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SISTEMA DIGESTIVO. SISTEMA DIGESTIVO: bioreactores.

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Presentation on theme: "SISTEMA DIGESTIVO. SISTEMA DIGESTIVO: bioreactores."— Presentation transcript:

1 SISTEMA DIGESTIVO

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3 SISTEMA DIGESTIVO: bioreactores

4 SISTEMA DIGESTIVO Es un tubo abierto: extensión del medio ambiente! E S absorción Digestión: mecánica (trituración) química (enzimas hidrolíticas)

5 -Direccionalidad -Compartimentalización -Almacenamiento. Sistema de Tubos y Esfínteres

6 EL TRACTO DIGESTIVO

7 Anatomía del sistema digestivo Digestive tract Alimentary tract or canal GI tract Accessory organs Primarily glands Regions Mouth or oral cavity Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Anus

8 Cavidad oral Mouth or oral cavity Vestibule: Space between lips or cheeks and alveolar processes Oral cavity proper Lips (labia) and cheeks Palate: Oral cavity roof Hard and soft Palatine tonsils Tongue: Involved in speech, taste, mastication, swallowing

9 Dientes

10 Dientes Two sets Primary, deciduous, milk: Childhood Permanent or secondary: Adult (32) Types Incisors, canine, premolar and molars

11 Glándulas salivales Produce saliva Prevents bacterial infection Lubrication Contains salivary amylase Breaks down starch Three pairs Parotid: Largest Submandibular Sublingual: Smallest

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13 Producción de saliva % agua -HCO3 -, ph 6.5 -moco, enzimas

14 SECRECIONES SALIVALES 1. Secreción serosa: amilasa salival: hidrólisis  -1-4 polisacáridos 2.Secreción mucosa: lubrica y protege. 3.IgA y lisozima: antimicrobiana

15 Reflejo de deglución Fase voluntaria Bolo alimenticio desde boca a faringe Fase refleja Apertura del esófago, cierre de laringe Fase refleja Transporte por esófago

16 Histología del tracto digestivo

17 Peritoneo y Mesenterios Peritoneum Visceral: Covers organs Parietal: Covers interior surface of body wall Retroperitoneal: Behind peritoneum as kidneys, pancreas, duodenum Mesenteries Routes which vessels and nerves pass from body wall to organs Greater omentum Lesser omentum

18 Estómago Openings Gastroesophageal: To esophagus Pyloric: To duodenum Regions Cardiac Fundus Body Pyloric

19 Histología del estómago Layers Serosa or visceral peritoneum: Outermost Muscularis: Three layers Outer longitudinal Middle circular Inner oblique Submucosa Mucosa

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22 Gastric pits and glands: Contain cells Surface mucous: Mucus Mucous neck: Mucus Parietal: Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor Chief: Pepsinogen Endocrine: Regulatory hormones

23 Secreción de HCl en células parietales

24 Barrera mucus – HCO3 -

25 Fases de la secreción gástrica

26 FASE CEFÁLICA - percepción sensorial del alimento

27 FASE GÁSTRICA - presencia del alimento

28 Ondas de mezcla

29 FASE INTESTINAL VIP Gastrin

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31 Duodeno y Pancreas

32 Pancreas Anatomy Anatomy Endocrine Endocrine Pancreatic islets produce insulin and glucagon Pancreatic islets produce insulin and glucagon Exocrine Exocrine Acini produce digestive enzymes and HCO3- Acini produce digestive enzymes and HCO3- Regions: Head, body, tail Regions: Head, body, tail Secretions Pancreatic juice (exocrine) Trypsin Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Pancreatic amylase Pancreatic lipases Elastase Nucleases (DNA, RNA) HCO3-, H20

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35 Secreción de HCO3-

36 Enzimas Trypsinogen Trypsinogen Chymotrysinogen Chymotrysinogen Carboxypeptidases Carboxypeptidases Pro-elastase Pro-elastase Phospholipase Phospholipase pancreatic lipase pancreatic lipase Pancreatic amylase Pancreatic amylase

37 Hígado Lobes Major: Left and right Minor: Caudate and quadrate Ducts Common hepatic Cystic From gallbladder Common bile Joins pancreatic duct at hepatopancreatic ampulla

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39 Figure 24.20a, b Histología del hígado triada portal

