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Power Plant Construction and QA/QC Section 3.1 & 2 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals and Design Engineering Technology Division

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2 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Overview Hero Reaction Turbine – 120 B.C. First Practical Turbine – 1884, C. Parsons First Power Plant – 7.5 kw – 1890 Reaction, Impulse and Velocity-Compounded Reheat Steam – 1930’s Last 100 years Turbine is the key element in generating electricity Turbines run Generators, Pumps, Fans, etc. Today up to 1,500 MW

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3 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Overview

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4 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Fundamentals Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, Biofuel, Waste Fuel Energy Transfer

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5 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Reaction Turbines Newton’s third law of motion – For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Narrowing Steam Path

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6 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Impulse Turbines Steam / Gas Flow Fixed Vanes Moving Blades

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7 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Reaction – Impulse Comparison

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8 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Velocity-Compounded Turbine Velocity compounding is a form of staging which by dividing the work load over several stages results in improved efficiency and a smaller diameter for the blade wheels due to a reduction in Ideal blade speed per stage. Inlet Pressure Inlet Velocity P = 1 V

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9 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine Components - Blades Reaction Impulse

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10 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine Diaphragms Diaphragms contain the fixed blades

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11 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Steam Turbine Casing

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12 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine Rotor

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13 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine Shaft and Casing Seals

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14 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine Types Straight HP Tandem HP Tandem LP

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15 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine – Multiple Sets

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16 Questions? Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals

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17 Section 3.2 – Steam Turbine Design Overview Classification by; Type – Reaction or Impulse Steam Temperature and Pressure Configuration – Compound, Tandem Compound, Cross Compound Reheat Output – MW Structural Elements

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18 Section 3.2 – Steam Turbine Design Turbine Design - Basics

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19 Section 3.2 – Steam Turbine Design Materials Blades Stainless Steel – 403 & 422 (+Cr) 17-4 PH steel (+ Ti) Super Alloys Rotor High “Chrome – Moley” Steel – Cr-Mo-V Low “Ni Chrome Steel – Ni-Cr-Mo-V

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20 Questions? Section 3.2 – Steam Turbine Design

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