Presentation on theme: "Fitchburg, Massachusetts USA"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fitchburg, Massachusetts USA In-Situ Thermal Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Organic ChemicalsRalph S. Baker, Ph.D.TerraTherm, Inc.Fitchburg, Massachusetts USANATO/CCMS Pilot StudyPrevention and Remediation in Selected Industrial Sectors: Small Sites in Urban AreasAthens, Greece7 June 2006
2 Overview Introduction to In Situ Thermal Remediation (ISTD) Steam-Enhanced ExtractionElectrical Resistance HeatingThermal Conduction HeatingRepresentative Field Projects and ResultsSEE – Aalborg, DenmarkTCH – Richmond, California, USAConclusionSupplemental Data
3 Changes in Physical Properties with Heating (to 120°C) 20-10020-8020-3002000Thermal remediation has many beneficial effects that aid in the removal of creosote DNAPL and associated PAHs. These thermal remediation mechanisms have been described in detail by Udell (1996), Davis (1997), Imhoff et al. (1997), Sleep and Ma (1997), Heron et al. (1998a,b,c), and Stegemeier and Vinegar (2001). A brief summary is listed below:Note: Per Stegemeier and Vinegar (2001), Vapor pressure increase factors should be: for oil based LNAPL: n-C16H24 and n-C29H60) ~8-80; for chlorinated solvents: ~15; for naphthalene ~300; for PCBs 1242 and 1260: Note also: only VOCs and light NAPL constituents (e.g., n-C16H24 and naphthalene) become volatile enough below 120C to be amenable to SVE.) Ask Gorm: Why are some values in red and others in black?Conclude that for VOCs, vaporization is the dominant process, and capture of vapors and condensate is crucial – therefore complete heating and hydraulic and pneumatic control must be achievedUdell (1989, 1991, 1993, 1996)Davis (1997, 1999)Imhoff et al. (1997)Sleep and Ma (1997)Heron et al. (1998, 2000)Stegemeier and Vinegar (2001)Note: Abiotic and biological reactions not listed
4 Consider In-Situ Thermal Remediation (ISTR): For Source Remediation of Organic Contaminants (e.g., DNAPL)To Facilitate a Brownfields CleanupTo Achieve Rapid Site ClosureAs part of overall optimization of an existing system, especially where additional source control/removal would significantly shorten the duration of a long-term pump and treat, SVE, or Multi-Phase Extraction system.
5 Steam Enhanced Extraction (SEE) Steam, upperSteam, lowerExtraction wellExample of steam flow and zone governed by low-K zone at 5-6 m depth. Monitoring and adjustments during heat-up important and expensive. Modeling for Fort Lewis proposal.
6 Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) RecoverySix-Phase Heating: Electrical current moves between the 6 electrodes on the outside diameter and the central neutral.Vertical HeatedZoneCourtesy of CESThree-Phase heating is another optionHorizontal Heated Zone Slightly Larger Than Array Diameter
7 Thermal Conduction Heating (TCH) Combined with Vacuum: In-Situ Thermal Desorption (ISTD)Heater Wells Are Spaced 6 to 25 Feet Apart and Operate at 1500°F- To Remediate Recalcitrant SVOCs, Thermal Conduction Can Raise the Temperature Between Wells to 400°C when the Wells are Close Together- If VOCs are to be Remediated, Well Spacing Can Be Much Farther Apart- The Well Spacing Determines the Project Length6 Feet ~ 45 Days (SVOCs),25 Feet ~ 8 Months (VOCs)Benzo(a)Pyrene BP 481° C Can Be Vaporized; Clays and Buried Cement are Not a Problem
8 NIRÁS SEE Project, Aalborg, Denmark Former dry cleaning facility 50 years of dry cleaning activity (~ ) Perchloroethylene (PCE) and turpentine (stoddard solvent) as cleaning fluid(Courtesy Tom Heron, NIRÁS)
9 Site layout and treatment wells Østerbro AalborgAppartmentsFormer dry cleanerKarolineudsvjShedWarehouseGaragesRailroadShopExtraction wellSteam Injection well
