Presentation on theme: "HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM A Standard In Review"— Presentation transcript:
1HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM A Standard In Review Paul WatsonCIH, CSP,ATC AssociatesAdopted from presentation developed under the Susan Harwood Grant # 46E6 – HT34
2Background Information Chromium is a metal that exists in several oxidation or valence states, ranging from chromium (-II) to chromium (+VI).Chromium compounds are very stable in the trivalent state and occur naturally in this state in ores such as ferrochromite, or chromite ore.Chrome III is an essential nutrient for maintaining blood glucose levelsThe hexavalent, Cr(VI) or chromate, is the second most stable state. It rarely occurs naturally; most Cr(VI) compounds are man made.
3What is Hexavalent Chromium? (“chrome 6”) A toxic form of chromium metal, generally man-made.Used in many industrial applications, primarily for its anti-corrosive properties.Can be generated during welding on stainless steel or metal structures coated with chromate paint.Used in electroplating (chrome plating)“Chromium is a metal that exists in several forms or “valence states” - divalent, trivalent, and hexavalent. The hexavalent form of chromium, sometimes called “chromium or chrome 6”, is a form that is known to be very toxic.Hexavalent chromium is not the same as metallic chromium you see on vehicles with chrome-plating.“It can exist as many different compounds that vary from highly water soluble (electroplating) to being practically insoluble in water. (most chromate paints)“Hexavalent chromium compounds have many varied uses in industry and are often used for their anti-corrosive properties in metal coatings, protective paints, dyes, and pigments.“Hexavalent chromium can also be formed when performing “hot work” such as welding on stainless steel, melting chromium metal, or heating refractory bricks in kilns, or performing hot work on steel structures with chromates in the coatings. In these situations, the chromium is not originally hexavalent but the high temperatures cause oxidation that converts the chromium to hexavalent chromium.”3
4Products that contain hexavalent chromium Types of Hexavalent Chromium Chemicalspigments in paints, inks, and plasticslead chromate (chrome yellow, chrome green, molybdenum orange) zinc chromate barium chromate calcium chromate potassium dichromate sodium chromateanti-corrosion coatings (chrome plating, spray coatings)chromic trioxide (chromic acid) zinc chromate barium chromate calcium chromate sodium chromate strontium chromatestainless steel and other high chromium alloyshexavalent chromium (when cast, welded, or torch cut)textile dyesammonium dichromate potassium chromate potassium dichromate sodium chromatewood preservationchromium trioxideleather tanningammonium dichromateIf a metal structure, airplane or vehicle has a green primer, it probably is zinc chromate. But you can’t tell by color alone and often a paint chip would need to be sent to a lab to analyze for hexavalent chromium.The use of hexavalent chromium in wood preservation and leather tanning had declined greatly in recent years. The operation of treating wood with hexavalent chromium is not covered by this standard, but construction activities using treated lumber is covered.4
5Common jobs with potential chrome 6 exposure Chrome plating or electroplatingWelding or cutting on stainless steel or grinding on objects painted with chromate paintPainting:Auto body repairAircraft spray painting“Electroplating uses a water soluble form of hexavalent chromium. Depending on the type of electoplating, workers in electroplating operations can be exposed to chrome 6 mist and splashes or spills of liquid onto the skin.Welding on stainless steel is one of the most common activity where workers would be exposed to chrome 6. Stainless steel contains 12% - 30 % chromium metal. High heat from welding on stainless steel creates hexavalent chromium in the welding fumes. Hexavalent chromium is found in chromate paints (lead and zinc chromates as examples.) Spray painting with chromate paints is one job where exposure to high levels of chrome 6 can occur.A much less common job is the production of chromate pigment and chemicals containing chrome 6.5
6Other jobs with potential chrome 6 exposure Chromium dye and catalyst productionGlass manufacturingPlastic colorant productionConstructionTraffic paintingRefractory brick restorationPaint removal from bridgesHazardous waste site workRoad strip paintingThe green paint on this bridge is likely lead or zinc chromatebridge work6
7Health Effects Ingestion Hazards Eyes Respiratory Tract Skin Erosive to stomach, Hemorrhaging and death are likelyEyesDirect eye contact with chromic acid or chromate dusts can cause permanent eye damage.Respiratory TractHexavalent chromium can irritate the nose, throat, and lungs.Repeated or prolonged exposure can damage the mucous membranes of the nasal passages and result in ulcers.SkinProlonged skin contact can result in dermatitis and skin ulcers.Some workers develop an allergic sensitization to chromium. In sensitized workers, contact with even small amounts can cause a serious skin rash.
