Presentation on theme: "The Civil War pgs. 341 – 345 / 357 - 365 WESTERN CAMPAIGN Fort Henry / Fort Donelson Shiloh New Orleans Vicksburg EASTERN CAMPAIGN 1 st Bull Run 7 Days."— Presentation transcript:
The Civil War pgs. 341 – 345 / 357 - 365 WESTERN CAMPAIGN Fort Henry / Fort Donelson Shiloh New Orleans Vicksburg EASTERN CAMPAIGN 1 st Bull Run 7 Days Battles 2 nd Bull Run Antietam Chancellorsville Gettysburg -Day 1 -Day 2 -Day 3 Grant v. Lee in Virginia Sherman’s March to the Sea EVENTS & TOPICS Monitor v. Merrimac Gettysburg Address Confederate Morale Election of 1864 Surrender at Appomatox
The Civil War pgs. 341 – 345 / 357 - 365 WESTERN CAMPAIGN Fort Henry / Fort Donelson Shiloh New Orleans Vicksburg EASTERN CAMPAIGN 1 st Bull Run 7 Days Battles 2 nd Bull Run Antietam Chancellorsville Gettysburg -Day 1 -Day 2 -Day 3 Grant v. Lee in Virginia Sherman’s March to the Sea EVENTS & TOPICS Monitor v. Merrimac Gettysburg Address Confederate Morale Election of 1864 Surrender at Appomatox BATTLE NOTES: ADD to YOUR NOTES
Civil War Strategy
CIVIL WAR Western Campaign BATTLES Eastern Campaign BATTLES 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865
“CIVIL WAR”18611862186318641865 Eastern Campaign BATTLES July - 1 st Battle of Bull Run Monitor v. Merrimac March - Monitor v. Merrimac Aug - 2 nd Battle of Bull Run Antietam, MD Sept - Antietam, MD Dec - Fredericksburg May - Chancellorsville Gettysburg, PA July 3 - Gettysburg, PA March – Grant Eastern Commander * Lincoln Re-Elected Grant Wears Down Lee April - Richmond Surrenders Western Campaign BATTLES Feb - Grant / Tennessee April - Battle of Shiloh June - Memphis - New Orleans Emancipation Proclamation July 4 - Vicksburg Surrenders Sept - Chickamauga Nov - Chattanooga Sherman Attacks Georgia Sept - Atlanta Captured * Sherman’s March to the SEA *
Military Leaders of the War ConfederacyConfederacy (SOUTH) Johnston ( 7 Pines ) Robert E. LeeRobert E. Lee UnionUnion (NORTH) McDowell McClellan Pope McClellan Burnside Hooker Meade Ulysses S. GrantUlysses S. Grant
Lincoln’s Generals Irwin McDowell Winfield Scott George McClellan, Again! McClellan George McClellan Ambrose Burnside Joseph Hooker George Meade Ulysses S. Grant
The Confederate Generals Jeb Stuart James Longstreet George Pickett “Stonewall” Jackson Nathan Bedford Forrest Robert E. Lee
Many battlefields of the Civil War bear Double Names. North natural object river, creek, hillThe troops of the North came mainly from cities, towns, and villages, and were, therefore, impressed by some natural object near the scene of the conflict and named the battle from it – river, creek, hill, etc… South artificial objectrailroad crossing, town, buildingThe soldiers from the South were chiefly from the country and were, therefore, impressed by some artificial object near the field of action – railroad crossing, town, building, etc… Date of BattleConfederate NameFederal Name 1 st Manassas JunctionBull Run July 21, 1861 1 st Manassas JunctionBull Run ShilohPittsburg Landing Apr. 6-7, 1862 Shiloh Pittsburg Landing 2 nd Manassas JunctionSecond Bull Run Aug. 29-30,1862 2 nd Manassas Junction Second Bull Run Sharpsburg Antietam Sept. 17, 1862 Sharpsburg Antietam
The Peninsular Campaign The Peninsular Campaign General McClellan was in command of Union Army. He decided to approach Richmond from the Atlantic coast. McClellan landed troops in Yorktown, which is a peninsula between the York and James River, east of Richmond. There were battles fought there throughout July of 1862. The Confederates defeated the Union in the battles, led by General Joseph E. Johnston, then General Robert E. Lee.
