Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk 02-2006 Fluid Handling Equipment Fluid Handling Accessories Fluid Handling Technology Factors Effecting.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk 02-2006 Fluid Handling Equipment Fluid Handling Accessories Fluid Handling Technology Factors Effecting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Handling Equipment Fluid Handling Accessories Fluid Handling Technology Factors Effecting Pump Performance Piston Pump Basics When viewing program, click on Zone logo to return to Chapter page, or Main Page

2 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Handling Equipment Pump Design Pump Types Pump Operation Pump Components Air Motors When viewing program, click on Zone logo to return to Chapter page, or Main Page

3 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Pump Design Inline Pumps Divorced Design Pumps

4 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Inline Pumps n Often used with low viscosity lubricants n Down Tube coupled to Air Motor casting Inline Pumps have a direct connection between the Motor and Lower End

5 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Divorced Design Pumps n Motors and Lower Ends are separate from each other n Tie rods connect Motor to Lower End n Eases Repair Prevents contamination of Air Motor when Lower needs repair

6 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Pump Types Basic Pumps Two-Ball Lower End Pumps Four-Ball Lower End Pumps Chop-Check Lower End Pumps

7 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Basic Pumps n For low-volume delivery of light viscosity fluids n Ratios range from 1:1 to 2:1

8 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Two-Ball Pumps n Lower end contains two ball checks that control fluid flow n Most common type of pump configuration n Used with light to medium viscosity fluids

9 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Four-Ball Pumps n Lower End contains four ball checks that control fluid flow n Used with low viscosity fluids in high flow applications

10 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Chop-Check Pumps n Checks are mechanically pushed onto seats to control fluid flow n Used in extrusion applications with medium to high viscosity fluids Chop-Check pumps are often mounted on rams to transfer fluids

11 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Pump Operation Two-Ball Lower End Pumps Four-Ball Lower End Pumps Chop-Check Lower End Pumps

12 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Two-Ball Lower Operation Upstroke As Piston rises, fluid is pulled into pump. Fluid above ball check is lifted out of pump Downstroke The lower ball seats to close off the pump. Fluid is displaced by the plunger, passing through the upper check, to the outlet. DownstrokeUpstroke

13 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Four-Ball Lower Operation Upstroke: Fluid passes the lower left ball check into pump. Upper left check is seated. The upper right check rises as fluid exits the pump. The lower right check is forced onto it’s seat. Downstroke: The lower left ball is seated. The upper left ball rises as fluid exits the pump. The upper right check is seated, while fluid is drawn into the pump past the lower right check. DownstrokeUpstroke

14 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Chop-Check Lower Operation Upstroke: The lower check rises and the primer plate pulls fluid into the pump. Fluid exits the pump when the upper check seats and rises with the plunger. Downstroke: The lower check seats and the upper check opens. Fluid exits the pump through the upper check. Meanwhile, the primer plate extends into the fluid. It will pull fluid into the pump when the plunger rises. DownstrokeUpstroke

15 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Pump Components Packing Assemblies Tube & Plunger Springs Wet Cup

16 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Packing Assemblies n Seal movement of plunger rod n “V” packings for higher viscosity fluids n Cup packings for low viscosity fluids Packings are located in the Body Casting and on the Plunger Rod

17 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Tube-PlungerTube-Plunger n The Plunger moves within the Tube n The Plunger transfers fluid from the inlet to the pump’s outlet Typical Plunger Rod (less packings) and Tube

18 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk SpringsSprings n Compensate for normal wear of the packings caused by pump usage n Wave Springs offer excellent service in hard- duty use n Coil Springs are used to pump lighter viscosity fluids Coil SpringWave Spring

19 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Wet-CupWet-Cup n Use of Wet-Sol in Wet-Cup keeps Plunger Rod wetted n This helps prolong packing life Typical Wet-Cup Assembly

20 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Air Motors Creates reciprocating motion to drive pump Aro manufactures several styles of Air Motors n 200 Series n “N” Series n 4¼” 6” & 8” n 10” & 12” “N” Series Pump 2” & 3” 4”1/4 - 6” - 8” Air Motor 10” & 12” Air Motor

21 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Air Motor Operation 200 Series Motors “N” Series Motors 4¼” 6” & 8” Motors 10” & 12” Motors

22 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk “N” Series Motors Upstroke: Air passes by main piston, through Spool A. This raises both Spool B and main piston. This continues until piston passes upper air port. Downstroke: Air shifts Spool A, exhausting air below main piston and Spool B. “B” shifts, transferring air to top of main piston. Piston will continue downward until passing lower air ports. At that time “A” will shift again, creating upstroke conditions Downstroke Upstroke

