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1. CH4LLENGE University Budapest Addressing the four Key Challenges of Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning CH4LLENGE Project Consortium Budapest, 2-3.

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Presentation on theme: "1. CH4LLENGE University Budapest Addressing the four Key Challenges of Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning CH4LLENGE Project Consortium Budapest, 2-3."— Presentation transcript:

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2 CH4LLENGE University Budapest Addressing the four Key Challenges of Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning CH4LLENGE Project Consortium Budapest, 2-3 September, 2014. SELECTION OF THE POLICY MEASURES WHILE PREPARING A SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY PLAN FOR BUDAPEST Tamás Fleischer Institute of World Economy Centre of Economic and Regional Studies Hungarian Academy of Sciences http://www.vki.hu/~tfleisch/ tfleischer@vki.hu

3 3 4 Balázs Mór Plan (BMT) Budapest Transport Development Strategy 2014-2030 [BKK] 4 Review of the Development Plan for the Budapest Transport System (2013) (Review) 4 Development Plan for the Budapest Transport System (2009) 4 Development Plan for the Budapest Transport System (2001) [Last three Főmterv or Consort led by Főmterv] The Plan (BMT) and its antecedents

4 * I don’t speak here about new development projects the city proud of 4 Balázs Mór Plan OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION Selection of the policy measures

5 4 1 I don’t speak here about new development projects the city proud of 4 2 Where the goals and objectives of the BMT are coming from? 3 from the city’s objectives, 4 from the international trends, 5 from the local transport problems to be solved 4 3 How the future vision and the general goal of the BMT was fixed 4 4 Why I dislike the ’best practice’ pressure instead of listening to the main trends 4 5 How and why the selected ’key problems’ the Review diagnosed have been changed in the BMT 4 6 How the goal system of the BMT was constructed and has got to the selection of the measures 4 7 Conclusion – is there any lesson for sustainable transport planning 5 Balázs Mór Plan OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION Selection of the policy measures

6 (1) Usual sustainability approach: triple bottom line 4 The „three potatoes” Weak sustainability: the sum of the (environmental, social, economical) capital should not be decreased 4 It would mean that we considered the pillars as if one could substitute the other ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY ECONOMY

7 (1) Usual sustainability approach: triple bottom line 4 The „three potatoes” Weak sustainability: the sum of the (environmental, social, economical) capital should not be decreased 4 It would mean that we considered the pillars as if one could substitute the other ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY ECONOMY

8 4 The three pillars as embedded systems 4 Strong sustainability: the environmental constraints are to be respected in itself 4 We can have effect on the ‘economy’ or the ‘society’. There are external and internal conditions of the sustainability of these latter systems. (1) The three sustainability pillars in systemic order ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY ECONOMY

9 4 The three pillars as embedded systems 4 Strong sustainability: the environmental constraints are to be respected in itself 4 We can have effect on the ‘economy’ or the ‘society’. There are external and internal conditions of the sustainability of these latter systems. (1) The three sustainability pillars in systemic order + ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY ECONOMY TRANSPORT

10 4 The three pillars as embedded systems 4 Strong sustainability: the environmental constraints are to be respected in itself 4 We can have effect on the ‘economy’ or the ‘society’. There are external and internal conditions of the sustainability of these latter systems. (1) The three sustainability pillars in systemic order + ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY ECONOMY TRANSPORT

11 11 ENVIRONMENT SYSTEM BUDAPEST TRANSPORT SYSTEM (1) External conditions of sustainability 4 Herman Daly's three conditions of the [strong] sustainability: 4 (1) Rates of pollution emission do not exceed the assimilative capacity of the environment. 4 (2) Rates of use of renewable resources do not exceed their rates of regeneration. 4 (3) Rates of use of nonrenewable resources do not exceed the rate at which sustainable, renewable substitutes are developed. 4 All these conditions are fundamental, but they are the external conditions of the sustainable operation of our system

12 12 ENVIRONMENT SYSTEM BUDAPEST TRANSPORT SYSTEM (1) Internal conditions of sustainability ? 4 It is easy to understand the external conditions 4 But how OUR SYSTEM have to be operated, in order to fulfil (or at least get closer to achieve) these external conditions ? 4 These latters are the internal conditions of the sustainability of our systems 4 Creating a sustainable system is the task of those people who are planning, developing, operating etc. our system – in this specific case the Budapest transport system

