Presentation on theme: "James River Homebrewers January 9, 2008"— Presentation transcript:
1James River Homebrewers January 9, 2008 Brewing WaterJames River HomebrewersJanuary 9, 2008Sources:Siebel Institute of Technology Concise Course NotesRay Daniels, Designing Great BeersWolfgang Kunze, Technology of Brewing and MaltingRichmond Water Report, July 9, 2007ProMash
2Overview Water “Requirements” Important Ions, Hardness, Alkalinity (OFFLINE; link to presentation will be posted to the JRHB Forum to review later)Famous Brewing Waters and BEERWater Adjustment to match Richmond Water
3Water Requirements Must meet potable water standards Appropriate mineral compositionMostly for style, but it affects your mash and pH as well!Appropriate Acidity and Alkalinity (most important for Mash; not as important for extract brewing)
4Basic Requirements for Potable Water Microbiologically pure< 1 organism/100 mL; no coliform bacteriaClear and colorlessFree of heavy metal ions (Iron, Lead, Gold, Copper, etc.)Tasteless and odorlessChlorinated water affects beer flavor
6Important Ions For Brewing: Calcium (Ca++) Protects enzymes from thermal degradation, extends activityImproves trub formation during wort boilDecreases pH during mashing and wort boil100 ppm calcium addition decreases pH by 0.4 pH unitsGeneral rule of thumb:40-60 ppm is needed in packaged all malt beer.Approximately ½ of calcium is lost during mashing.ppm calcium is required from brewing water AND calcium addition in mashing all-malt beer.Richmond water supply: 22ppm
7Important Ions For Brewing: Magnesium (Mg++) Magnesium salts are much more soluble than those of calcium.Less effect on wort pHCan provide slightly bitter or sour flavor to beer.Richmond Water: 4.4 ppm
8Important Ions For Brewing: Sodium (Na+) At low concentrations (<100ppm), sodium gives a slightly sweet flavor to beer.But > 100 ppm, sodium gives a salty flavor.Richmond water: 20ppm
9Important Ions For Brewing: Carbonate (CO32-) and Bicarbonate (HCO3-) These ions prevent decrease of pH.They are twice as effective in raising wort pH as calcium is in lowering pH.Contribute to alkalinity.Should be <75ppm (prefer <50ppm)Richmond water:HCO3-: 44ppmCO32-: <2ppm
10Important Ions For Brewing: Chloride (Cl-) / Sulfate (SO42-) Chloride increases palate fullness and gives a mellow flavor to beer.Chloride is different from Chlorine in water (HOCl) which causes a swimming-pool or similar flavor in beer)Sulfate results in drier, more bitter flavors in beer.Sulfate can be a source of SO2 and H2S formed during fermentation that may give the beer a sulfury note (especially in “Burton” beers).Richmond water:Cl-: 19ppmSO42-: 60ppm
11Water Hardness includes “Temporary” Hardness and “Permanent” Hardness Temporary Hardness are the BicarbonatesCan be partly removed by Boiling (CO2 is driven off)Addition of Lime (Calcium Hydroxide) precipitates calcium and magnesium carbonatesPermanent Hardness include Calcium and Magnesium Sulfates, Chlorides, and Nitrates.These can be reduced by ion exchangeRichmond water TOTAL Hardness (Temporary + Permanent): 96ppm (expressed as ppm CaCO3)
12Alkalinity Alkalinity is a result of bicarbonates Bicarbonates increase wort pHDetermined by measuring how much acid it takes to neutralize bicarbonateEffects:Increases color of beerInhibits enzyme actionsSlower LauteringLower extract yield of the maltLess yeast growthMore beer hazeRichmond Alkalinity: 88ppm (CaCO3 equivalents)
13Residual AlkalinityResidual Alkalinity is the difference between the Non-Carbonate Hardness and the carbonate hardness.It is predictor of the pH in the MashResidual Alkalinity = Total Alkalinity (as ppm CaCO3) X – Calcium (as ppm Ca2+) X – Magnesium (as ppm Mg2+) X 0.033Predicted Mash pH = (Residual Alkalinity)NOTE Darker grains will provide acidity also that is not included in this formula!In UNTREATED Richmond Water:Residual Alkalinity = 3.9Predicted Mash pH = 5.9
14Famous Brewing WatersHistorically, mineral content of local brewing water characterized the flavor of specific beersThe styles we associate with those areas typically came about because of the suitability of the water to produce those beers.Pilsen: Light Lager (Bohemian Pilsner)Munich: Dark Lager (Dunkel) and Helles stylesBurton: Pale Ale / BitterRichmond: William’s Beers
15Pilsen: Pilsner Urquell After furious citizens had dumped no less than 36 barrels of undrinkable sludge into the city’s gutters in 1838, it sparked off a remarkable chain of events - a new brewery building, an innovative new brewmaster and finally the world’s first golden beer.On 4 October 1842 in St Martin’s market, Plzen, Josef Groll unveiled his new creation to widespread sensation, after all a golden beer had never been seen before.The original PilsnerNews of this remarkable Plzen beer spread throughout Bohemia. The arrival of the railway and the beer's popularity amongst German and French tourists soon meant that Plzen's famous brew gained international appeal.But with success inevitably came competition. Josef Groll's original golden beer soon spawned many imitators, many of which also claimed to be Plzen or Pilsner beer, whether they came from Plzen or not. In fact, today Pilsner has become a generic term around the world for any bottom-fermented golden beer sold as 'pils' or 'pilsner'.In 1898, the brewery acted to protect itself against inferior competitors and the beer's name was changed to Pilsner Urquell- a German phrase meaning literally "from the original source, Plzen".Some say the name was changed to satisfy consumer demand for the original golden beer. But as those who know their beer will tell you: you can tell the original Pilsner by its slightly darker shade of gold, and of course by its taste which is a world apart.