23 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk ¼”, 6” & 8” Air Motors Downstroke Upstroke Upstroke: Air lifts main piston until it contacts pilot rod. Rod lifts valve assembly until air charge shifts valve. Air is now directed to top of main piston Downstroke: Air pushes down main piston until it contacts pilot rod. Rod pulls down valve assembly until air charge shifts valve. Air is now directed to top of main piston

24 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk ” & 12” Air Motors Upstroke: Air flows to large end of valve assembly, shifting valve to the right. Air lifts main piston until it contacts pilot rod. When rod cuts off air to valve, it shifts. Air now passes to top of main piston Downstroke: Air pushes down main piston until it contacts pilot rod. When rod falls, it supplies air to large end of valve. The valve then shifts, directing air to bottom of main piston, creating an upstroke condition Downstroke Upstroke

25 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Handling Accessories Fluid Regulators Control Handles Follower Plates Mounting Styles When viewing program, click on Zone logo to return to Chapter page, or Main Page

26 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Regulators n Downstream Regulators are used to control fluid pressure beyond the regulator n Regulators can be used to smooth out pulsation in a pumping system

27 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Flow Gun for low viscosity fluids Grease Gun Metered Gun dispenses set quantity of fluid Manual Extrusion Gun for high viscosity fluids Control Handles n Used at the final dispensing point n Types of Control Handles include –Flow Guns –Grease Guns –Metered Guns –Extrusion Guns

28 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Follower Plates n Used to keep extrusion pump primed n Follower seals drum from air and other contaminants n Follower pushes material toward pump inlet Extrusion Pumps with Follower Plates for 5-gallon or 55-gallon drums

29 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Mounting Styles Wall Mounts Drum Covers Floor Mounts Lifts Rams Cart Mounts

30 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Wall Mounts n Used with light to medium viscosity fluids n Fluid is pumped from drum using a siphon hose Wall mounted pumps located next to fluid containers

31 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Drum Covers n Protect fluid from outside contaminants n Only the pump down tube is submerged n Commonly used with oil or grease pumps Typical oil pump mounted in the bung of a drum cover

32 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Floor Mounts n Used when fluid is stored in a bulk container n Gravity feeds material into pump n Locate pump as close to container as possible Floor mounted Extrusion Pump

33 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk LiftsLifts n An internal cylinder lifts the pump from an empty container n Used with medium to high viscosity fluids n Eases change over of empty fluid containers Lift Mounted Extrusion Pump

34 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk RamsRams n Cylinders exert downward force, pushing pump into fluid n Used with medium to high viscosity fluids n Single-Post or Two-Post Rams available Two Post Ram package used with high viscosity fluids

35 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Cart Mounts Allow a pump to be moved to different locations within a work site Pump often uses a siphon hose to draw material from a nearby container Cart-Mounted Pump Package

36 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Handling Technology Ratio Changing Ratio Fluid Characteristics Packing Types Types of Steel When viewing program, click on Zone logo to return to Chapter page, or Main Page

37 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk RatioRatio The difference in effective size between the air motor piston and the lower end plunger rod Higher ratio pumps produce higher fluid pressures Ratio Calculation: Ratio x Air Inlet Pressure = Fluid Outlet Pressure Comparison of relative Air Motor Piston and Plunger Rod sizes

38 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Changing Ratio Increase Ratio by changing Air Motors Increase Ratio by changing lower ends Swap units within inventory to meet application needs Change Motor: Lower: G G43 Motor: 4¼” 6” Ratio: 11:1 23:1 Delivery: 4.6-GPM 4.6-GPM Change Lower: P P43 Motor: 4¼” 4¼” Lower: P P43 Ratio: 22:1 30:1 Delivery: 2.4-GPM 1.5-GPM

39 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Characteristics Viscosity Specific Gravity Abrasiveness Corrosiveness

40 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Characteristics: Viscosity Low viscosity fluids flow freely, while high viscosity fluids do not n Viscosity is the measure of fluid’s resistance to flow n Aro measures viscosity in terms of “centipoise.” n Viscosity will determine if a lift or ram is needed

41 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Characteristics: Specific Gravity Fluids with a lower Specific Gravity will float on top of “heavier” fluids n Specific Gravity is the relationship between the weight of a volume of fluid compared to the same volume of water

42 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Characteristics: Abrasiveness Plunger Rod with severe wear caused by pumping abrasive fluids n Abrasiveness is the ability of a fluid to wear the surface it contacts n Abrasive fluids can dramatically shorten the life span of a pump lower end