13 (2) Where the BMT goals are coming from ? 4 If our system is embedded into sets of other systems, our goals can’t be independent from external determinants 4 For deciding on goals three indispensable sources are the followings: 4 (3) The general (non-transport) objectives of the city; 4 (4) Knowledge of international trends, experiences of other cities; 4 (5) Evaluated local transport problems to be solved 13

14 14 4 It should be self-evident that the transport (energy, education, health etc.) sector can’t create own and separate vision for the future of the city. 4 In our case there was a new Urban Development Concept approved by the General Assembly of the Municipality of Budapest in 2013, that determined future vision and general goals of the city. 4 Still, as earlier the transport experts determined new transport-based vision and general goals in the Review, there was a long debate whether the not the transport based main objectives are acceptable. 4 The main goals the transport must serve are not transport-based ones 4 The transport-specific goals serving these main goals appear in a next level [ we’ll look at it later ] (3) The general vision and goals are coming from the city

15 15 4 It is not too difficult to find leaflets and brochures that collect ’best practices’ and give advises for sustainable urban transport developments 4 Just a few of them from the last decade: (4) How to learn from international experiences ?

16 16 Towards Sustainable Urban Transport Policies Recommendations for Local Authorities May, 2004. 62 p. http://www.osmose- os.org/documents/160/SUTP_SM ILE.pdf http://www.osmose- os.org/documents/160/SUTP_SM ILE.pdf Opps! The Google Chrome couldn’t find the www.smile-europe.org website www.smile-europe.org SMILE Partners: F F D D A I B ES

17 17 Sustainable Urban Transport Plans Preparatory Document in relation to the follow-up of the Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment. Main document 18 p. 25 September 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/u rban/pdf/transport/2007_sutp_pre pdoc.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/environment/u rban/pdf/transport/2007_sutp_pre pdoc.pdf SUTP

18 18 Sustainable Urban Transport Planning: SUTP Manual Guidance for stakeholders 2007. 56 p. http://www.pilot- transport.org/fileadmin/WP2/Pilo t_EN_WEB.pdf PILOT Key characteristics: participatory, sustainability, integrated, measurable targets, cost-internalisation, policy implementation steps „10 missions”: timing, coordination, responsibility, participation, stakeholder involvement, integration of policies, social inclusion and equity, communication, skill management, organisation

19 19 CIVITAS is designed as a programme that allows cities to learn from each other and facilitate exchange of ideas. (from 2002 on) Main thematic groups: Car-independent Lifestyles Clean fuels and vehicles Collective Passenger Transport Demand Management Strategies Integrated planning Mobility Management Public Involvement Safety and Security Transport Telematics Urban Freight Logistics. http://www.civitas- initiative.org/mobility-solutions- page http://www.civitas- initiative.org/mobility-solutions- page

20 20. The aim of ELTIS is to provide information and support a practical transfer of knowledge and exchange of experience in the field of urban and regional transport in Europe…. http://www.eltis.org ELTIS

21 21. POLIS is a network of European cities and regions working together to develop innovative technologies and policies for local transport. http://www.polisnetwork.eu/uploads/Modules/PublicDocuments/2013-polis-brochure---web.pdf POLIS

22 22 The aim of this brochure is to share these international experiences and offer a glimpse behind the curtain of EPOMM member countries. The brochure is based on a Dutch report written and published in 2012 by KpVV… [Best practices, good – but exclusively western cases… NL, GB, B, CH, A, D, F, I, PR, S, SF, N. … distributed the project supports... ] Mobility management: The smart way to sustainable mobility in European countries, regions and cities www.epomm.eu 132 p. September 2013. http://epomm.eu/docs/file/epomm_b ook_2013_web.pdf www.epomm.eu http://epomm.eu/docs/file/epomm_b ook_2013_web.pdf

23 23 http://www.mobil ityplans.eu/docs/f ile/SUMP_Broch ure_EN_final_we b.pdf SUMP