8Health EffectsCancerChrome VI is classified as a known human carcinogenHexavalent chromium is considered a potential lung carcinogen.Studies of workers in the chromate production, plating, and pigment industries consistently show increased rates of lung cancer.Insoluble forms such as zinc chromate are the most potent20 year cancer latency
9Greater Risk Than Asbestos Cancer risk from Cr (VI) at new PEL is higher than asbestos and benzene risk at their PELsAsbestos: 6.7 deaths per 1000 workersBenzene: 10 deaths per 1000 workersChrome VI: excess lung cancer deaths per 1000 workers for 45 years of exposure at new PEL of 5 ug/m3
10Major Health Effects Lung cancer Nasal septum ulcers or perforations Bronchitis or asthmaX-ray showing lung cancer“The primary health effect of concern is lung cancer caused by airborne exposures to hexavalent chromium. Chronic inhalation increases the risk of lung cancer. All Cr(VI) compounds are considered to be carcinogenic.“Symptoms from breathing Cr(VI) may include runny nose, sneezing, coughing, itching, and a burning sensation from irritation or damage to the nose, throat, and lung. In severe cases sores can develop in the nose and result in nosebleeds. Ulcers can develop and with continuous exposure, permanent perforations (holes) in the nasal septum (the wall separating the nasal passages) can occur, as seen in the photo of a worker employed in a chrome plating shop.“In some cases employees become “allergic” and sensitized to hexavalent chromium so that inhaling chromate compounds can cause work-related asthma, such as wheezing and shortness of breath.”Perforation of the nasal septum from chrome 6 exposure10
11Chrome 6 effects on skin Skin ulcers Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis“Hexavalent chromium in contact with skin acts as both sensitizer and irritant. Once developed, chrome sensitivity becomes fairly persistent; in such cases, even contact with chromate-dyed textiles or wearing of chromate-tanned leather shoes can cause or exacerbate contact dermatitis.“Dermal exposures to hexavalent chromium can result in skin ulcers commonly referred to as “chrome holes” and may also lead to dermatitis. They have a corrosive action when they enter the skin through a minor nick or break in the skin, resulting in the formation of the ulcers. Typically, the lesions are found on fingers, hands or forearms. "Chrome holes" also occur on the bottom surfaces of the feet when chrome salts have been allowed to permeate boots or shoes. The lesions are usually painless and persist for many months before spontaneously healing with a permanent scar.”“Chrome hole” on fingerSkin effects are not likely in welding, but can occur in electroplating or painting11
12New Cr VI OSHA StandardSuit by Public Citizen Health Research Group; Paper, Allied Industrial, Chemical, and Energy Workers Union4/2/ rd Circuit Court of Appeals rules standard by 1/18/20062/28/ Final Rule published20 or more employees - November 27, 2006.19 or fewer employees - May 30, 2007.For all employers, engineering controls May 31, 2010.OSHA and the Steelworkers engaged in settlement agreement required engineering controls on an expedited schedule (by December 31, 2008), but will have relief from certain respirator requirements in the interim.Portland Cement is exempted.