43 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Characteristics: Corrosiveness Ball check distorted by corrosion n The ability of a material to chemically react with other materials n The corrosiveness of a material is indicated by it’s pH factor

44 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Packing Types U.H.M.W.-PE (Ultra-High) Teflon ® Thiokol Leather Glass-filled Teflon Packings selection is based on fluid compatibility and abrasion resistance

45 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Packing Types: U.H.M.W.-PE Stack of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene packings n Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene is a good all purpose packing n Common uses are with ink, acids and some solvents n DO NOT use with fluid temperatures over 170°F (77°C)

46 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Packing Types: Teflon Stack of Teflon packings n Chemically compatible with all fluids n Excellent corrosion resistance, but poor abrasion resistance

47 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Packing Types: Thiokol Leather Complete Spring/Packing Assembly, with Leather and U.H.M.W.-PE “v” packings n Chemically compatible with all fluids n Excellent corrosion resistance, but poor abrasion resistance

48 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Packing Types: Glass-Filled Teflon Glass-Filled Teflon Packing used in a C Pump n Used with acids, solvents and corrosive materials n Used in smaller, 200-series pumps

49 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Types of Steel Hardened Carbon Steel 304 or 316 Series Stainless 400 Series Stainless 17-4 Series Stainless Tungsten Carbide Steel Treatment

50 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Hardened Carbon Steel NM2304A-11 N-Series Pump with Carbon Steel construction n Excellent abrasion resistance n Not suitable for water-borne fluids n Can be hard- chrome plated for longer service-life

51 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk or 316 Series Stainless NM2304B-11 N-Series Pump constructed of 316 Series Stainless n Excellent corrosion resistance with acids and water-borne fluids n Provides fair abrasion resistance

52 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Series Stainless X4D-B pump with a 400-Series Stainless Plunger n Provides good abrasion resistance n Can be heat treated or hard- chrome plated for longer service-life

53 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Series Stainless X43 “Integrity” pumps feature 17-4 Series Stainless Plunger Rods n Corrosion resistance equal to 304 SS n Good for water- borne fluids n Can be heat treated or hard- chrome plated for longer service-life

54 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide Seat and Stainless Ball Check Assembly from an Integrity Lower End n Powdered metal produced by adding carbon n The hardness and wear resistance make it excellent for use in wear items like ball checks and seats

55 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Steel Treatment Hard-Chrome Plating Passivation Electropolish

56 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Many plunger rod assemblies are Hard- Chrome Plated to improve abrasion resistance Hard-Chrome Plating n A thin chromium coat is deposited on metal components n Process improves protection against abrasion and component wear

57 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk PassivationPassivation n Stainless Steel parts are dipped in nitric acid to remove iron deposits left from the machining process n Process helps prevent fluid contamination

58 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk ElectropolishElectropolish n Stainless parts are dipped in an electrically stimulated bath n Removes surface blemishes and metal deposits n Process produces a highly polished, easily cleaned surface n Helps prevent fluid contamination

59 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Factors Effecting Pump Performance Fluid Compatibility Air Supply Lubrication Priming When viewing program, click on Zone logo to return to Chapter page, or Main Page

60 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Compatibility n An important influence on pump performance n All pump parts must be compatible with the fluid and solvent used in an application to be successful Seal on Follower-Plate ruined by fluid incompatibility

61 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Filter-Regulator-Lubricator on Piston Pump package Air Supply n Low air pressure results in inadequate fluid pressure from the pump n Excessive air can result in wear and exaggerate the hammering effect of pump cycling n Poor air quality can lead to pump failure

62 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk LubricationLubrication Filtered and lubricated air will allow the air motor to run more efficiently Use SAE 90-wt, non- detergent oil, at no more than 1-drop per minute (Aro Part #62274) If an airline lubricator is needed, use only a 90-wt Non-Detergent oil

63 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk PrimingPriming Packings can easily be damaged during the priming process There is no fluid to cool or lubricate the packings, and they quickly overheat Cycle the pump slowly when priming, until fluid has covered the packing assembly This model lower end features a bleed valve to help purge air during the priming process

64 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Piston Pump Selection n Information needed to select a piston pump for a given application

65 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Pump Selection Factors Fluid Parameters Application Data Outlet Plumbing Information Air Inlet Pressure Performance Curves Calculations Selection Check List

66 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Parameters Fluid Viscosity Fluid Compatibility Abrasiveness of Fluid

