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Regis B. Miller (retired) USDA Forest Service

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Presentation on theme: "Regis B. Miller (retired) USDA Forest Service"— Presentation transcript:

1 Non-anatomical features in wood identification and systematic wood anatomy
Regis B. Miller (retired) USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory One Gifford Pinchot Drive Madison, WI Tropical Wood Species Listed under CITES Regis B. Miller

2 Standard Lists for Identification
1989 2004

3 Hardwood list of features
163 microscopic 58 non-anatomical 25 geographic origin 33 habit, specific gravity, colour, odour, fluorescence, froth, chrome azurol-S, burning splinter

4 How do we identify wood? Naked eye Hand Lens Light Microscope
Non-anatomical features colour, specific gravity, odour, fluorescence, chrome azurol-S, etc. Hand Lens 10X - 20X Mostly transverse surface Light Microscope 4X, 10X, 20X & 40X objectives Mostly radial and tangential section

5 Non-anatomical features
Color Density Fluorescence Surface Extract Water Ethanol Chemical tests Burning splinter Froth Chrome Azurol-S Color of water and ethanol extracts Additional feature Sodium nitrite

6 Non-anatomical features -- Color
Color can be a good feature Color varies from nearly white to black

7 Non-anatomical features -- Color
Color may change in light and air Color varies within a species

8 Non-anatomical features -- Color
4 Groups within Tabebuia Tabebuia rosea Tabebuia insignis Tabebuia donnell-smithii

9 Non-anatomical features -- Color
2 Groups within Brosimum Brosimum rubescens

10 Non-anatomical features -- Color
2 Groups within Cordia

11 Odour !! Spicy Rose-like

12 www.physics.montana.edu/ demonstrations/video/...
Non-anatomical features -- Density Density (weight/volume) Basic Specific Gravity (OD weight/green vol.) Standard List Low - ≤ 0.40 Medium High - ≥ 0.75 demonstrations/video/...

13 Non-anatomical features -- Density
Tabebuia (lapacho group) Tabebuia (roble group) Tabebuia (white-cedar group) Tabebuia (primavera group) Cordia (dark) Cordia (light) Brosimum (guianense) Brosimum (rubescens) Brosimum (alicastrum) Brosimum (utile)

14 Non-anatomical features -- Density
Handroanthus (lapacho group) Tabebuia (roble group) Tabebuia (white-cedar group) Roseodendron (primavera group) Grose and Olmstead Taxonomic revisions in the polyphyletic genus Tabebuia s.l. (Bignoniaceae). Systematic Botany 32: Grose and Olmstead Evolution of a charismatice neotropical clade: Molecular phylogeny of Tabebuia s.l., Crescentieae, and allied genera (Bignoniaceae). Systematic Botany 32:

15 Non-anatomical features -- Density
Brosimum (guianense) Brosimum (rubescens) Brosimum (alicastrum) Brosimum (utile) Datwyler and Weiblen On the origin of the fig: Phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from NDHF sequences. Am. Jour. Bot. 91:

16 Non-anatomical features -- Fluorescence
Surface fluorescence

17 Non-anatomical features -- Fluorescence
Surface fluorescence needs a fresh surface

18 Non-anatomical features -- Fluorescence
Surface fluorescence  many legumes  many anacards Miller, R.B Fluorescent woods of the world. IN: Flynn, J.H. (ed). A guide to more useful woods of the world. Forest Products Society, Madison, WI

19 Non-anatomical features -- Extract Fluorescence
Water and ethanol extract fluorescence Platymiscium Platymiscium Dalbergia

20 Non-anatomical features -- Extract Fluorescence
Water fluorescence D. spruceana blue D. nigra negative

21 Non-anatomical features -- Extract Fluorescence
Ethanol fluorescence D. spruceana blue D. nigra green/blue

22 Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species
Non-anatomical features -- Density Dalbergia nigra (0.85) 0.96 g/cm3 Dalbergia spruceana g/cm3 Miller, R.B. and M.C. Wiemann Separation of Dalbergia nigra from Dalbergia spruceana. Res. Paper FPL-RP-632. USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. CITES Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species

23 Non-anatomical features -- Froth
Froth Test

24 Non-anatomical features -- Froth
Froth Test:  many Sapotaceae  legumes Enterolobium Pentaclethra Mora Poeppigia Abarema Cojoba Inga

25 Non-anatomical features -- Extract Color
Water and ethanol extract color Brosimum, Maclura, Vatairea, Loxopterygium Haematoxylon, Brasilettia, Guilandina, Caesalpinia

26 Non-anatomical features -- Tests
Chrome azurol-S test Blue color on aluminum accumulators

27 Non-anatomical features -- Tests
Chrome azurol-S test Species of Vochysiaceae Many species of Melastomataceae Many species of Rubiaceae Many species of Proteaceae Species of Anisophylleaceae Kukachka, B.F. and R.B.Miller A chemical spot-test for aluminum and it value in wood identification. IAWA Bull. n.s. 1(3):

28 Non-anatomical features -- Tests
Burning splinter test Good for some specific separations

29 Non-anatomical features -- Tests
Sodium nitrite test Dark purple to black on species in white oak group Orange on species in red oak group

30 Non-anatomical features -- Tests
Sodium nitrite test Examined all North American oaks! Miller, R.B., J.T. Quirk, & D.J. Christensen Identifying white oak logs with sodium nitrite. For. Prod. Jour. 35(2): What about all species of Quercus? What about all species of Fagaceae? What about other families?

31 YOU NEVER KNOW WHAT FEATURES ARE IMPORTANT UNTIL YOU EXAMINE THEM!!
Non-anatomical features CONCLUSIONS Take Home Message! Non-anatomical features are very important in wood identification Non-anatomical features may be important in systematic wood anatomy YOU NEVER KNOW WHAT FEATURES ARE IMPORTANT UNTIL YOU EXAMINE THEM!!

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