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Brewing Water James River Homebrewers January 9, 2008 Sources: Siebel Institute of Technology Concise Course Notes Ray Daniels, Designing Great Beers Wolfgang.

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Presentation on theme: "Brewing Water James River Homebrewers January 9, 2008 Sources: Siebel Institute of Technology Concise Course Notes Ray Daniels, Designing Great Beers Wolfgang."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brewing Water James River Homebrewers January 9, 2008 Sources: Siebel Institute of Technology Concise Course Notes Ray Daniels, Designing Great Beers Wolfgang Kunze, Technology of Brewing and Malting Richmond Water Report, July 9, 2007 ProMash

2 Overview Water “Requirements” Important Ions, Hardness, Alkalinity –(OFFLINE; link to presentation will be posted to the JRHB Forum to review later) Famous Brewing Waters and BEER Water Adjustment to match Richmond Water

3 Water Requirements Must meet potable water standards Appropriate mineral composition –Mostly for style, but it affects your mash and pH as well! Appropriate Acidity and Alkalinity (most important for Mash; not as important for extract brewing)

4 Basic Requirements for Potable Water Microbiologically pure –< 1 organism/100 mL; no coliform bacteria Clear and colorless Free of heavy metal ions (Iron, Lead, Gold, Copper, etc.) Tasteless and odorless –Chlorinated water affects beer flavor

5 RICHMOND Water Report July, 2007 Ca 2+ : 22ppm Mg 2+ : 4.4ppm K + : 2.1ppm NH 4 + : 0.85ppm Na + : 20ppm Li + : <0.05ppm pH: 7.8 TOC: 1.4ppm SiO 2 : 6.8ppm CO 2 : 2.6ppm TDS: 190ppm SO 4 2- : 60ppm Cl - : 19ppm NO 2 - : <0.05ppm Br - : 0.27ppm Fl - : 0.81ppm PO 4 3- : 1.4ppm Turbidity: 0.5 Total Alkalinity as CaCO 3 : 88ppm Total Hardness as CaCO 3 : 96ppm

6 Important Ions For Brewing: Calcium (Ca ++ ) Protects enzymes from thermal degradation, extends activity Improves trub formation during wort boil Decreases pH during mashing and wort boil –100 ppm calcium addition decreases pH by 0.4 pH units General rule of thumb: –40-60 ppm is needed in packaged all malt beer. –Approximately ½ of calcium is lost during mashing. – ppm calcium is required from brewing water AND calcium addition in mashing all-malt beer. Richmond water supply: 22ppm

7 Important Ions For Brewing: Magnesium (Mg ++ ) Magnesium salts are much more soluble than those of calcium. Less effect on wort pH Can provide slightly bitter or sour flavor to beer. Richmond Water: 4.4 ppm

8 Important Ions For Brewing: Sodium (Na + ) At low concentrations (<100ppm), sodium gives a slightly sweet flavor to beer. But > 100 ppm, sodium gives a salty flavor. Richmond water: 20ppm

9 Important Ions For Brewing: Carbonate (CO 3 2- ) and Bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) These ions prevent decrease of pH. They are twice as effective in raising wort pH as calcium is in lowering pH. Contribute to alkalinity. Should be <75ppm (prefer <50ppm) Richmond water: –HCO 3 - : 44ppm –CO 3 2- : <2ppm

10 Important Ions For Brewing: Chloride (Cl - ) / Sulfate (SO 4 2- ) Chloride increases palate fullness and gives a mellow flavor to beer. Chloride is different from Chlorine in water (HOCl) which causes a swimming-pool or similar flavor in beer) Sulfate results in drier, more bitter flavors in beer. Sulfate can be a source of SO 2 and H 2 S formed during fermentation that may give the beer a sulfury note (especially in “Burton” beers). Richmond water: –Cl - : 19ppm –SO 4 2- : 60ppm

11 Water Hardness includes “Temporary” Hardness and “Permanent” Hardness Temporary Hardness are the Bicarbonates –Can be partly removed by Boiling (CO 2 is driven off) –Addition of Lime (Calcium Hydroxide) precipitates calcium and magnesium carbonates Permanent Hardness include Calcium and Magnesium Sulfates, Chlorides, and Nitrates. –These can be reduced by ion exchange Richmond water TOTAL Hardness (Temporary + Permanent): 96ppm (expressed as ppm CaCO 3 )

12 Alkalinity Alkalinity is a result of bicarbonates Bicarbonates increase wort pH Determined by measuring how much acid it takes to neutralize bicarbonate Effects: –Increases color of beer –Inhibits enzyme actions –Slower Lautering –Lower extract yield of the malt –Less yeast growth –More beer haze Richmond Alkalinity: 88ppm (CaCO 3 equivalents)

13 Residual Alkalinity Residual Alkalinity is the difference between the Non- Carbonate Hardness and the carbonate hardness. It is predictor of the pH in the Mash Residual Alkalinity = Total Alkalinity (as ppm CaCO 3 ) X – Calcium (as ppm Ca 2+ ) X 0.04 – Magnesium (as ppm Mg 2+ ) X Predicted Mash pH = (Residual Alkalinity) –NOTE  Darker grains will provide acidity also that is not included in this formula! In UNTREATED Richmond Water: –Residual Alkalinity = 3.9 –Predicted Mash pH = 5.9

14 Famous Brewing Waters Historically, mineral content of local brewing water characterized the flavor of specific beers –The styles we associate with those areas typically came about because of the suitability of the water to produce those beers. Pilsen: Light Lager (Bohemian Pilsner) Munich: Dark Lager (Dunkel) and Helles styles Burton: Pale Ale / Bitter Richmond: William’s Beers

