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The North Takes Charge. Objectives   Describe the events leading to the Gettysburg, the Battle of Gettysburg and its outcome.   Describe Grant’s siege.

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Presentation on theme: "The North Takes Charge. Objectives   Describe the events leading to the Gettysburg, the Battle of Gettysburg and its outcome.   Describe Grant’s siege."— Presentation transcript:

1 The North Takes Charge

2 Objectives   Describe the events leading to the Gettysburg, the Battle of Gettysburg and its outcome.   Describe Grant’s siege of Vicksburg   Summarize the final events of the war leading up to the surrender at Appomattox.   Compare how these battles relates to the Union strategy.   Analyze how Union advantages led to the Union's victory.

3 After Antietam…Confederate Victories  Lincoln removes McClellan as the Commander of the Potomac and replaces him with General Ambrose Burnside  Burnside marches 120,000 men on Richmond toward Lee’s 75,000 where the two sides clash in the Battle of Fredericksburg

4 Commanders  Union: General Ambrose Burnside  Confederate: General Lee, Longstreet & Stonewall Jackson  Date: December 11-15, 1862

5 The Battle of Fredericksburg/Sharpsburg  In order for Burnside to move his troops toward Richmond, had to move south but had to cross the Rappahannock River  All civilian bridges had been destroyed; orders the construction of flotillas  Poor communication and bad weather result in the arrival of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia  Lee entrenches his men on the heights surrounding Fredericksburg

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7 The Battle of Fredericksburg  December 13, 1862: Union attempt to cross the Rappahannock River was a disaster  Burnside orders a series of frontal assaults up Prospect Hill and Marye’s Heights that resulted in staggering casualties  17,929 total (Union: 13,353; Confederate: 4,576)  Confederate Victory: Burnside retreats and is replaced by “Fighting Joe” Hooker

8 The Battle of Chancellorsville (or The Wilderness)  Commanding Officers:  Union: Fighting Joe Hooker  Confederacy: Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson

9 The Battle of Chancellorsville or Wilderness  Fighting Joe Hooker attempts again to take Fredericksburg, which is just as disastrous as the first attempt  Hooker fords the Rapidan and Rappahannock Rivers  Lee divides his men, leaving half his forces in Fredericksburg and half heading to confront Hooker near a mansion called Chancellorsville

10 The Battle of Chancellorsville or Wilderness  Battle Plan: Hooker sends cavalry ahead by 2 weeks (100,000 men) to destroy Confederate supply and communication lines.  Goal: draw Lee out of Fredericksburg while sending infantry 40 miles up river to surprise attack Lee’s left flank...  BUT…

11 Chancellorsville: Day 1

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13 The Battle of Chancellorsville  Lee’s men surprise the Union Army on May 2, 1863; fighting lasts through May 3 rd  Outcome: Confederate Victory  Many consider Chancellorsville to be Lee’s greatest victory.  Union suffered 14,000 casualties, the Confederates 10,000  Confederates lost more, though, as Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded

14 The Unions 3 Point Strategy a.k.a The Anaconda Plan 1. 1. Blockade 2. 2. Gain control of the Mississippi River 3. 3. Build the Army of the Potomac to defend Washington D.C., defeat Lee, and Capture Richmond

15 3 Turning Points of the Civil War 1. 1. Antietam 1 st Union “victory” Emancipation announced, more African Americans involved in the war effort No help from Europe for the South 2. 2. Gettysburg & Vicksburg 3. 3. Re-election of Lincoln

16 Battle of Gettysburg: The Basics   Fought from July 1 st through July 3, 1863 in Gettysburg, PA   Many historians consider the battle to be a major turning point in the American Civil War   November 19 th, 1863, President Lincoln delivered his famous “Gettysburg Address” at the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery

17 Major Generals: Union

18 Major Generals: Confederacy

19 Day One: July 1, 1863  General Lee begins leading his Army of Northern Virginia into northern territory  CSA soldiers hear there are shoes in Gettysburg  Surprised to encounter 2 Union brigades who engage the troops

20 Day One: July 1, 1863  Leads to reinforcements from both sides  The Army of the Potomac (Union) led by George Meade  Took a defensive position upon a ridge  Lee attacks causing the Union to retreat to town  BUT, North has the has the high ground at Cemetery Ridge

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24 Day Two: July 2, 1863   A majority of the armies on both side finally arrive   Union 93,000 soldiers   Confederacy 71,000 soldiers   Union in a fishhook shaped formation   Leaves their left flank open at Little Round Top

25 Day Two: July 2, 1863  Joshua Chamberlain leads Maine troops to defend the hill  Run out of ammo, but led a bayonet charge…CSA shocked surrender and run away  If the 20th MA had fallen, Lee would have routed the entire Union line and then marched to D.C.  Devil’s Den and Culp’s Hill (rt. Flank) also saw fierce fighting Teachers can kick butt too, you know!?!