24 24 4 All brochures presented was issued in the last decade 4 All they are dealing comprehensively with the urban transport 4 Not here those dealing with urban transport as part of other issues (e.g. LUTR Land Use and Transportation Research, KonSULT etc.) 4 Not here those dealing with partial fields – bus-lanes, tariff, fuel, city- logistics etc. [e.g. Urban freight transport and city logistics 2002 http://www.eu- portal.net/material/downloadarea/kt8_wm_hu.pdf Meta-material, summarising 11 earlier EU researches: LEAN BESTUFS IDIOMA COST 321 SOFTICE FV-2000 FREYA INFREDAT REFORM COST 339 DIRECT ]http://www.eu- portal.net/material/downloadarea/kt8_wm_hu.pdf 4 So: why all such new brochures are suspicious for me? 4 There are too many of them, they are too attractive and too problem-free. 4 Can’t be seen if they say novelties, would be developed, would analyse the cause of their (non-)effectiveness, would try to understand those to whom they try to speak to. 4 Learning from others is important – but be cautious with prescriptions, specifications, lists, good practices etc. ! (4) How to learn from international experiences ?

25 25 SUMP

26 procedure Including the cause of earlier failures Nice idea, but impossible if the SUMP is obligatory condition for project support + intgration, participation, adoption X BAU This is not preparation but important content SUMP

27 27 For deciding objectives three indispensable sources are the following: – The general (non-transport) goal-system of the given city; – Knowledge of international trends, experiences of other cities; – Evaluation of the transport situation of the given city SUMP

28 28 Rather a material for debating publicly SUMP

29 29 SUMP

30 30 4 What we need to learn is handling the ’big picture’ rather than just following detailed to-do lists 4 sustainability 4 integration, participation, evolution or more detailed: 4 How to avoid the ’modernity trap’ that is the disaggregation, the fragmentation, the one-dimensionality, the ’sectorialism’, – or the exaggerated belief in the optimal, the calculable, the planned etc. even the economic ! 4 Instead accepting ’post-industrial’ values as: integration, cooperation, partnership, networking, consultation, nesting, adapting, mutual dependence; or positive valuation for features as flexible, buffer, redundant, parallel, diverse, etc. 4 There are further keywords in EU papers => (4) How to learn from international experiences ?

31 31 Together towards competitive and resource- efficient urban mobility COM(2013) 913 final. Brussels 17.12.2013 http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban /doc/ump/com(2013)913_en.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban /doc/ump/com(2013)913_en.pdf COM(2013) 913 final

32 32 4 Together towards competitive and resource-efficient urban mobility COM(2013) 913 final. Brussels 17.12.2013 http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/com(2013)913_en.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/com(2013)913_en.pdf 4 ANNEX: A concept for sustainable urban mobility plans http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/com(2013)913-annex_en.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/com(2013)913-annex_en.pdf 4 SWD(2013) 524 final A call to action on urban logistics http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)524-communication.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)524-communication.pdf 4 SWD(2013) 525 final Targeted action on urban road safety http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)525-communication.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)525-communication.pdf 4 SWD(2013) 526 final A call for smarter urban vehicle access regulations http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)526-communication.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)526-communication.pdf 4 SWD(2013) 527 final Mobilising Intelligent Transport Systems for EU cities http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)527-communication.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)527-communication.pdf 4 SWD(2013) 528 final Impact assessment http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)528-ia.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)528-ia.pdf 4 SWD(2013) 529 final Resume impact assessment http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)529-resume-ia_en.pdf http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/doc/ump/swd(2013)529-resume-ia_en.pdf EU papers for sustainable urban mobility plans

33 33 A concept for sustainable urban mobility plans 4 Goals and objectives: (…It regards the needs of the 'functioning city' and its hinterland rather than a municipal administrative region..) –a) Is accessible and meets the basic mobility needs of all users; –b) Balances and responds to the diverse demands for mobility and transport services by citizens, businesses and industry; –c) Guides a balanced development and better integration of the different transport modes; –d) Meets the requirements of sustainability, balancing the need for economic viability, social equity, health and environmental quality; –e) Optimises efficiency and cost effectiveness; –f) Makes better use of urban space and of existing transport infrastructure and services; –g) Enhances the attractiveness of the urban environment, quality of life, and public health; –h) Improves traffic safety and security –i) Reduces air and noise pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy consumption; and