16Munich: Spaten Premium Lager (Helles Style) This beer is our speciality. In 1894 Spaten became the first brewery in Munich to produce this brand of light lager.Flavor profile: Golden in color with a well-balanced hop-flavor. The full rounded body is a superb balance between hops and a malty sweetness.Original gravity: 11.7 %Alcohol content: 5.2 %NOTE: Helles style is not “Traditional Munich” but is Munich beer style that was created specifically to compete with Pilsners since Munich brewers were unable to create a true pilsner with their water!
17Munich: Ayinger Altbairisch Dunkel Up until the Second World War, dark beer was the predominant beer type in the Munich area. The hard water found in the region played a special role in producing this specialty. In his book “Beer International”, the world-renowned English beer writer, Michael Jackson, accurately describes the Ayinger “Altbairisch Dunkel” as:“A good example of its kind. Impenetrably dark with a golden-brown gleam when held up to the light, and with a warm aroma and malty taste, while summoning up coffee taste sensations on going down. It is brewed from five types of malt (two of which are torrified dark), and it is only lightly hopped.” It is produced using the traditional double fermentation process.
18Burton (Actually Yorkshire): Black Sheep Ale Actually, about 120 miles away… The Beer I was looking for wasn’t at the store…Full flavoured premium bitter, with a rich fruity aroma. It is brewed with many generous handfuls of choice Golding hops giving a bittersweet malty taste, followed by Black Sheep' characteristic long, dry and bitter finish.ABV 4.4%N. YorkshireBrewery HomeBurton
19Famous Brewing Waters Burton is considered VERY Hard Water Munich is “Medium Hardness”, although has low levels of Sulfate and ChloridePilsen is EXTREMELY soft waferRichmond is fairly soft water, although not as soft as Pilsen, and carries higher levels of Sulfate and Chloride.
21Richmond Water to make Pilsen Water Since Pilsen water is softer than Richmond water, best way to make it is to dilute with distilled water.DO NOT use water softeners they add bases to soften the water.My UNTESTED recommendation (From ProMASH):Use 85% Distilled water + Richmond Water (Filtered through charcoal to remove chlorine)ADD 60mg/gal CaClADD 100mg/gal MgSO4 (Epsom Salts)NOTE: Ca levels are REALLY low for Pilsen style water and will not be as good for mash effciency, but are appropriate for the style…
23Richmond Water to make Munich Water Munich water is medium hardness, but has low levels of Sulfate and Chloride.We can get up to the Calcium and Magnesium levels by adding salts, but we will definitely be too high for Sulfate / Chloride.My UNTESTED recommendation:Richmond water filtered through charcoal to remove chlorineAdd 500mg/Gallon CaCO3 (Be careful; this will RAISE your mash pH!!)Add 300mg/Gallon Epsom Salts (MgSO4)
25Richmond Water to make Burton Water Burton water is very hard.Richmond water can get pretty close by adding a lot of salts.My UNTESTED recommendation:Richmond water filtered through charcoal to remove chlorineAdd 600mg/Gallon CaCO3 (Again, this will raise your mash pH).Add 2500mg/Gallon Gypsum (CaSO4)Add 2200mg/Gallon Epsom Salts (MgSO4)Add 400mg/Gallon Calcium Chloride (CaCl)
27How to use ProMash to calculate Water Dilutions / Additions Enter a new water profile for Richmond
28How to use ProMash to calculate Water Dilutions / Additions Go to Calculators Water ProfileEnter Target water and source water.Adjust dilution levelAdjust salt addition levels for each saltTweak it until you are happy.
29How to use ProMash to calculate Water Dilutions / Additions