Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 The Civil War (1861-1865) Section 5 The War’s Final Stages."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 16 The Civil War ( ) Section 5 The War’s Final Stages
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 5-Polling QuestionSection 5-Polling Question Rate your agreement with the following statement: When fighting a war, an army should destroy only military, not civilian, targets. A.Strongly agree B.Somewhat agree C.Somewhat disagree D.Strongly disagree
Ess enti al Qu esti on What events led to the end of the war?
Total War Strikes the South General William Tecumseh Sherman destroyed Atlanta The city was burned and citizens were ordered to leave Sherman said: “War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it” total warThe deliberate strategy to bring the horrors of war to the Southern people is called total war Including terror, starvation, violence, and homelessness
Union Strategy By The Union forces surrounded the South Cut off imports and exports The Union controlled the Mississippi River Western Confederate states were cut off General Grant would draw up a bold plan of attack
Grant Ulysses S. Grant was only an average student And a failure as a farmer and businessman But as a soldier was brilliant Victories at Shiloh, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga March Lincoln put Grant in charge of all the Union armies
Grant in Charge Grant had a plan to deliver killing blows from all sides Grant would attack Richmond At the same time, Sherman would lead his attacks across the Deep South seriesGrant’s 115,000 soldiers met Lee’s 64,000 soldiers in a series of 3 battles at Richmond Grant promised Lincoln, “Whatever happens, there will be no turning back” Grant was determined to march southward, attacking Lee’s forces Until they surrendered
The Wilderness Campaign Between Washington D.C. and Richmond is an area of dense forests called the Wilderness May 5, the 6 bloodiest weeks of the war begun Grant and Lee struggled through trees “It was a blind and bloody hunt to the death” Both sides had many casualties Brushfires went through the forest burning alive 200 wounded men
The Wilderness Campaign Continued Grant then moved south toward Richmond The next battles were fought at nearby Spotsylvania Courthouse and at Cold Harbor A Union general observed me “writing their names and home addresses on slips of paper and pinning them to the back of their coats” To help people identify their bodies Grant’s critics called him a “butcher” because of the huge loss of life among his troops 50,000 deaths in 30 days
The Petersburg Siege A railroad center that was vital to Confederate movement of troops and supplies If grant could take Petersburg, Richmond would be cut off from the rest of the Confederacy Trains brought food and reinforcements to the Union troops The Confederates could get neither For 9 months, the Confederates held out The Union won
Sherman in Georgia Sherman reached Atlanta and met the Confederates under John Hood resistanceHood’s forced put up major resistance Finally, on Sept. 1, Hood abandoned the city The mood in the South was desperate “There is no hope, but we will try to have no fear”
Farragut at Mobile Bay David FarragutDavid Farragut was the highest-ranking officer in the Union Farragut joined the navy when he was 12 years old Now in 1864, he was leading a fleet of 18 ships through a narrow channel into Mobile Bay in Alabama The Confederates had two forts on either side of the channel, and they mined the waters with torpedoes Guns fired from both sides, what should Farragut do? “Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!” Farragut was suffering dizziness and had himself tied to the ship The invasion worked, the Union took the last Southern port east of the Mississippi
The Election of opposition to the war grew in the North Lincoln was in danger of losing the election After Atlanta fell and Mobile Bay was blocked, Northerners felt they could win Lincoln won the election interpretedLincoln interpreted his reelection as a clear sign from the voters to end slavery permanently by amending the Constitution On January 31, 1865, Congress passed the 13 th Amendment, banning slavery in the US
Sherman’s March to the Sea The Union wanted to break the will of the South Sherman and his men became destroyers They burned cities and farmlands across Georgia to the Atlantic coast Known as Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman continued his path of destruction through the Carolinas Took food, tore up railroad lines and fields, and killed livestock in an effort to destroy anything useful to the South 1000s of enslaved people were freed
Back to Grant Grant continued the siege of Petersburg April 2, 1865, Confederate lines broke and Lee withdrew As word got to Jefferson Davis, he and his cabinet gathered documents Also ordered bridges and weapons useful to the enemy be set on fire Then Davis and the cabinet fled the city
Richmond The armory was set on fire Lincoln and his son Tad toured burning Richmond and said: “Thank God I have lived to see this. It seems to me that I have been dreaming a horrid nightmare for four years, and now the nightmare is over” Joyful African Americans followed Lincoln everywhere, singing, laughing, and reaching out to touch him At the Confederate president’s house, Lincoln sat in a chair in Davis’s office and “looked far off with a dreamy expression”
Surrender at Appomattox Grant wrote to Lee- “The result of last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance” Lee believed he needed to fight on But then the Union captured a train carrying food to his troops and Lee was completely surrounded, he knew it was over Appomattox Court HouseIn the little town of Appomattox Court House, Virginia, Grant met with Lee The troops kept their weapons, officers kept their horses, and no one would disturb the soldiers on their way home Grant also gave 25,000 rations to feed Lee’s troops The War was over
The Toll of War Deadliest war in US history More than 600,000 soldiers died Cost billions of dollars City and farmlands were destroyed and would take years to rebuild The Union was saved The federal government was strengthened and now clearly more powerful than the states
The Toll of the War Continued The war freed millions of African Americans The end of slavery did not solve the problems that the newly freed African Americans were to face Many questions remained including- How to bring the Southern states back into the Union And- What the status of African Americans would be in Southern society Americans tried to answer these questions in the years following the Civil War- an era known as Reconstruction
Ess enti al Qu esti on What events led to the end of the war? - Wilderness campaign - Blockade of Mobile Bay - Sherman’s March to the Sea - Total War - Fall of Richmond
The systematic destruction of an entire land—not just an army—is called A.slash-and-burn. B.terminal war. C.holocaust. D.total war.
A nine-month siege resulted from Ulysses S. Grant's assault on the railroad center of A.Petersburg. B.Richmond. C.Vicksburg. D.Shiloh.
What helped Lincoln win the 1864 election? A.Lee's surrender B.winning at Gettysburg C.William T. Sherman's capture of Atlanta D.promotion of Grant
Sherman's march to Savannah was called A.cold war. B.undeclared war. C.total war. D.malicious war.
General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant in a small Virginia village called A.Richmond. B.Appomattox Court House. C.Vicksburg. D.Gettysburg.