34 34 A concept for sustainable urban mobility plans 4 Goals and objectives: (…It regards the needs of the 'functioning city' and its hinterland rather than a municipal administrative region..) –a) Is accessible and meets the basic mobility needs of all users; –b) Balances and responds to the diverse demands for mobility and transport services by citizens, businesses and industry; –c) Guides a balanced development and better integration of the different transport modes; –d) Meets the requirements of sustainability, balancing the need for economic viability, social equity, health and environmental quality; –e) Optimises efficiency and cost effectiveness; –f) Makes better use of urban space and of existing transport infrastructure and services; –g) Enhances the attractiveness of the urban environment, quality of life, and public health; –h) Improves traffic safety and security –i) Reduces air and noise pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy consumption; and –j) Contributes to a better overall performance of the trans-European transport network and the Europe's transport system as a whole. [Obligatory ’blue tail’ = why is it important for the EU ? Otherwise the shoe is on the other foot: just the TEN-T and the European transport should contribute to the improvement of the human residence areas and the life quality -- and not vice-versa. ]

35 35 (5) How to wording key transport problems?

36 (5) Key problems wording based on the evaluation of the problems tree 36 in the BMT Deterioration of conditions threatening the operation (false resource allocation) Fragmented developments loosing the urban context and by non-systemic implementation Inappropriate responses to a changing lifestyle; also polluting solutions Significant inadequacies in the network structure: (radial direction dominance) Fragmented regulations, impeding complex solutions (also within the sector) Continuation of sectorial and sub-sectorial approach, lack of cooperation in the Review Changing external circumstances Network defaults: failed adaptation to the increasing traffic and spreading city with constructions and development Lack of financial resources

37 (5/6) From key problems wording towards transport specific strategic objectives 37 4 Marked expressions from the key problems: fragmentation, lack of cooperation, false allocation, etc. 4 The suggested main direction for change is integration 4 (This direction was also supported by the international trends) 4 At the level of the transport-specific strategic objectives of the Balázs Mór Plan the organising principle was three different kinds of integration: 4 – integration of the transport development into the urban development, 4 – integration between the various transport modes, and 4 – integration between the urban-, the conurbation-, and the regional systems.

38 Integration of the transport development into the urban development 38 (6) How the goal system of the BMT was constructed Integration between the various transport modes Integration between the urban-, the conurbation-, and the regional systems * * I personally preferred ’integrated’ instead of ’dynamic’

39 Integration of the transport development into the urban development 39 (6) How the goal system of the BMT was constructed Integration between the various transport modes Integration between the urban-, the conurbation-, and the regional systems * * I personally preferred ’integrated’ instead of ’dynamic’ These strategic transport objectives have to be followed at more detailed level: namely at four transport intervention areas that is on the fields of the infrastructure, the vehicles, the services and the institutions

40 40 (6) How the goal system of the BMT was constructed * ** ** I personally preferred ’better’ instead of ’more’ * I personally preferred ’integrated’ instead of ’dynamic’ INTER

41 41 (6) GOAL STRUCTURE FROM THE REVIEW How the goal system of the BMT was constructed

42 42 (6) GOAL STRUCTURE FROM THE REVIEW How the goal system of the BMT was constructed Promoting good demand satisfaction Better accessibility within the cityBetter external accessibility of the city

43 43 (6) GOAL STRUCTURE FROM THE REVIEW How the goal system of the BMT was constructed Influencing demand Better use of existing generation and mode infrastructure choice Development of public Development of road transport network and and bike network service and facilities Promoting cooperation Supporting the btw. the transport of the long-range transport city and the region connections Promoting good demand satisfaction Better accessibility within the cityBetter external accessibility of the city

44 44 (6) MEASUREMENTS CUT AND REASSORTED How the goal system of the BMT was constructed

45 45 (6) MOVEABLE, CHANGEABLE MEASUREMENTS How the goal system of the BMT was constructed

46 46 (6) ATTEMPT WITH TEN MEASUREMENTS CATEGORIES How the goal system of the BMT was constructed Intermodal Safety Pedestrian Bicycle Public urban Pub suburban Pub navigation Pub air Road City logistics