The First Battle of Bull Run Manassas creek Bull RunThis was the first large battle of the war. The First Battle of Bull Run Union troops gathered around Washington D.C. in hope of seizing Manassas, VA, which was a vital railroad, but the Confederate troops aligned the creek waiting for Union forces at Bull Run. This was the first large battle of the war. The Confederate forces defeated the Union.
“The Civil War” First Battle of Bull RunFirst Battle of Bull Run “spectators come to the show” * See Saw Battle * (Richmond) –McDowell (Union) –Beauregard (Conf) ”Stonewall” Jackson” –Confederate Victory
1862 Western Battles GrantFeb 1862 Grant > Tennessee Region –Fort Henry & Fort Donelson
The Battle of ShilohThe Battle of Shiloh This battle was the first after the Union dispersed troops into the West, as well as the East. The Battle of Shiloh was fought as one of the battles of the "War in the West." General Grant led his army into Tennessee and continued to advance. Confederate forces attacked near Shiloh, resulting in thousands of casualties between both armies in two days of fighting. The Union won the bloody battle of the Civil War, even though they suffered more losses than the Confederates.
1862 Western Battles GrantFeb 1862 Grant > Tennessee Region –Fort Henry & Fort Donelson Shiloh - ”Very Bloody Battle”April - “ Shiloh ” 23,000 casualties (U) - ”Very Bloody Battle” -Both sides start thinking DEFENSE -Will be a LONG - UGLY WAR New OrleansJune - Farrugut (navy) “ New Orleans” MemphisJune - “ Memphis ” (Mississippi River in danger)
1861-1862 Eastern Campaign Monitor vs Merrimac March ‘62 - Monitor vs Merrimac -1st “ironclad” Navy Battle (css virginia) June -McClellan vs Lee (Richmond) -7 Pines Battle, 7 Days Battles 2nd Bull RunAug - “ 2nd Bull Run ” Pope v Lee “Manassas Junction” (C) AntietamSept- “ Antietam ” 22,000 (McClellan) -Lee invades the North (why?) Bloodiest of war so far- Sharpsburg
The Battle of Antietam The Battle of Antietam General Lee, commander of the Northern Virginia Army, moved to strike Union territory in Maryland. dropped a copy of the battle plansA Confederate messenger dropped a copy of the battle plans, which was found by a Union soldier. The Union then learned that Lee's forces were divided, so General Grant attacked. Sharpsburg Bloodiest Battle of the WarAntietam ( Sharpsburg ) was a day long battle on September 17, 1862 at Antietam Creek in Maryland. The battle ended in a draw and will be remembered as the Bloodiest Battle of the War.
“The Tide of War Turns” Victories for Lee Continue Battle of Fredericksburg (Dec. 1862 - Burnside (U) Robert E. Lee (C) - massive Union casualties - Confederate Victory
Battle of Fredericksburg series of futile frontal assaults Prospect HillMarye’s Heights On November 14, Burnside, now in command of the Army of the Potomac, sent a corps to occupy the vicinity of Falmouth near Fredericksburg. The rest of the army soon followed. Lee reacted by entrenching his army on the heights behind the town. On December 11, Union engineers laid five pontoon bridges across the Rappahannock under fire. On the12th, the Federal army crossed over, and on December 13, Burnside mounted a series of futile frontal assaults on Prospect Hill and Marye’s Heights that resulted in staggering casualties. Meade’s division, on the Union left flank, briefly penetrated Jackson’s line but was driven back by a counterattack Mud March On December 15, Burnside called off the offensive and re-crossed the river, ending the campaign. Burnside initiated a new offensive in January 1863, which quickly bogged down in the winter mud. The abortive “Mud March” and other failures led to Burnside’s replacement by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker in January 1863.
