Presentation on theme: "The North Takes Charge. Objectives Describe the events leading to the Gettysburg, the Battle of Gettysburg and its outcome. Describe Grant’s siege."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Describe the events leading to the Gettysburg, the Battle of Gettysburg and its outcome. Describe Grant’s siege of Vicksburg Summarize the final events of the war leading up to the surrender at Appomattox. Compare how these battles relates to the Union strategy. Analyze how Union advantages led to the Union's victory.
After Antietam…Confederate Victories Lincoln removes McClellan as the Commander of the Potomac and replaces him with General Ambrose Burnside Burnside marches 120,000 men on Richmond toward Lee’s 75,000 where the two sides clash in the Battle of Fredericksburg
Commanders Union: General Ambrose Burnside Confederate: General Lee, Longstreet & Stonewall Jackson Date: December 11-15, 1862
The Battle of Fredericksburg/Sharpsburg In order for Burnside to move his troops toward Richmond, had to move south but had to cross the Rappahannock River All civilian bridges had been destroyed; orders the construction of flotillas Poor communication and bad weather result in the arrival of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia Lee entrenches his men on the heights surrounding Fredericksburg
The Battle of Fredericksburg December 13, 1862: Union attempt to cross the Rappahannock River was a disaster Burnside orders a series of frontal assaults up Prospect Hill and Marye’s Heights that resulted in staggering casualties 17,929 total (Union: 13,353; Confederate: 4,576) Confederate Victory: Burnside retreats and is replaced by “Fighting Joe” Hooker
The Battle of Chancellorsville (or The Wilderness) Commanding Officers: Union: Fighting Joe Hooker Confederacy: Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson
The Battle of Chancellorsville or Wilderness Fighting Joe Hooker attempts again to take Fredericksburg, which is just as disastrous as the first attempt Hooker fords the Rapidan and Rappahannock Rivers Lee divides his men, leaving half his forces in Fredericksburg and half heading to confront Hooker near a mansion called Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville or Wilderness Battle Plan: Hooker sends cavalry ahead by 2 weeks (100,000 men) to destroy Confederate supply and communication lines. Goal: draw Lee out of Fredericksburg while sending infantry 40 miles up river to surprise attack Lee’s left flank... BUT…
The Battle of Chancellorsville Lee’s men surprise the Union Army on May 2, 1863; fighting lasts through May 3 rd Outcome: Confederate Victory Many consider Chancellorsville to be Lee’s greatest victory. Union suffered 14,000 casualties, the Confederates 10,000 Confederates lost more, though, as Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded
The Unions 3 Point Strategy a.k.a The Anaconda Plan 1. 1. Blockade 2. 2. Gain control of the Mississippi River 3. 3. Build the Army of the Potomac to defend Washington D.C., defeat Lee, and Capture Richmond
3 Turning Points of the Civil War 1. 1. Antietam 1 st Union “victory” Emancipation announced, more African Americans involved in the war effort No help from Europe for the South 2. 2. Gettysburg & Vicksburg 3. 3. Re-election of Lincoln
Battle of Gettysburg: The Basics Fought from July 1 st through July 3, 1863 in Gettysburg, PA Many historians consider the battle to be a major turning point in the American Civil War November 19 th, 1863, President Lincoln delivered his famous “Gettysburg Address” at the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery
Day One: July 1, 1863 General Lee begins leading his Army of Northern Virginia into northern territory CSA soldiers hear there are shoes in Gettysburg Surprised to encounter 2 Union brigades who engage the troops
Day One: July 1, 1863 Leads to reinforcements from both sides The Army of the Potomac (Union) led by George Meade Took a defensive position upon a ridge Lee attacks causing the Union to retreat to town BUT, North has the has the high ground at Cemetery Ridge
Day Two: July 2, 1863 A majority of the armies on both side finally arrive Union 93,000 soldiers Confederacy 71,000 soldiers Union in a fishhook shaped formation Leaves their left flank open at Little Round Top
Day Two: July 2, 1863 Joshua Chamberlain leads Maine troops to defend the hill Run out of ammo, but led a bayonet charge…CSA shocked surrender and run away If the 20th MA had fallen, Lee would have routed the entire Union line and then marched to D.C. Devil’s Den and Culp’s Hill (rt. Flank) also saw fierce fighting Teachers can kick butt too, you know!?!
