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Non-anatomical features in wood identification and systematic wood anatomy Regis B. Miller (retired) USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory One.

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Presentation on theme: "Non-anatomical features in wood identification and systematic wood anatomy Regis B. Miller (retired) USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory One."— Presentation transcript:

1 Non-anatomical features in wood identification and systematic wood anatomy Regis B. Miller (retired) USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory One Gifford Pinchot Drive Madison, WI

2 Standard Lists for Identification

3 Hardwood list of features  221 features 221 features –163 microscopic163 microscopic –58 non-anatomical58 non-anatomical 25 geographic origin 33 habit, specific gravity, colour, odour, fluorescence, froth, chrome azurol-S, burning splinter33 habit, specific gravity, colour, odour, fluorescence, froth, chrome azurol-S, burning splinter

4 How do we identify wood?  Naked eye Naked eye –Non-anatomical featuresNon-anatomical features colour, specific gravity, odour, fluorescence, chrome azurol-S, etc.colour, specific gravity, odour, fluorescence, chrome azurol-S, etc.  Hand Lens Hand Lens –10X - 20X10X - 20X –Mostly transverse surfaceMostly transverse surface  Light Microscope Light Microscope –4X, 10X, 20X & 40X objectives4X, 10X, 20X & 40X objectives –Mostly radial and tangential sectionMostly radial and tangential section

5  Color  Density  Fluorescence –Surface –Extract Water Ethanol Non-anatomical features  Chemical tests Chemical tests –Burning splinterBurning splinter –FrothFroth –Chrome Azurol-SChrome Azurol-S –Color of water and ethanol extractsColor of water and ethanol extracts  A Additional feature –S–Sodium nitrite

6 Non-anatomical features -- Color Color can be a good feature Color varies from nearly white to black

7 Non-anatomical features -- Color Color may change in light and air Color varies within a species

8 Non-anatomical features -- Color 4 Groups within Tabebuia Tabebuia donnell-smithii Tabebuia rosea Tabebuia insignis

9 Non-anatomical features -- Color 2 Groups within Brosimum Brosimum rubescens

10 Non-anatomical features -- Color 2 Groups within Cordia

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12 Non-anatomical features -- Density Density (weight/volume) Basic Specific Gravity (OD weight/green vol.) Standard List Low - ≤ 0.40 Medium High - ≥ demonstrations/video/...

13 Non-anatomical features -- Density Tabebuia (lapacho group) Tabebuia (roble group) Tabebuia (white-cedar group) Tabebuia (primavera group) Cordia (dark) Cordia (light) Brosimum (guianense) Brosimum (rubescens) Brosimum (alicastrum) Brosimum (utile)

14 Non-anatomical features -- Density Handroanthus (lapacho group) Tabebuia (roble group) Tabebuia (white-cedar group) Roseodendron (primavera group) Grose and Olmstead Taxonomic revisions in the polyphyletic genus Tabebuia s.l. (Bignoniaceae). Systematic Botany 32: Grose and Olmstead Evolution of a charismatice neotropical clade: Molecular phylogeny of Tabebuia s.l., Crescentieae, and allied genera (Bignoniaceae). Systematic Botany 32:

15 Non-anatomical features -- Density Brosimum (guianense) Brosimum (rubescens) Brosimum (alicastrum) Brosimum (utile) Datwyler and Weiblen On the origin of the fig: Phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from NDH F sequences. Am. Jour. Bot. 91:

16 Non-anatomical features -- Fluorescence Surface fluorescence

17 Non-anatomical features -- Fluorescence Surface fluorescence needs a fresh surface

18 Non-anatomical features -- Fluorescence Surface fluorescence  many legumes  many anacards Miller, R.B Fluorescent woods of the world. IN: Flynn, J.H. (ed). A guide to more useful woods of the world. Forest Products Society, Madison, WI

19 Non-anatomical features -- Extract Fluorescence Water and ethanol extract fluorescence Platymiscium Platymiscium Dalbergia

20 Water fluorescence D. nigra negative D. spruceana blue Non-anatomical features -- Extract Fluorescence

21 Ethanol fluorescence D. spruceana blue Non-anatomical features -- Extract Fluorescence D. nigra green/blue

22 Non-anatomical features -- Density Dalbergia nigra (0.85) 0.96 g/cm 3 Dalbergia spruceana g/cm 3 Miller, R.B. and M.C. Wiemann Separation of Dalbergia nigra from Dalbergia spruceana. Res. Paper FPL-RP-632. USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species

23 Non-anatomical features -- Froth Froth Test

24 Non-anatomical features -- Froth Froth Test:  many Sapotaceae  legumes Enterolobium Pentaclethra Mora Poeppigia Abarema Cojoba Inga

25 Non-anatomical features -- Extract Color Water and ethanol extract color Haematoxylon, Brasilettia, Guilandina, CaesalpiniaBrosimum, Maclura, Vatairea, Loxopterygium

26 Non-anatomical features -- Tests  Chrome azurol-S test Chrome azurol-S test –Blue color on aluminum accumulatorsBlue color on aluminum accumulators

27 Non-anatomical features -- Tests  Species of Vochysiaceae Species of Vochysiaceae  Many species of Melastomataceae Many species of Melastomataceae  Many species of Rubiaceae Many species of Rubiaceae  Many species of Proteaceae Many species of Proteaceae  Species of Anisophylleaceae Species of Anisophylleaceae Chrome azurol-S test Kukachka, B.F. and R.B.Miller A chemical spot-test for aluminum and it value in wood identification. IAWA Bull. n.s. 1(3):

28 Non-anatomical features -- Tests  Burning splinter test Burning splinter test –Good for some specific separationsGood for some specific separations

29 Non-anatomical features -- Tests  Sodium nitrite test Sodium nitrite test –Dark purple to black on species in white oak groupDark purple to black on species in white oak group –Orange on species in red oak groupOrange on species in red oak group

30 Non-anatomical features -- Tests Sodium nitrite test Examined all North American oaks! Miller, R.B., J.T. Quirk, & D.J. Christensen Identifying white oak logs with sodium nitrite. For. Prod. Jour. 35(2): What about all species of Quercus? What about all species of Fagaceae? What about other families?

31 CONCLUSIONS Non-anatomical features  Non-anatomical features are very important in wood identification Non-anatomical features are very important in wood identification Take Home Message!  Non-anatomical features may be important in systematic wood anatomy Non-anatomical features may be important in systematic wood anatomy YOU NEVER KNOW WHAT FEATURES ARE IMPORTANT UNTIL YOU EXAMINE THEM!!

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