Presentation on theme: "Chromium and Fluoride Analysis in Water Travis Rutherford Mitchell Small."— Presentation transcript:
Chromium and Fluoride Analysis in Water Travis Rutherford Mitchell Small
Goal When we were first assigned this project, we didn’t know what we were going to do. It was suggested that we analyze for something in water. Then we remembered of the chromium trioxide spill in Pepper Creek in October, 2008. We then decided to test for chromium in the water throughout the Fredericton area, including Pepper Creek. It was also mentioned that there was also great amounts of fluoride in the waters of Pepper Creek. So, it was decided that we would also test for fluoride in the water.
Research for Chromium To aid in our research of chromium, we watched the film Erin Brockovich. Erin Brockovich is a true story about a lawyer in training who investigates a chromium leak for clients who want compensation. She discovers a company had not taken the proper procedures for containing hexavalent chromium, or chromium 6. The company had tried to take action and educate the possibly infected community about chromium 3. But unfortunately, the company was not using the chromium 3, they were using chromium 6. Chromium 6 has very toxic effects including erratic nose bleeds, many types of cancers and birth defects among other things. The chromium 6 had spread throughout the community and many people were being affected.
Chromium Hexavalent Chromium (Cr VI) is often found in paints, primers, dyes and inks. It is used as an anticorrosive agent for many surface coatings where chromic acid is electroplated onto metals for an attractive appearance and is often seen on chrome bumpers. It can also be created when welding stainless steel, although it is not present at the beginning, the intense heat involved with welding is enough to convert some of the chromium metals to hexavalent chromium. (United States Department of Labour, 2010)
Dangers of Hexavalent Chromium Hexavalent chromium is extremely toxic, and those who inhale this substance are at an increased risk of lung cancer. Although there are other consequences, the extreme half life in the lungs makes lung cancer the principle danger. (United States Department of Labour, 2006) Hexavalent chromium has a significant half life in different parts of the human body. In urine it is 15-41 hours and muscle tissue will retain chromium for about two weeks. The estimated half life for whole body chromium retention is 22 days. In the liver and spleen tissue, it is 12 months and in the lungs it is 616 days. (United States Department of Labour, 2006)
Effects of Hexavalent Chromium Irritation of respiratory system; bronchitis, asthma, nosebleeds, nasal septum ulceration and perforation; liver, kidney damage; leukocytosis (increased blood leukocytes), leukopenia (reduced blood leukocytes), eosinophilia; eye injury, conjunctivitis; skin ulcer, irritant and allergic contact dermatitis; [potential occupational carcinogen] Health Effects: Lung cancer; Asthma; Nasal perforation, ulceration; dermatitis Affected organs: Blood, respiratory system, liver, kidneys, eyes, skin (United States Department of Labour, 2008) The acceptable limit for hexavalent chromium in water in Canada is 0.05 ppm or 0.05 mg/L. (Health Canada, 1979)
Fluoridation Fluoride is a chemical that is used to fortify teeth. In order for your teeth to become stronger, they must first come in contact with fluoride and some fluoride must be ingested. Some governments have decided to take the health of the population in their own hands and have added fluoride to the population’s drinking water. It is not done in Fredericton but it is done elsewhere. If it is done, there are strict regulations set, because exposure to fluoride may also cause fluoridation. The effects of this, however, are far from life threatening and may cause spots and discoloration of the teeth (Gavin, 2008). The acceptable limits of fluoride in water in 2002 in the United States are between 0.7 and 1.2 mg/L (Gavin, 2008). In Canada the optimal levels of fluoride are between 0.8 and 1.0 mg/L. The absolute maximum is 1.5 mg/L (Health Canada, 2008)
Benefits of Fluoride As we all know fluoride is found in toothpaste. Why might this be? The fluoride helps toughen the teeth and make them more resistant to decay. But how does it do this? It does this by combining with the existing calcium structure of the tooth in order to strengthen it. Various governments have been adding fluoride to water for over 60 years, and they have seen an amazing improvement of the general public. It has been suggested that 20-40 percent of tooth decay in the United States was prevented simply by adding fluoride to drinking water. (Gavin, 2008)
Bibliography United States Department of Labour. (2010, January 14). Safety and health topics hexavalent chromium. Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hexavalentchromium/index.html United States Department of Labour. (2006, February 28). Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium; final rule. Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_id=18599&p_table=federal_registe r Author Unknown. United States Department of Labour, Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2008). Chemical sampling information chromium (vi) (hexavalent chromium) Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_228697.html http://www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_228697.html Author Unknown. Health Canada, Environmental and Workplace Health. (1979). Chromium Ottawa, Ontario: Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/chromium- chrome/index-eng.php http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/chromium- chrome/index-eng.phphttp://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/chromium- chrome/index-eng.php Gavin, Mary. (2008, June). Fluoride and water. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/teeth/fluoride.html# http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/teeth/fluoride.html# Health Canada,. (2008, July). It's your health-fluorides and human health. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/environ/fluor-eng.php http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/environ/fluor-eng.php