10 Contaminant distribution Former dry cleaning facility1,0 m.b.g.1,7 m.b.g.FillingsSandClayPCETurpentine3,7 m.b.g.
11 Source zone & estimated mass area 1area 2area 3
12 Remediation strategy ~ day 1-2 Ground waterSoil vaporSteamSteamFormer dry cleaning facilitySubmerged pumpFillingsSteam zoneSandExtraction wellInjection wellClaySteam zone
13 Remediation strategy ~ day 15 Ground water /free phaseSoil vapor /steamSteamSteamFormer dry cleaning facilitySubmerged pumpFillingsSteam zoneSandExtraction wellClayInjection wellSteam zone
14 Continous operation Temperature distribution 3,0 m.b.g. after 41 days T3 T2 T1
15 Clean up results Removed ~ 900 - 1.000 kg of PCE/turpentine Remaining contamination in cold spots: ~ kgPCE in soil: 0, mg/kgPCE in air: 1, mg/m3PCE in water 0, µg/lEfficiency: %Remediation goal achieved: Threat to in- and outdoor air quality significantly reduced
16 Terminal One Project, San Francisco Bay Area, California
22 Heater-Vacuum (HV) Well Sub SlabVapor Collection PointFiberglass Manifold PipeTCPressure Monitoring PointHeater-Only (HO)Well
23 Richmond Results Reductions: 99.96% 99.63% 99.03% 99.49% 34,22217,0006,6501,0559322,0002,00023012< RL655Reductions:99.96%99.63%99.03%99.49%Results are based on 17 pre-treatment samples and 64 post-treatment samples.Post-treatment samples were collected from centroids (i.e., coolest locations) at random and biased depths (15 or 23% were collected between 18 and 20 ft bgs).
24 Richmond Results Reductions: 99.96% 99.63% 99.03% 99.49% 510,00057,0006,5006,5002,0002,00017,00023044< RL1,50024Reductions:99.96%99.63%99.03%99.49%Richmond results are based on 17 pre-treatment samples and 64 post-treatment samples.Post-treatment samples were collected from centroids (i.e., coolest locations) at random and biased depths (15 or 23% were collected between 5.5 and 6.1 m bgs).
25 Projected Post Redevelopment View 350 Condominium Residential Area andWaterfront Park Planned for Site
26 Project completed on time and on budget 7 months for construction and treatmentTotal TT project cost: ~$1.7MCost of power: $250KPost-development value: ~$300M- Performance guaranteed- Remedial goals achieved
27 ISTD Development and Deployment PCBs232006CVOCsCVOCs2221CVOCs19ChlorinatedBenzenes, PAH, BTEXISTD Development and Deployment200520CVOCs18CVOCs17MGP16PAHs, Dioxins152004CVOCs14112003CVOCs/SVOCs,radionuclides1372ChlorinatedPesticides1319162012200289ChlorinatedBenzenes1114PAHs1054CVOCs91812232001Shell TerraThermTerraTherm, Inc.31521221720001019991PCBs8GRO/DRO, Benzene7PCBsSaipan61998CVOCs4PCBs5PCBs31997Shell R&D1980’s through 2000’s1PCBs21996
28 TCH Research (Ongoing) 1D2D1D tests to select and characterize soils for large-scale experiments2D experiments on heat front propagation and DNAPL mobilizationLarge-scale (150 m3) 3-D container experiments of TCH treatment of DNAPL under saturated conditionsAccompanying numerical simulations3DUpper Footprint of Container at VEGAS
29 Reerslev, Denmark Municipal Well Field Threatened by nearby DNAPL source area, which is currently being considerated for ISTD.
30 Concluding RemarksISTR can be Tailored to the Needs of the Remediation ProjectISTR is Well-Suited to Small Urban SitesISTR is Rapid, Certain and Thorough, without the Drawbacks of ExcavationClean to Residential Standards if DesiredLow Impacts to NeighborsCost-CompetitiveGuarantees AvailableTurn a Liability into an Asset!
31 About TerraTherm, Inc. Exclusive licensee of ISTD technology: Within the U.S., from the Univ. of Texas at Austin. Protected by 24 U.S. patents.Outside the U.S., from Shell Oil Co. Protected by 8 patents, and patents pending.Sublicensees in Denmark and Sweden (Krüger A/S); U.K. (AIG Engineering Group, Ltd.)International Partners in Denmark (NIRÁS); Germany (reconsite GmbH; VEGAS); and Japan (SheGoTec Japan, Inc.)For more information, please visit
32 Supplemental Data Documented Results of Representative SEE, ERH and TCH Projects
33 Representative Steam Enhanced Extraction (SEE) Results (Courtesy of G. Heron)
34 Representative Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) Results (Peacock et al. 2004; Cacciatore et al. 2004; Beyke et al. 2004; Hayes and Borochaner, 2004; Hoenig et al. 2004; Peterson et al. 2004)
35 Representative Thermal Conduction Heating (TCH) Results SiteMajor COCsDepth (m)Volume (m3)Initial Max. Concentration (mg/kg)Final Concentration (mg/kg)*Cost ($/m3)Confidential Mfg Site, OHTCE4.688004,130< 0.07180Terminal One, Richmond, CAPCE6.153506100.012350Shell Fuel Terminal, Eugene, ORBenzeneGasoline/ Diesel3.7138003.3< 2.4 m free product< 0.044free product removed260Naval Facility Centerville Beach, Ferndale, CAPCB1180800< 0.17550National Grid,N. Adams, MANaphthaleneB[a]P5.5780679205.70.331090Southern California Edison, Alhambra, CAPAH (B[a]P Eq.)Dioxins (TEQ)301240030.60.0180.059570Can meet more stringent goals than SEE or ERH*All remedial goals met(Stegemeier and Vinegar 2001; LaChance et al. 2004, 2006; Bierschenk et al. 2004)