67 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Viscosity of Common Products: Water1 Centipoise (cP) Beer3 cP SAE 30 Motor Oil200 cP Ketchup50,000 cP Petroleum Jelly64,000 cP Tooth Paste190,000 cP Peanut Butter250,000 cP Fluid Viscosity n Viscosity is the fluid’s resistance to flow n Piston pumps are used with low to high viscosity fluids n Because they create higher fluid pressures, they can move higher viscosity fluids Generally, Chop-Check pumps are needed for fluids with viscosities over 10,000 centipoise

68 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Fluid Compatibility n Components must be compatible with the fluid being moved and the solvent used to flush the pump n Incompatibility can result in premature pump failure

69 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Abrasiveness of Fluid n Abrsiveness is the ability of a fluid to wear the surface it contacts n Abrasive fluids can dramatically shorten the life span of a pump lower end Plunger Rod with severe wear caused by pumping abrasive fluids Piston Pump components are often Hard-Chrome plated to reduce wear caused by moving abrasive fluids

70 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Application Data Transfer Extrusion

71 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Transfer Applications Often involve intermittent pump operation Factors to consider: n Viscosity n Plumbing Length n Required Flow n Air at Pump mounted in a small tote tank

72 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Extrusion Applications n Transfer of medium to high viscosity fluids n Extra equipment (rams, etc) is often needed n Consider: Viscosity Required Flow Dispensing Method Air at Pump

73 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Outlet Plumbing Information n Check if hard plumbing or tubing is used n Know the length of plumbing in the system n Know the internal diameter of the plumbing used

74 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Air Inlet Pressure n Inadequate inlet pressure can result in poor pump performance n There must also be adequate pressure for accessories like rams or mixers Multiply Air Inlet Pressure by Pump Ratio to determine Fluid Outlet Pressure Module/Air 2000 F-R-L used to treat air feeding a piston pump application

75 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Performance Curves n Use curves to determine if a pump can meet the application requirements n The X-Axis indicates flow n The Y-Axis indicates fluid pressure

76 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Check Fluid Flow 1.8 Example Calculation: Back Pressure=800 Air=90 psi Flow=1.8 gpm Plot 800 psi on y- axis until it meets the 90 psi line. Plot down to the x-axis (flow) In this example, the pump is capable of delivering around 1.8-gpm

77 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Check Air Consumption Example Calculation: Back Pressure=800 Air=90 psi Flow=1.8 gpm Plot 1.8-gpm on the x-axis. Move up until you intersect the 90-psi curve, then plot over to the right axis The pump will use about 20SCFM of air in this application 1.8

78 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Check Cycle Rate Example Calculation: Back Pressure=800 Air=90 psi Flow=1.8 gpm Plot 1.8-gpm on the x-axis. Move up until you intersect the top line of the chart. To deliver 1.8-gpm, the pump will cycle roughly 15-times per minute

79 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Calculating Pressure Drop (ΔP) n Rough calculation of pressure pump must overcome within plumbing to transfer fluid n This calculation is an estimate n Call ARO if you have questions  P =  x Q x L x  (i.d.) 4  =fluid viscosity Q =delivery required gpm L =outlet plumbing length = equation constant (i.d.) 4 =plumbing internal diameter to the fourth power  P = 15,000 x 3.0 x 55 x  1  =15,000 centipoise (cP) Q =3.0-gpm L =55 ft = equation constant (i.d.) 4 =1”  P = psi The pump must develop roughly psi of fluid pressure to complete the application

80 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Calculating Ratio n Calculating the ratio needed for a given application n Divide Pressure Drop (ΔP) by the air pressure available n Again, if you have questions, all ARO Required Ratio =  P ÷ PSI  P= pressure drop within plumbing system PSI =air pressure available at pump Required Ratio =  ÷ 85 = 7.1  P = psi (from previous slide) PSI = 85-pounds air pressure at pump Ratio = 7.1:1 (round up to 8:1) At least a 8:1 ratio pump will be needed for this application. Now select a pump model based flow requirements and fluid compatibility

81 Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk Pump Selection Checklist n Basic data to make an initial pump selection n Use this data, the ARO fluid compatibility guide and the pressure drop calculations to make an initial pump selection Fluid Parameters Required Flow:__________ Fluid Viscosity:__________ Plumbing Data Internal Diameter:_______ Piping Length:__________ Inlet Piping Length:______ Air Inlet Pump:_______ Application Data Continuous Duty:________ Intermittent Use:________ If you feel uncertain about your pump selection, call Aro for help!


Download ppt "Industrial Technologies -Process- Marketing Desk 02-2006 Fluid Handling Equipment Fluid Handling Accessories Fluid Handling Technology Factors Effecting."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google