13General Industry 29 CFR 1910.1026 Scope Definitions Permissible exposure limit (PEL).Exposure determination.Regulated areasMethods of complianceRespiratory protectionProtective work clothing and equipmentHygiene areas and practicesHousekeepingMedical surveillanceCommunicationRecordkeepingDates
14Construction Industry 29 CFR 1926.1126 No definition of a Regulated AreaNotify Employee’s within 5 days of receipt of results15 days General Industry
15Definitions Action level - 2.5 µg/m³ (8-hour TWA). Permissible Exposure Limit - 5 µg/m³ (8-hour TWA).This has been lowered from the past level of 52 micrograms per cubic meter of air (52 µg/m³).But it is higher than the original proposed PEL of 1ug/m3OSHA previously determined (based in part on research conducted by Leidel et al.) that where exposure measurements are above one-half the PEL, the employer cannot be reasonably confident that the employee is not exposed above the PEL on days when no measurements are taken
16Two limits for Chrome 6 in air 5 micrograms per cubic meterin the airPermissible Exposure Limit (PEL)8-hour average exposure limit2.5 micrograms per cubic meterin the airAction Level (AL)half of the PEL“The permissible exposure limit is the maximum average concentration of hexavalent chromium that you can be exposed to in air for a normal 8-hour working day and 40-hour week. The DOSH hexavalent chromium regulation states that we must make sure no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of chrome 6 above the PEL.The Action Level (AL) is ½ the PEL, or 2.5 micrograms of chrome 6 per cubic meter of air and if exceeded, triggers certain requirements for air monitoring and medical surveillance. More about those later.These levels of chrome 6 are extremely low – think of a single grain of sand in 3 ft. square box, ground up to particles so fine they would be invisible and spread out evenly in the air in the box, as a rough comparison.16
19WeldingNearly half the workers covered under the new standard are weldersChromium in steel is oxidized to Cr VI by high welding temperatures6, ,000° C for the SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, FCAW and SAW processesThe hotter the process and the more oxygen that is present, more fume is generatedStick welding: 50% of Cr produced is Cr VITIG & MIG 4% of total Cr produced is Cr VIStainless steel has between 10.5% - 27% chromiumUp to 10, ,000° C for the PAW processSMAW – Stick WeldingGTAW – TIGGMAW – MIGFCAW - Flux Core Arc WeldingSAW - Submerged Arc WeldingOxy-fuel cutting – 16000F
20Painting Aluminum Primers Zinc Chromate and Strontium Chromate Also present in in adhesives/sealantsChromates required for proper adhesionChromate free primers are being researchedExposure occurs during spray paintingSpecial sample handling requiredExposures occur during sanding and bead blasting
21Plating and Chromic Acid Chrome Plating produces chromic acid mists over the plating tanks.The mist is created by the electroplating currents causing bubbles in the solution. The bubbles pop at the surface and create a mist over the tankTank ventilation systems are common, but are frequently deficient.Other chromic acid exposures occur from chromic acid solution preparations.Chromic acid flakes are dumped mixed into solutions for many chemical processes
22Exposure Determination Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this section shall determine the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee exposed to chromium (VI).This determination shall be made in accordance with either of the following methods:Scheduled Monitoring OptionPerformance-oriented OptionObjective data means:Information such as air monitoring data from industry-wide surveys; orCalculations based on the composition or chemical and physical properties of a substanceEmployers must accurately characterize the exposure of each employee to Cr(VI). In some cases, this will entail monitoring all exposed employees. In other cases, monitoring of ‘‘representative’’ employees is sufficient.Exposure monitoring should include, at a minimum, one full-shift sample taken for each job function in each job classification, in each work area, for each shift.If the initial monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level, no further monitoring is required unless changes in the workplace result in new or additional exposures.If the initial determination reveals employee exposures to be at or above the action level but at or below the PEL, the employer must perform periodic monitoring at least every six months.If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposures to be above the PEL, the employer must repeat monitoring at least every three months.