40 Funciones del hígado Bile production Bile production Salts emulsify fats, contain pigments as bilirubin Salts emulsify fats, contain pigments as bilirubin Storage Storage Glycogen, fat, vitamins, copper and iron Glycogen, fat, vitamins, copper and iron Aminoacid synthesis Aminoacid synthesis Cholesterol and tryglicerid synthesis Cholesterol and tryglicerid synthesis Gluconeogénesis, glucogénesis, glucogenólisis Gluconeogénesis, glucogénesis, glucogenólisis Hepatocytes remove ammonia and convert to urea Hepatocytes remove ammonia and convert to urea Phagocytosis Phagocytosis Kupffer cells phagocytize worn-out and dying red and white blood cells, some bacteria Kupffer cells phagocytize worn-out and dying red and white blood cells, some bacteria Plasma proteins and hemostatic factors Plasma proteins and hemostatic factors Albumins, globulins, fibrinogen, heparin, K vitamin Albumins, globulins, fibrinogen, heparin, K vitamin Detoxification and drug metabolism Detoxification and drug metabolism Hormonal secretion: trombopoietin, angotensinogen Hormonal secretion: trombopoietin, angotensinogen

41 Bilis Bile acid Bile acid Phospholipids Phospholipids Cholesterol Cholesterol Bilirubin Bilirubin Waste products Waste products Electrolytes Electrolytes Mucin Mucin HCO3- HCO3- … each day around 600 ml of bile is produced…

42 Conductos

43 Intestino delgado Site of greatest amount of digestion and absorption Divisions Duodenum Jejunum Ileum: Peyer’s patches or lymph nodules Modifications Circular folds or plicae circulares, villi, lacteal, microvilli Cells of mucosa Absorptive, goblet, granular, endocrine

44 Secreciones del int. delgado Mucus and HCO3- Mucus and HCO3- Protects against digestive enzymes and stomach acids Protects against digestive enzymes and stomach acids Enzymes Enzymes Disaccharidases Disaccharidases Peptidases Peptidases Nucleotidases, nucleosidases Nucleotidases, nucleosidases Enteroquinase: tripsinógeno  tripsina Enteroquinase: tripsinógeno  tripsina Duodenal glands (Brünner) Duodenal glands (Brünner) Stimulated by vagus nerve, secretin, chemical or tactile irritation of duodenal mucosa Stimulated by vagus nerve, secretin, chemical or tactile irritation of duodenal mucosa

45 Duodeno llegan: quimo ácido, jugos pancreáticos, bilis

46 Absorción intestinal

47 Monosacáridos

48 Lípidos

49 Lipoproteinas Types Chylomicrons Enter lymph VLDL LDL Transports cholesterol to cells HDL Transports cholesterol from cells to liver

50 Intestino grueso Extends from ileocecal junction to anus Consists of cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal Movements sluggish (18-24 hours)

51 Intestino grueso: Absorción de H 2 O y Defecación Figure 21-27: Anatomy of the large intestine

52 Large Intestine Cecum Cecum Blind sac, vermiform appendix attached Blind sac, vermiform appendix attached Colon Colon Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid Rectum Rectum Straight muscular tube Straight muscular tube Anal canal Anal canal Internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle) Internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle) External anal sphincter (skeletal muscle) External anal sphincter (skeletal muscle)

53 Histology of Large Intestine

54 Figure 21-28: NaCl reabsorption by colonocytes Water and electrolyte secretion &/or absorption Water and electrolyte secretion &/or absorption Bacterial fermentation of HC Bacterial fermentation of HC Bacterial synthesis of Vit. K, B. Bacterial synthesis of Vit. K, B. Bacterial degradation of bile acids and esterols Bacterial degradation of bile acids and esterols Absortion of lactate & butyrate Absortion of lactate & butyrate Prevents infections and immune alterations Prevents infections and immune alterations

55 Figure 21-29: NaCl secretion by colonic crypt cells

56 Toxina colérica -ADP-ribosilación de G  -  G-GTP  AC  cAMP  PKA  p-CFTR PKA

57 Secreciones Mucus provides protection Mucus provides protection Parasympathetic stimulation increases rate of goblet cell secretion Parasympathetic stimulation increases rate of goblet cell secretion Pumps Pumps Exchange of bicarbonate ions for chloride ions Exchange of bicarbonate ions for chloride ions Exchange of sodium ions for hydrogen ions Exchange of sodium ions for hydrogen ions Bacterial actions produce gases called flatus Bacterial actions produce gases called flatus

58 Reflejos en Colon y Recto

59 Secreciones del tubo digestivo

60 Enzimas del tubo digestivo

61 Regulación nerviosa y hormonal Nervous regulation Nervous regulation Involves enteric nervous system Involves enteric nervous system Types of neurons: sensory, motor, interneurons Types of neurons: sensory, motor, interneurons Coordinates peristalsis and regulates local reflexes Coordinates peristalsis and regulates local reflexes Chemical regulation Production of hormones Gastrin, secretin Production of paracrine chemicals Histamine Help local reflexes in ENS control digestive environments as pH levels

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63 Regulating Digestion: CNS and Enteric Nervous System (ENS) Figure 21-9: The enteric nervous system

64 Hormonas gastrointestinales


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