Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27 America: The Imperialist"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 27 America: The Imperialist Questions about America’s role in the world generated considerable debate, prompting the development of a wide variety of views and arguments between imperialists and anti- imperialists and, later, interventionists and isolationists. (Key Concept 7.3 I C)
2America: The Imperial Power? Analyze the factors that would lead some influential Americans to turn their backs on our history of isolationism and push to become a world power.Define Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism as they apply to the United States in the late 19th century.Define Isolationism as it applies to the United States. What is the origin of this belief?
3America: The Imperial Power? Analyze the factors that would lead some influential Americans to turn their backs on our history of isolationism and push to become a world power.Use Chrome Books to find ARGUMENTS of ImperialistsWhat domestic factors would lead to these arguments?What international factors would lead to these arguments?
4America: The Imperial Power? Analyze the factors that would lead some influential Americans to argue for the time-honored tradition of isolationism.Use Chrome Books to find ARGUMENTS of Anti- ImperialistsWhat domestic factors would lead to these arguments?What international factors would lead to these arguments?
5America as Imperialists! ReasonsNew markets – East AsiaSafety Valve Theory – Frederick Jackson TurnerYellow Journalism - JingoismReligious ZealotsSocial DarwinismEuropean powers in Africa and China – “Spheres of Influence”The Influence of Sea Power Upon History – Capt. Mahan – 3rd largest navy, pushed for canalLabor and Farmer Unrest (connected to closing of Frontier)
6America as Isolationists ReasonsReconstructionIndustrializationWestward ExpansionNo power to colonize or intervene
7Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
8Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914
9Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’s BurdenThe Hierarchy of Race
10Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History:
11Leading Politicians of the Era President McKinley (Rep.) – Very aware of public opinion.Henry Cabot Lodge (Rep. Massachusetts) supported canal, thought Cuba was “in the way.”Theodore“Teddy”Roosevelt (Gov of NY, Asst Sec of Navy)James Blaine – Sec of State
22The Spanish-American War “Splendid Little War!” 113 days McKinley’s Justification for the WarInvestment in Sugar PlantationsSpanish misrule in Cuba – concentration camps under Gen WeylerMonroe Doctrine
23Spanish-American War: Causes Cuban Revolt and the “scorched earth” policyDe Lome Letter (Feb 1898)The sinking of The Maine, February 15, 1898
24Spanish-American War: Causes 4. Yellow Journalism – Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World and Wm. Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal.“You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war.” - HearstWilliam Randolph HearstJoseph Pulitzer
27Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
28De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.
29Theodore RooseveltAssistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration.Imperialist and American nationalist.Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair!Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
30The US Makes Demands to Spain End to concentration campsArmistice with Rebels in Cuba(sent March 27, 1898)McKinley’s Dilemma:Did not want a war, but American people did. Wanted Spain out of Cuba, but Cuba could not be independent either.General “Butcher” Weyler
31Declaration of War – 4-11-1898 Political atrocities Protection of US Citizens and PropertyProtect trade ($100 million annually)End the constant menace
32The Teller AmendmentOnce Cubans were free of Spanish rule, we would give them their freedom (granted, 1901)Henry M. Teller, Secretary of Interior and Senator from Colorado.
33Invasion of Cuba – June 1898Ill-equipped troops with poor leadership, General William R. Shafter.113 day war – 400 died in battle, 2000 died of disease.
34Teddy Roosevelt and His “Rough Riders” Calvary unit of volunteers, criminals led by Colonel Leonard Wood, organized by T. RooseveltJuly 1, 1898 – Battle at San Juan Hill (Kettle Hill) bloodiest battle – made TR a war hero!
35The “Rough Riders”There were NO horses, had to be left in Florida: No room on the boat!
36The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War” How prepared was the US for war?
38In Preparation for the War – The Philippines? February 25, Roosevelt (Asst. Naval Secretary) sent orders to Commodore Dewey, stationed in Hong Kong, to go to Manila Bay in the Philippines. Arrived May 1, but could not invade until August. Manila fell August 13, 1898 (Day AFTER armistice signed).
39The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War”
43Peace Agreements to end SP-AM War August 12, 1898 armistice is signedAugust 13, 1898 Manila capturedDecember 10, 1898 Treaty of Paris is signedFebruary 6, 1899 Treaty is ratifiedTERMS OF THE TREATYCuba gains freedomAmerica gets GuamSpain gives Puerto Rico to US to pay war debtsUS paid $20 million to Spain for Philippines
44The Problem with the Philippines Choices:Let Philippines rule themselves. (Anarchy or take over by Germany/Japan)Acquire all of the Philippines and give them freedom later.*Unique problem – a large territory with 7 million people who are Asian.
45Anti-Imperialist League Expansion and annexation is Un-American. Goes against the Declaration and Constitution.Wm. James, Mark Twain, Samuel Gompers, Andrew Carnegie, Wm. Jennings BryanArgument – costly with no profits in sight, creates despotism, push US into Eastern politics, deprives people of “life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness.”
46The ImperialistsShows patriotism, civilize the savages, make profits in new markets.McKinley and Roosevelt
47William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the Philippines Great administrator.
49America’s “Coming Out Party” Effects of the WarPositives – increased prestige, patriotism increased, healed wounds from Civil War, increased emphasis on military.Negatives – A Far East Power leads to conflicts with Japan, US unwilling to spend necessary money, unusual relationship with Puerto Rico.
50Cuban Independence? Teller Amendment (1898) Platt Amendment (1903) Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence.The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt.Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station.Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.Senator Orville Platt
53Puerto Rico: 1898 1900 - Foraker Act. 1901-1903 the Insular Cases. PR became an “unincorporated territory.”Citizens of PR, not of the US.Import duties on PR goods the Insular Cases.Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions.Congress had the power to decide these rights.Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal!
54Puerto Rico: 1898 1917 – Jones Act. Gave full territorial status to PR.Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US.PRs elected their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws.PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections.A resident commissionerwas sent to Washington tovote for PR in the House.