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30 Devil’s Den

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32 Day Three: July 3, 1863  Early morning Lee orders artillery attack in middle of Union line as attacks on the flanks were unsuccessful 1.Orders a the largest artillery barrage of the war (2 miles long, 150-170 2.Orders an infantry attack center of Union line with 12,500 Confederate soldiers 3.Followed by a cavalry charge on Union Right flank which would then meet the infantry in the middle of the Union line  Both attempts fail and Lee must retreat to VA

33 Pickett’s Charge  What actually happened:  Artillery overshot Union lines…but couldn’t see because of the overwhelming amount of smoke  Pickett’s “charge” was more like a slow death march; Union artillery mows them down!  Casualty rate was more than 50% for the Confederacy  Cavalry assault, under command of JEB Stuart, was stopped before it even began by Union cavalry

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35 Gettysburg: Losses  Approximately 51,000 casualties  Union losses = 23,000 killed or wounded  Confederate losses = 28,000 killed, wounded or captured  Why is Gettysburg considered a turning point in the war? Shattered southern morale (which had been an advantage)Shattered southern morale (which had been an advantage) Union army was beginning to come togetherUnion army was beginning to come together

36 Meanwhile in the West… The Vicksburg Campaign  Only 2 cities left before Grant controls the Mississippi River  Crosses the river and moves northeast toward the capital of Mississippi: Jackson  Engages CSA in Jackson and wins  Pushes the CSA west toward Vicksburg, a port city on the Mississippi River  Super important…the last real block to the Union entirely controlling the Mississippi River

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39 Siege of Vicksburg  Grant marches toward the city and tries attacking unsuccessfully  Settles for a siege - surround a fortress/city and starve it into surrender  People start to eat dogs and mules  Confederates under the command of John Pemberton surrender on July 4, 1863  29,495 surrendered  The Confederacy cut in two!!!

40 Vicksburg

41 Confederacy Morale  Defeat at Gettysburg and Vicksburg limits manpower  Shortages on food, shoes, uniforms, guns and ammo  Soldiers begin to desert and also to fight for the North  Peace movement springs up

42 Sherman’s March to the Sea  Grant appoints William Tecumseh Sherman as commander of the Mississippi division  Both Grant and Sherman = TOTAL WAR  Late 1864: His army occupies Atlanta’s railroads and proceeds to march east to Savannah  Principles of SCORCHED EARTH  Burn crops, kill livestock, consume supplies, and destroy civilian infrastructure

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49 The End is Near  Grant and Lee in Virginia  At a stalemate; fight battle after battle with no progress  Union suffers extremely high casualties  After Sherman’s march to the sea, he moves north to aid Grant  Lincoln reelected in 1864 to second term

50 Appomattox Court House  Richmond is about to fall; Lee falls at Petersburg  Jefferson Davis and the CSA government abandon Richmond  April 9, 1865 the CSA surrenders:  Terms are generous: soldiers sent home with their possessions, horses and 3-days rations, officers can keep their side arms

51 Wilmer McClean House  First Bull Run took place on his farm…sold it and moved to Appomattox Court House about 150 miles away  When Lee was looking for a place to surrender to Grant,a messenger knocked on McLean's door and requested the use of his home.

52 Wilmer McClean House

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55 After the War  State’s authority diminishes  620,000 deaths, 500,000 wounded  13th Amendment passed - banning slavery  April 14th, 1865 (5 days after Appomattox) Lincoln’ assassinated at Ford’s Theater  John Wilkes Booth - southern sympathizer - shoots the president

56 John Wilkes Booth

57 The Assassination of Lincoln  Plot devised by John Wilkes Booth along with accomplices:  Lewis Powell (Secretary of State Seward)  George Atzerodt (VP Andrew Johnson)  David Herrod (lookout)

58 The Assassination  Booth, Powell & Atzerodt were to strike at the same time (10:00PM)  In the balcony with Lincoln: Mary, Major Henry Rathbone & his fiancé Clara Harris  Booth knew the play and when laughter would erupt.  Shoots Lincoln point blank, stabs Rathbone and jumps onto the stage:  "Sic semper tyrannis!"

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62 The bullet, the probe and skull fragments from Lincoln's autopsy

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65 John Wilkes Booth Shoots Lincoln

66 Death of Abraham Lincoln

67 Execution of Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, David Herold, and George Atzerodt on July 7, 1865

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