Presentation on theme: "Questions about America’s role in the world generated considerable debate, prompting the development of a wide variety of views and arguments between imperialists."— Presentation transcript:
Questions about America’s role in the world generated considerable debate, prompting the development of a wide variety of views and arguments between imperialists and anti- imperialists and, later, interventionists and isolationists. (Key Concept 7.3 I C)
Analyze the factors that would lead some influential Americans to turn their backs on our history of isolationism and push to become a world power. Define Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism as they apply to the United States in the late 19 th century. Define Isolationism as it applies to the United States. What is the origin of this belief?
Analyze the factors that would lead some influential Americans to turn their backs on our history of isolationism and push to become a world power. Use Chrome Books to find ARGUMENTS of Imperialists What domestic factors would lead to these arguments? What international factors would lead to these arguments?
Analyze the factors that would lead some influential Americans to argue for the time-honored tradition of isolationism. Use Chrome Books to find ARGUMENTS of Anti- Imperialists What domestic factors would lead to these arguments? What international factors would lead to these arguments?
Reasons New markets – East Asia Safety Valve Theory – Frederick Jackson Turner Yellow Journalism - Jingoism Religious Zealots Social Darwinism European powers in Africa and China – “Spheres of Influence” The Influence of Sea Power Upon History – Capt. Mahan – 3 rd largest navy, pushed for canal Labor and Farmer Unrest (connected to closing of Frontier)
Reasons Reconstruction Industrialization Westward Expansion No power to colonize or intervene
Commercial/Business Interests Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments:
American Foreign Trade: Commercial/Business Interests Commercial/Business Interests
Social Darwinist Thinking Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’s Burden The Hierarchy of Race
Military/Strategic Interests Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History:
Henry Cabot Lodge (Rep. Massachusetts) supported canal, thought Cuba was “in the way.” President McKinley (Rep.) – Very aware of public opinion. Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt (Gov of NY, Asst Sec of Navy) James Blaine – Sec of State
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
“Seward’s Folly”: 1867 $7.2 million
“Seward’s Icebox”: 1867
McKinley’s Justification for the War 1.Investment in Sugar Plantations 2.Spanish misrule in Cuba – concentration camps under Gen Weyler 3.Monroe Doctrine
1. Cuban Revolt and the “scorched earth” policy 2. De Lome Letter (Feb 1898) 3. The sinking of The Maine, February 15, 1898
4. Yellow Journalism – Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World and Wm. Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal. “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war.” - Hearst William Randolph Hearst Joseph Pulitzer
Spanish Misrule in Cuba
General “Butcher” Weyler’s “concentration” Policy
Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.
Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. Imperialist and American nationalist. Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
1. End to concentration camps 2. Armistice with Rebels in Cuba (sent March 27, 1898) General “Butcher” Weyler McKinley’s Dilemma: Did not want a war, but American people did. Wanted Spain out of Cuba, but Cuba could not be independent either.
1. Political atrocities 2. Protection of US Citizens and Property 3. Protect trade ($100 million annually) 4. End the constant menace
Once Cubans were free of Spanish rule, we would give them their freedom (granted, 1901) Henry M. Teller, Secretary of Interior and Senator from Colorado.
Ill-equipped troops with poor leadership, General William R. Shafter. 113 day war – 400 died in battle, 2000 died of disease.
Calvary unit of volunteers, criminals led by Colonel Leonard Wood, organized by T. Roosevelt July 1, 1898 – Battle at San Juan Hill (Kettle Hill) bloodiest battle – made TR a war hero!
The “Rough Riders” There were NO horses, had to be left in Florida: No room on the boat!
The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War” How prepared was the US for war?
February 25, 1898 Roosevelt (Asst. Naval Secretary) sent orders to Commodore Dewey, stationed in Hong Kong, to go to Manila Bay in the Philippines. Arrived May 1, but could not invade until August. Manila fell August 13, 1898 (Day AFTER armistice signed).
The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War”
Dewey Captures Manila!
Emilio Aguinaldo L eader of the Filipino Uprising. July 4, 1946: Philippine independence
Is He To Be a Despot?
August 12, 1898 armistice is signed August 13, 1898 Manila captured December 10, 1898 Treaty of Paris is signed February 6, 1899 Treaty is ratified TERMS OF THE TREATY 1. Cuba gains freedom 2. America gets Guam 3. Spain gives Puerto Rico to US to pay war debts 4. US paid $20 million to Spain for Philippines
Choices: 1. Let Philippines rule themselves. (Anarchy or take over by Germany/Japan) 2. Acquire all of the Philippines and give them freedom later.* Unique problem – a large territory with 7 million people who are Asian.
Expansion and annexation is Un-American. Goes against the Declaration and Constitution. Wm. James, Mark Twain, Samuel Gompers, Andrew Carnegie, Wm. Jennings Bryan Argument – costly with no profits in sight, creates despotism, push US into Eastern politics, deprives people of “life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness.”
Shows patriotism, civilize the savages, make profits in new markets. McKinley and Roosevelt
William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the Philippines Great administrator.
Our “Sphere of Influence”
Effects of the War Positives – increased prestige, patriotism increased, healed wounds from Civil War, increased emphasis on military. Negatives – A Far East Power leads to conflicts with Japan, US unwilling to spend necessary money, unusual relationship with Puerto Rico.
Teller Amendment (1898) Platt Amendment (1903) 1.Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2.The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 3.Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4.Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt. Cuban Independence? Senator Orville Platt
Puerto Rico: 1898 Foraker Act Foraker Act. PR became an “unincorporated territory.” Citizens of PR, not of the US. Import duties on PR goods the Insular Cases. Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions. Congress had the power to decide these rights. Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal!
Puerto Rico: – Jones Act. Gave full territorial status to PR. Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US. PRs elected their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws. PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections. A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.