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Organic Chemistry William H. Brown Christopher S. Foote Brent L. Iverson.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry William H. Brown Christopher S. Foote Brent L. Iverson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Chemistry William H. Brown Christopher S. Foote Brent L. Iverson

2 Organic Chemistry The study of the compounds of carbon Over 10 million compounds have been identified - about 1000 new ones are identified each day! C is a small atom - forms single, double, and triple bonds - intermediate in electronegativity (2.5) - forms strong bonds with C, H, O, N, and metals

3 Schematic View of an Atom a small dense nucleus, diameter m, which contains positively charged protons and most of the mass of the atom an extra-nuclear space, diameter m, which contains negatively charged electrons

4 Electron Configuration of Atoms The pairing of electron spins

5 Electron Configuration of Atoms Table 1.3 The Ground-State Electron Configuration of Elements 1-18

6 Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds Although all covalent bonds involve sharing of electrons, they differ widely in the degree of sharing We divide covalent bonds into - nonpolar covalent bonds - polar covalent bonds

7 Exceptions to the Octet Rule Molecules containing atoms of Group 3A elements, particularly boron and aluminum Aluminum chloride 6 electrons in the valence shells of boron and aluminum Boron trifluoride : ClAl Cl Cl :: :: : : : : :: FB F F :: : : : : :

8 Amines contain an amino group; an sp 3 -hybridized nitrogen bonded to one, two, or three carbon atoms CH 3 NH H CH 3 NH CH 3 CH 3 NCH 3 CH 3 Methylamine (a 1° amine) Dimethylamine (a 2° amine) Trimethylamine (a 3° amine) : : :

9 Shapes of a Set of 2p Atomic Orbitals Three-dimensional shapes of 2p atomic orbitals


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