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ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Heat and temperature CONTENTS RESOURCES.

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Presentation on theme: "ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Heat and temperature CONTENTS RESOURCES."— Presentation transcript:

1 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Heat and temperature CONTENTS RESOURCES

2 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS CONTENTS Heat and temperature Heat Definition Measurement Effects of heat Effects on matter Expansion and contraction Changes of state Heat transfer Conduction Conductors and insulators Convection Radiation Temperature Temperature and mearurement Thermometers Temperature scales

3 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS RESOURCES Expansion and contraction Changes of state Temperature scales Conduction Convection Radiation Heat measurement Conductors and insulators Temperature and measurement Thermometers Effects of heat Links Heat and temperature

4 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Heat SEE ANIMATION Heat is the amount of thermal energy that is transferred from one body or system to another, due to a difference in temperature. Heat is energy in transit.

5 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Heat Heat is energy in transit. Heat flow stops when their temperatures are the same, that is, thermal equilibirum. Heat flows from the hot iron rod to the cold water. Heat is the amount of thermal energy that is transferred from one body or system to another, due to a difference in temperature. GO BACK

6 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Heat measurement 1 J = 0.24 cal heat Units of heat: joules (J) calories (cal) Heat is measured in units of joules or calories. 1 cal = J

7 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Temperature and measurement Temperature is the amount of heat in a system. Temperature can be measured with a thermometer.

8 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Alcohol thermometer Clinical thermometer Thermometers They are used to measure atmospheric temperature. coloured alcohol [close] They are used to measure body temperature. mercury [close]

9 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Temperature scales ºF ºC K Fahrenheit scale (ºF) Celsius scale (ºC) Kelvin or absolute scale (K) Boiling point Freezing point water

10 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Effects of heat Heat produces the following effects on matter: ExpansionContraction

11 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Effects of heat Heat produces the following effects on matter: Expansion: The increase in volume which occurs when a system gains heat. Expansion Contraction

12 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Effects of heat Heat produces the following effects on matter: Expansion Contraction Contraction: the decrease in volume which occurs when a system loses heat.

13 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS The gas inside a balloon expands when heated. Expansion and contraction The particles move more freely than in solids. Liquids usually expand more than soilds. The particles are far apart and move more freely than in liquids. Gases usually expand more than liquids. The particles are not free to move. Solids do not expand much. SolidsLiquidsGases WHAT HAPPENS WHEN RAILS CONTRACT? WHAT HAPPENS WHEN A GAS EXPANDS? Mercury expands when heated. Expansion joints expand when it is hot.

14 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS The gas inside a balloon expands when heated. Expansion and contraction The particles move more freely than in solids. Liquids usually expand more than soilds. The particles are far apart and move more freely than in liquids. Gases usually expand more than liquids. The particles are not free to move. Solids do not expand much. SolidsLiquidsGases WHAT HAPPENS WHEN A GAS EXPANDS? Mercury expands when heated. Expansion joints expand when it is hot. The rails cool. [close] 0 10 The particles move more slowly and occupy less space. The volume decreases, and the rails contract. 0

15 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS The gas inside a balloon expands when heated. Expansion and contraction The particles move more freely than in solids. Liquids usually expand more than soilds. The particles are far apart and move more freely than in liquids. Gases usually expand more than liquids. The particles are not free to move. Solids do not expand much. SolidsLiquidsGases WHAT HAPPENS WHEN RAILS CONTRACT? Mercury expands when heated. Expansion joints expand when it is hot. Gases When gas expands, the volume increases. This can push a cork out. [close]

16 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Changes of state SOLID LIQUID GAS melting solidifcation sublimation desublimation evaporation condensation endothermic exothermic Heat changes can be: When a state of matter gains or loses heat, it undergoes a change.

17 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Conduction Direction of heat The kinetic energy of the particles increases. particles of a solid This is the transfer of heat in most solids. Heat is transferred by direct contact.

18 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Conductors and insulators metal Insulators do not allow heat to move through them easily. plastic Double-glazed window air air space cork Conductors allow heat to move through them easily.

19 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Convection gas particles liquid particles convection currents This is the transfer of heat in liquids and gases. Heat is transferred by the movement of currents.

20 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Greenhouse Radiation solar radiation radiation emitted by plants This is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. No contact is necessary between the source and the heated substance.

21 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 11 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Links How is heat transferred education.co.uk/Physics_GCS E/Unit_1/Topic_1/topic_1_how _is_heat_transferred.htm Heat transfer activities org/funexperiments/agesubjec t/lessons/caps/htransfer.html Transfer of thermal energy 3bitesize/science/physics/energ y_transfer_4.shtml Heat ol/examcentre_jc.asp?id=4091 Hands-on physics: Heat & temperature h1p.html Thermodynamics olStuff/cool26.htm Solids, liquids and gases and the particle theory cience/files/state/changes.html Heat and temperature edu//cosmic_classroom/light_le ssons/thermal/index.html


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