15 Pilsen: Pilsner Urquell After furious citizens had dumped no less than 36 barrels of undrinkable sludge into the city’s gutters in 1838, it sparked off a remarkable chain of events - a new brewery building, an innovative new brewmaster and finally the world’s first golden beer. On 4 October 1842 in St Martin’s market, Plzen, Josef Groll unveiled his new creation to widespread sensation, after all a golden beer had never been seen before. The original Pilsner News of this remarkable Plzen beer spread throughout Bohemia. The arrival of the railway and the beer's popularity amongst German and French tourists soon meant that Plzen's famous brew gained international appeal. But with success inevitably came competition. Josef Groll's original golden beer soon spawned many imitators, many of which also claimed to be Plzen or Pilsner beer, whether they came from Plzen or not. In fact, today Pilsner has become a generic term around the world for any bottom-fermented golden beer sold as 'pils' or 'pilsner'. In 1898, the brewery acted to protect itself against inferior competitors and the beer's name was changed to Pilsner Urquell- a German phrase meaning literally "from the original source, Plzen". Some say the name was changed to satisfy consumer demand for the original golden beer. But as those who know their beer will tell you: you can tell the original Pilsner by its slightly darker shade of gold, and of course by its taste which is a world apart.

16 Munich: Spaten Premium Lager (Helles Style) This beer is our speciality. In 1894 Spaten became the first brewery in Munich to produce this brand of light lager. Flavor profile: Golden in color with a well-balanced hop-flavor. The full rounded body is a superb balance between hops and a malty sweetness. Original gravity: 11.7 % Alcohol content: 5.2 % NOTE: Helles style is not “Traditional Munich” but is Munich beer style that was created specifically to compete with Pilsners since Munich brewers were unable to create a true pilsner with their water!

17 Munich: Ayinger Altbairisch Dunkel Up until the Second World War, dark beer was the predominant beer type in the Munich area. The hard water found in the region played a special role in producing this specialty. In his book “Beer International”, the world- renowned English beer writer, Michael Jackson, accurately describes the Ayinger “Altbairisch Dunkel” as: “A good example of its kind. Impenetrably dark with a golden-brown gleam when held up to the light, and with a warm aroma and malty taste, while summoning up coffee taste sensations on going down. It is brewed from five types of malt (two of which are torrified dark), and it is only lightly hopped.” It is produced using the traditional double fermentation process.

18 Burton (Actually Yorkshire): Black Sheep Ale Actually, about 120 miles away… The Beer I was looking for wasn’t at the store… Full flavoured premium bitter, with a rich fruity aroma. It is brewed with many generous handfuls of choice Golding hops giving a bittersweet malty taste, followed by Black Sheep' characteristic long, dry and bitter finish. ABV 4.4% Burton N. Yorkshire Brewery Home

19 Famous Brewing Waters Burton is considered VERY Hard Water Munich is “Medium Hardness”, although has low levels of Sulfate and Chloride Pilsen is EXTREMELY soft wafer Richmond is fairly soft water, although not as soft as Pilsen, and carries higher levels of Sulfate and Chloride.

20 Possible Salt Additions Gypsum (CaSO 4 + 2H 2 O) –Molecular weight = 172 Calcium Chloride (CaCl 2 + 2H 2 O) –Molecular weight = Epsom Salts (MgSO 4 + 7H 2 O) –Molecular weight = Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3 ) –Molecular weight = 100

21 Richmond Water to make Pilsen Water Since Pilsen water is softer than Richmond water, best way to make it is to dilute with distilled water. DO NOT use water softeners  they add bases to soften the water. My UNTESTED recommendation (From ProMASH): –Use 85% Distilled water + Richmond Water (Filtered through charcoal to remove chlorine) –ADD 60mg/gal CaCl –ADD 100mg/gal MgSO4 (Epsom Salts) NOTE: Ca levels are REALLY low for Pilsen style water and will not be as good for mash effciency, but are appropriate for the style…

22 Richmond  Pilsen Result:

23 Richmond Water to make Munich Water Munich water is medium hardness, but has low levels of Sulfate and Chloride. We can get up to the Calcium and Magnesium levels by adding salts, but we will definitely be too high for Sulfate / Chloride. My UNTESTED recommendation: –Richmond water filtered through charcoal to remove chlorine –Add 500mg/Gallon CaCO 3 (Be careful; this will RAISE your mash pH!!) –Add 300mg/Gallon Epsom Salts (MgSO 4 )

24 Richmond  Munich Result

25 Richmond Water to make Burton Water Burton water is very hard. Richmond water can get pretty close by adding a lot of salts. My UNTESTED recommendation: –Richmond water filtered through charcoal to remove chlorine –Add 600mg/Gallon CaCO3 (Again, this will raise your mash pH). –Add 2500mg/Gallon Gypsum (CaSO4) –Add 2200mg/Gallon Epsom Salts (MgSO4) –Add 400mg/Gallon Calcium Chloride (CaCl)

26 Richmond  Burton Result

27 How to use ProMash to calculate Water Dilutions / Additions Enter a new water profile for Richmond

28 How to use ProMash to calculate Water Dilutions / Additions Go to Calculators  Water Profile Enter Target water and source water. Adjust dilution level Adjust salt addition levels for each salt Tweak it until you are happy.

29 How to use ProMash to calculate Water Dilutions / Additions


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