“The Tide of War Turns” Victories for Lee Continue ChancellorsvilleBattle of Chancellorsville (greatest) - “Fighting Joe” Hooker (U) - Confederate Victory - Stonewall Jackson (dies)
Battle of Chancellorsville Known as Lee's " perfect battle " as he repeatedly broke the tenet of never dividing one's forces in the face of a superior enemy with stunning success, Chancellorsville cost his army 1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, and 2,018 missing. Hooker's army suffered 1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, and 5,919 missing/captured. While it is generally believed that Hooker lost his nerve during the battle he lost his his command as he was replaced by Meade. Stonewall Jackson While a great victory, Chancellorsville lost Stonewall Jackson who died on May 10, badly damaging the command structure of Lee's army. Seeking to exploit the success, Lee began his second invasion of the North which culminated in the Battle of Gettysburg
The Road to Gettysburg: 1863
July 1st, 1863 On the warm morning of July 1st, 1863, a small Union cavalry brigade encountered 2 brigades of advancing confederate troops. With breech loading carbines, the Union troops were capable of getting off eight shots per minute to the Confederate's three. Despite smaller numbers, the Union's technology held the Confederates at bay. Quickly both sides called for reinforcements, and the Battle picked up. The first day was fought fiercely at high cost to those present, but was nothing compared to what was to come. That first day, several thousand federals managed to make it up Cemetery Ridge, a strategic lookout over the field. By night fall, the federals had a defensive line three and a half miles long, following strategic landmarks of the area, later to be a part of the Gettysburg Cemetery, which resembled a large fish hook. The Union had a distinct advantage in this battle, they were on the defensive, on their own turf. The enemy is here, if we do not whip him, he will whip us The confederates had also assembled quite a formidable force, about 50,000 strong, to the federals 60,000 on Seminary Ridge, and another 20,000 in transit. Lee said to his troops that night, "The enemy is here, if we do not whip him, he will whip us." His strategy was simple, break through any part of the fishhook defense. Before the battle, major cities in the North such as Philadelphia, Baltimore and even Washington were under threat of attack from General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia which had crossed the Potomac River and marched into Pennsylvania.
Lee’s 2 nd Invasion of the North Battle of GettysburgBattle of Gettysburg (biggest battle ever fought in N. AM.) July 1, through July 3, 1863 - Gen. George Meade (U) - Gen. Robert E. Lee (C) July 1 - surprised confederates fire on Union troops in Gettysburg (skirmish) - Confederate victory (day 1)
Cemetery Ridge Seminary Ridge Little Round Top Pickett’s Charge
Gen. Longstreet Little Round Top Devil’ DenJuly 2 - Lee orders Gen. Longstreet to attack southern tip of Union Lines - Little Round Top (Union) Union Bayonet Charge (Chamberlain – Maine) - Devil’ Den fighting Pickett’s ChargeJuly 3 - Conf. Attacks center of Union lines - Cemetery Ridge (Pickett’s Charge) 23,000 casualtiesUNION - 85,000 23,000 casualties 28,000 casualtiesCONF - 75,000 28,000 casualties
Day 3... The deciding moment can reasonable called the turning point of the war, Lee, realizing the strategic importance for the south of capturing Little Round Top, as it would have allowed southern artillery fire to hit every section of the Union army, ordered a massive attack at the center of the Union army. Pickett's chargeWith more than 15,000 men under his charge, Pickett ordered the running assault against the opposing forces. The Union, also realizing the importance, beefed up their defense, and calmly mowed down the mile long fury of attackers with rifle and cannon fire. This would infamously be known later as Pickett's charge. Pickett was thoroughly defeated. Tragically, of his own brigade of 5,000 men, only 800 returned. His command for the charge was 15,000 men, of which only 5,000 lived to tell the sad tale. The charge was a complete and dismal failure, while only a couple dozen of the original 15,000 troops even saw the top of little round top, and they were killed or promptly captured upon arrival. It is all my fault. This has been my fight, and upon my shoulders rests the blameLee watched the survivors return and confessed, "It is all my fault. This has been my fight, and upon my shoulders rests the blame" 28,000 men were lost to lee, and 30,000 arms, costing Lee a huge lose. Although Meade lost almost as many men in battle, 23,000, the losses were not as disastrous for the north
The Deciding Day Pickett’s ChargeJuly 3 “ The Deciding Day ” - Conf. Attacks center of Union lines - Cemetery Ridge (Pickett’s Charge) It is all my fault. This has been my fight, and upon my shoulders rests the blame"It is all my fault. This has been my fight, and upon my shoulders rests the blame“ Robert E. Lee 23,000 casualtiesUNION - 85,000 23,000 casualties 28,000 casualtiesCONF - 75,000 28,000 casualties
Siege of VICKSBURG (Western Campaign)
Vicksburg (Western Campaign) Grant attacksGrant attacks ( 6 months ) Siege of VicksburgSiege of Vicksburg (2,800 shells-day) - July 4, 1863 Vicksburg SURRENDER - Mississippi under UNION control Importance of 1863 North South-North “we can win this war” -South “think about peace / or losing