47 47 (6) How

48 48 (6) How OPERATIVE GOALS under strategic objectives in four intervention areas. (Also titles of measure- ment groups)

49 49 (6) FROM THE CONTENTS: OPERATIVE GOALS How the goal system of the BMT was constructed

50 50 (6) FROM THE CONTENTS: MEASURES How the goal system of the BMT was constructed

51 51 (7) Conclusion – 1/2 lessons for sustainable urban transport planning 4 I spoke here about the preparation process of a new sustainable Budapest transport development strategy, called Balázs Mór Plan ( BMT ) 4 Meeting the external conditions of the sustainable operation of a transport system (relating the outputs and inputs) is necessary but not sufficient. There are also internal conditions to meet that need transport expertise to develop. The presentation has dealt with such internal (transport-based and transport strategy-building based) conditions. 4 The goal system of the BMP was built on the international experience, on the goals of the city and on the analysis of the local transport problems. 4 From international trends a main lesson can be summarised in a few key expressions as integration, participation, cooperation, evaluation etc. These ‘big picture’ frame elements are much more important to understand and to follow than single ’best practice’ investments. 4 The urban life, the life-conditions of the people are not tools to promote the better overall performance of the European transport system, – the relation is just the reverse: it is the European transport system that have to contribute to the better life conditions. [Message to EU DG MOVE]

52 52 (7) Conclusion – 2/2 lessons for sustainable urban transport planning 4 The future vision and the general goals that the transport must serve are not transport-based ones, but have to come from the city 4 It doesn’t help finding the sustainable transport goals if the key problems chosen are shifting off the responsibility to external circumstances 4 The transport-specific strategic objectives were focused to three types of integration: integration of the transport modes, integration into the city’s goals, and integration into the region around the city. 4 Important technical task is clearly separate the relevant, current, locally selected goals (goals, objectives, priorities) from the always valid transport classification categories, (intervention areas, modes, people/goods, public/private etc.). The suitable covering of both must be considered while aspiring for sustainability. 4 Presenter’s opinion is that Balázs Mór Plan was a good step towards a sustainable Budapest transport strategy. A big danger is still that BMT also contains project list and a map with concrete projects. Instead of speaking about the goal selection principles and arguments to be fixed, the consultation debates can be shifted toward the details of the projects.

53 Tamás Fleischer Institute of World Economy Centre of Economic and Regional Studies Hungarian Academy of Sciences http://www.vki.hu/~tfleisch/ tfleischer@vki.hu CH4LLENGE University Budapest Addressing the four Key Challenges of Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning CH4LLENGE Project Consortium Budapest, 2-3 September, 2014. SELECTION OF THE POLICY MEASURES WHILE PREPARING A SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY PLAN FOR BUDAPEST THANKS FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION !

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56 56 LetterMeaningBy other sources… S Specific [4][5][6][7][8][9][10 ][11][12] Significant, stretching, simple, sustainable M Measurable [4][5][6][7][8][9][10 ][11][12] Motivational, manageable, meaningful A Achievable [4][7][8][10][12] [4][7][8][10][12] Appropriate, agreed, [6][13] assignable, attainable, [11] actionable, action-oriented, [5] adjustable, ambitious, [9] aligned with corporate goals, [14] aspirational, acceptable [6][13] [11] [5] [9] [14] R Relevant [4][7][10][12][15] [4][7][10][12][15] Result-based, results-oriented, resourced, [15] resonant, realistic, [6][8][9][11][13] reasonable [5] [15] [6][8][9][11][13] [5] T Time-bound [4][7][8][9] [4][7][8][9] Time-oriented, time-framed, timed, time-based, [10] timeboxed, time-specific, timetabled, time limited, [12] time/cost limited, [6] trackable, tangible, timely, [5] time-sensitive [11] [10] [12] [6] [5] [11] E Evaluate Evaluated, [4] evaluate consistently, [5] ethical, excitable, enjoyable, engaging, ecological, evidenced [4] [5] R Re-evaluate Reviewed, [4] rewarded, reassess, revisit, recordable, rewarding, reaching, recognize mastery [5] [4] [5]


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