Day Three: July 3, 1863 Early morning Lee orders artillery attack in middle of Union line as attacks on the flanks were unsuccessful 1.Orders a the largest artillery barrage of the war (2 miles long, 150-170 2.Orders an infantry attack center of Union line with 12,500 Confederate soldiers 3.Followed by a cavalry charge on Union Right flank which would then meet the infantry in the middle of the Union line Both attempts fail and Lee must retreat to VA
Pickett’s Charge What actually happened: Artillery overshot Union lines…but couldn’t see because of the overwhelming amount of smoke Pickett’s “charge” was more like a slow death march; Union artillery mows them down! Casualty rate was more than 50% for the Confederacy Cavalry assault, under command of JEB Stuart, was stopped before it even began by Union cavalry
Gettysburg: Losses Approximately 51,000 casualties Union losses = 23,000 killed or wounded Confederate losses = 28,000 killed, wounded or captured Why is Gettysburg considered a turning point in the war? Shattered southern morale (which had been an advantage)Shattered southern morale (which had been an advantage) Union army was beginning to come togetherUnion army was beginning to come together
Meanwhile in the West… The Vicksburg Campaign Only 2 cities left before Grant controls the Mississippi River Crosses the river and moves northeast toward the capital of Mississippi: Jackson Engages CSA in Jackson and wins Pushes the CSA west toward Vicksburg, a port city on the Mississippi River Super important…the last real block to the Union entirely controlling the Mississippi River
Siege of Vicksburg Grant marches toward the city and tries attacking unsuccessfully Settles for a siege - surround a fortress/city and starve it into surrender People start to eat dogs and mules Confederates under the command of John Pemberton surrender on July 4, 1863 29,495 surrendered The Confederacy cut in two!!!
Confederacy Morale Defeat at Gettysburg and Vicksburg limits manpower Shortages on food, shoes, uniforms, guns and ammo Soldiers begin to desert and also to fight for the North Peace movement springs up
Sherman’s March to the Sea Grant appoints William Tecumseh Sherman as commander of the Mississippi division Both Grant and Sherman = TOTAL WAR Late 1864: His army occupies Atlanta’s railroads and proceeds to march east to Savannah Principles of SCORCHED EARTH Burn crops, kill livestock, consume supplies, and destroy civilian infrastructure
The End is Near Grant and Lee in Virginia At a stalemate; fight battle after battle with no progress Union suffers extremely high casualties After Sherman’s march to the sea, he moves north to aid Grant Lincoln reelected in 1864 to second term
Appomattox Court House Richmond is about to fall; Lee falls at Petersburg Jefferson Davis and the CSA government abandon Richmond April 9, 1865 the CSA surrenders: Terms are generous: soldiers sent home with their possessions, horses and 3-days rations, officers can keep their side arms
Wilmer McClean House First Bull Run took place on his farm…sold it and moved to Appomattox Court House about 150 miles away When Lee was looking for a place to surrender to Grant,a messenger knocked on McLean's door and requested the use of his home.
After the War State’s authority diminishes 620,000 deaths, 500,000 wounded 13th Amendment passed - banning slavery April 14th, 1865 (5 days after Appomattox) Lincoln’ assassinated at Ford’s Theater John Wilkes Booth - southern sympathizer - shoots the president
The Assassination of Lincoln Plot devised by John Wilkes Booth along with accomplices: Lewis Powell (Secretary of State Seward) George Atzerodt (VP Andrew Johnson) David Herrod (lookout)
The Assassination Booth, Powell & Atzerodt were to strike at the same time (10:00PM) In the balcony with Lincoln: Mary, Major Henry Rathbone & his fiancé Clara Harris Booth knew the play and when laughter would erupt. Shoots Lincoln point blank, stabs Rathbone and jumps onto the stage: "Sic semper tyrannis!"