Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 The Civil War ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 16 The Civil War (1861-1865) Section 5 The War’s Final Stages
2Section 5-Polling Question Rate your agreement with the following statement: When fighting a war, an army should destroy only military, not civilian, targets.A. Strongly agreeB. Somewhat agreeC. Somewhat disagreeD. Strongly disagreeABCD
3What events led to the end of the war? Essential QuestionWhat events led to the end of the war?
4Total War Strikes the South General William Tecumseh Sherman destroyed AtlantaThe city was burned and citizens were ordered to leaveSherman said: “War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it”The deliberate strategy to bring the horrors of war to the Southern people is called total warIncluding terror, starvation, violence, and homelessness
5Union Strategy By 1864- The Union forces surrounded the South Cut off imports and exportsThe Union controlled the Mississippi RiverWestern Confederate states were cut offGeneral Grant would draw up a bold plan of attack
6Grant Ulysses S. Grant was only an average student And a failure as a farmer and businessmanBut as a soldier was brilliantVictories at Shiloh, Vicksburg, and ChattanoogaMarch Lincoln put Grant in charge of all the Union armies
7Grant in ChargeGrant had a plan to deliver killing blows from all sidesGrant would attack RichmondAt the same time, Sherman would lead his attacks across the Deep SouthGrant’s 115,000 soldiers met Lee’s 64,000 soldiers in a series of 3 battles at RichmondGrant promised Lincoln, “Whatever happens, there will be no turning back”Grant was determined to march southward, attacking Lee’s forcesUntil they surrendered
8The Wilderness Campaign Between Washington D.C. and Richmond is an area of dense forests called the WildernessMay 5, the 6 bloodiest weeks of the war begunGrant and Lee struggled through trees“It was a blind and bloody hunt to the death”Both sides had many casualtiesBrushfires went through the forest burning alive 200 wounded men
9The Wilderness Campaign Continued Grant then moved south toward RichmondThe next battles were fought at nearby Spotsylvania Courthouse and at Cold HarborA Union general observed me “writing their names and home addresses on slips of paper and pinning them to the back of their coats”To help people identify their bodiesGrant’s critics called him a “butcher” because of the huge loss of life among his troops50,000 deaths in 30 days
10The Petersburg SiegeA railroad center that was vital to Confederate movement of troops and suppliesIf grant could take Petersburg, Richmond would be cut off from the rest of the ConfederacyTrains brought food and reinforcements to the Union troopsThe Confederates could get neitherFor 9 months, the Confederates held outThe Union won
11Sherman in GeorgiaSherman reached Atlanta and met the Confederates under John HoodHood’s forced put up major resistanceFinally, on Sept. 1, Hood abandoned the cityThe mood in the South was desperate“There is no hope, but we will try to have no fear”
12Farragut at Mobile BayDavid Farragut was the highest-ranking officer in the UnionFarragut joined the navy when he was 12 years oldNow in 1864 , he was leading a fleet of 18 ships through a narrow channel into Mobile Bay in AlabamaThe Confederates had two forts on either side of the channel, and they mined the waters with torpedoesGuns fired from both sides, what should Farragut do?“Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!”Farragut was suffering dizziness and had himself tied to the shipThe invasion worked, the Union took the last Southern port east of the Mississippi
13The Election of 1864 1864- opposition to the war grew in the North Lincoln was in danger of losing the electionAfter Atlanta fell and Mobile Bay was blocked, Northerners felt they could winLincoln won the electionLincoln interpreted his reelection as a clear sign from the voters to end slavery permanently by amending the ConstitutionOn January 31, 1865, Congress passed the 13th Amendment, banning slavery in the US
14Sherman’s March to the Sea The Union wanted to break the will of the SouthSherman and his men became destroyersThey burned cities and farmlands across Georgia to the Atlantic coastKnown as Sherman’s March to the SeaSherman continued his path of destruction through the CarolinasTook food, tore up railroad lines and fields, and killed livestock in an effort to destroy anything useful to the South1000s of enslaved people were freed
15Back to Grant Grant continued the siege of Petersburg April 2, 1865, Confederate lines broke and Lee withdrewAs word got to Jefferson Davis, he and his cabinet gathered documentsAlso ordered bridges and weapons useful to the enemy be set on fireThen Davis and the cabinet fled the city
16Richmond The armory was set on fire Lincoln and his son Tad toured burning Richmond and said:“Thank God I have lived to see this. It seems to me that I have been dreaming a horrid nightmare for four years, and now the nightmare is over”Joyful African Americans followed Lincoln everywhere, singing, laughing, and reaching out to touch himAt the Confederate president’s house, Lincoln sat in a chair in Davis’s office and “looked far off with a dreamy expression”
17Surrender at Appomattox Grant wrote to Lee- “The result of last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance”Lee believed he needed to fight onBut then the Union captured a train carrying food to his troops and Lee was completely surrounded, he knew it was overIn the little town of Appomattox Court House, Virginia, Grant met with LeeThe troops kept their weapons, officers kept their horses, and no one would disturb the soldiers on their way homeGrant also gave 25,000 rations to feed Lee’s troopsThe War was over
18The Toll of War Deadliest war in US history More than 600,000 soldiers diedCost billions of dollarsCity and farmlands were destroyed and would take years to rebuildThe Union was savedThe federal government was strengthened and now clearly more powerful than the states
19The Toll of the War Continued The war freed millions of African AmericansThe end of slavery did not solve the problems that the newly freed African Americans were to faceMany questions remained including- How to bring the Southern states back into the UnionAnd- What the status of African Americans would be in Southern societyAmericans tried to answer these questions in the years following the Civil War- an era known as Reconstruction
20What events led to the end of the war? - Wilderness campaign Essential QuestionWhat events led to the end of the war?- Wilderness campaign- Blockade of Mobile Bay- Sherman’s March to the Sea- Total War- Fall of Richmond
21The systematic destruction of an entire land—not just an army—is called slash-and-burn.terminal war.holocaust.total war.
22A nine-month siege resulted from Ulysses S A nine-month siege resulted from Ulysses S. Grant's assault on the railroad center ofPetersburg.Richmond.Vicksburg.Shiloh.
23What helped Lincoln win the 1864 election? Lee's surrenderwinning at GettysburgWilliam T. Sherman's capture of Atlantapromotion of Grant
24Sherman's march to Savannah was called cold war.undeclared war.total war.malicious war.
25General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant in a small Virginia village calledRichmond.Appomattox Court House.Vicksburg.Gettysburg.