54th Massachusetts Infantry  Thirteenth Amendment

55 African American recruiting poster

56 FROM GETTYSBURG TO APPOMATTOX

57 Civil War in the West General Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant Shiloh Shiloh New Orleans New Orleans Admiral David Farragut Admiral David Farragut Vicksburg (May 19-July 4, 1863)

58 Seige of Vicksburg

59 The War in the West, 1863: Vicksburg The War in the West, 1863: Vicksburg

60 The Road to Gettysburg 1863

61 Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863  Decisive Battle of the War  Largest Battle ever in U.S.- 172,000 troops (97,000 in Union Army of the Potomac; 75,000 Conf. Army of N. Va.)  Most casualties of any battle (51,000 combined)  569 tons of ammunition  Over 5,000 dead horses

62 Gettysburg Little Round Top, July 1863

63 "A Harvest of Death“: Gettysburg After the Battle

64 Dedication of Gettysburg National Cemetery, Nov. 1863

65 Gettysburg: Dedication of National Cemetery, Nov. 1863

66 Lincoln at Gettysburg

67 Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address November 1863

68 The War in the South, Chattanooga Lookout Mountain & Missionary Ridge (Nov. 1863) William T. Sherman Atlanta (Sept. 1864) “March to the Sea” Union General William T. Sherman

69 Ruined railway near Atlanta, destroyed by Sherman’s troops

70 The Progress of War:

71 War in the East, Wilderness Campaign (May-June 1864) Seige of Petersburg ( June Apr 2, 1865) Fall of Richmond Ulysses S. Grant at Cold Harbor Virginia, June 1864

72 Richmond April 1865 After Burning by Union Forces

73 Richmond April 1865

74 Richmond, April 1865

75 Surrender Lee’s Surrender, Appomattox Court House ( April 9, 1865) McClain House, Appomattox C.H., April 1865

76 Surrender at Appomattox

77 Capture of Jefferson Davis, May 10, 1865

78 War Deaths

79 Casualties on Both Sides

80 Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars

81 GUIDING QUESTIONS How did the Union win the war? How did the Union win the war? How did the Civil War change the United States politically, socially and economically? How did the Civil War change the United States politically, socially and economically?

82 While the Cats are Away… Republicans ram through: –Homestead Act –’62 –Pacific RR Act (Transcontinental) – ‘62 –Morrill Tariff Act – ‘62 –Freedmen’s Bureau – ’65 Final victory of the Federalists?

83 IMPORTANT RESULTS OF THE CIVIL WAR POLITICALECONOMICSOCIAL

84 POLITICALECONOMICSOCIAL

85 Sources Library of Congress – Prints and Photographs Division Online Catalog - Africans in America – PBS - Civil War – Ken Burns, PBS American Civil War.com - Smithsonian Institution, Online Collections - Library of Congress – Online Exhibits – Gettysburg Address - Susan Pojer, “Civil War Through Maps and Charts”


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