23How do you Sample? Air sampling OSHA ID-215 In breathing zone Ship within 24 hoursNote type of operationIn breathing zoneUnder welding visorSurfacesW-4001Target value is µg/100 cm2
24Exposure Determination If samples show < Action LevelMay discontinue monitoringIf samples show ≥ Action LevelPeriodic monitoring every six monthsIf samples show ≥ Permissible Exposure LevelPeriodic monitoring every three monthsAdditional monitoring where process has changed
25Notification of air monitoring results If air monitoring shows chrome 6 levels in the air exceed the PEL we must:Notify you within 5 days in construction or within 15 days in general industryDescribe to you in writing what corrective actions we will take to reduce your exposure below the PEL.Note to Employer: Tell how you will provide exposure determination results to employees. This can be accomplished by posting the results in a location that is accessible to all affected employees or by notifying employees individually.2525
26Skin Samplingdoes not require skin sampling! The final rule requires the employer to provide appropriate protective clothing and equipment where a hazard is present or is likely to be present from skin or eye contact with Cr (VI), but does not specify criteria to be used for determining when a hazard is present or is likely to be present”. One of the tools which the employer can use is skin sampling. But, OSHA is not aware of any evidence that would allow establishment of a threshold concentration of Cr(VI) below which adverse skin or eye effects would not occur.The interpretation letter on the OSHA Web page states “To determine whether there is a hazard (or potential hazard) from skin or eye contact with chromium (VI) in a particular workplace, the employer should use appropriate expertise in assessing hazards. (See non-mandatory appendices providing guidance on hazard assessment in 29 CFR 1910 Subpart I Appendix B; 29 CFR 1915 Subpart I Appendix A). The recommended approach involves a walkthrough survey to identify sources of chromium (VI) hazards to workers. Also recommended are reviews of occupational illness records to determine if past skin exposures have been recorded or if skin conditions were reported which may have been linked to chromium (VI) exposures, as well as a review of any exposure determination(s) for operations involving chromium (VI)”.
27Methods of ComplianceUse engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the PEL.When not sufficient enough, Use of respiratory protection in Addition.If exposure above the PEL is less than 30 days per year, Use of respiratory protection alone to comply.No rotation of employees to different jobs to achieve compliance with the PEL.OSHA intends for this exception to be process-or task-based: i.e., it is specific to a process where engineering controls might be implemented to reduce exposures to or below the PEL.Engineering controls can be grouped into three main categories: (1) Substitution; (2) isolation; and (3) ventilation, both general and localized.Quite often a combination of these controls can be applied to an industrial hygiene control problem to achieve satisfactory air quality. It may not be necessary to apply all these measures to any specific potential hazard.
28Welding Controls Fume extractor for stick welding on stainless steel Use MIG/TIG welding on stainless steel whenever possibleFume extractor for enclosed welding on any kind of steelWeld using smaller rodsWeld using lower amperage (temperature)Keep head out of rising plume
29Welding work practices When welding, keep your head out of the welding plume.Use available local exhaust ventilation at all times.“Since welding fumes typically go straight up, bending over a horizontal welding job like this puts the welder right in the welding plume. A local exhaust vent located close enough to the welding point to pull the fumes off to one side will greatly reduce the amount of welding fume containing chrome 6 in the welder’s breathing zone.”2129
30Welding in confined spaces Welding on stainless steel in a confined space will most likely require both exhaust ventilation and the use of respirators.22
31Painting Controls Substitute with non-Cr VI paint, if possible Conduct spray painting in an extremely well-designed and maintained booth. (Think of controlling lead-based spray paint exposures, but having to control 10 times better.)Some grinders have a ventilated shroud on the grinder or needle gun, others may also have a perforated grinder diskAirline respiratorsUse Paint strippers to eliminate airborne exposures
32Personal Protective Equipment When exposure to hazards cannot be engineered completely out of normal operations or maintenance work, and when safe work practices cannot provide sufficient additional protection, a further method of control is using protective clothing or equipment.(f)(1)(ii) Where painting of aircraft or large aircraft parts is performed in the aerospace industry, the employer shall use engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to chromium (VI) to or below 25 µg/m3. The employer shall supplement such engineering and work practice controls with the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section to achieve the PEL.
33Protective Work Clothing and Equipment Where a hazard is present or is likely to be present from skin or eye contact with chromium (VI);Provide appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment at no cost to employees, andEnsure that employees use such clothing and equipment.All protective clothing and equipment contaminated with chromium (VI) must be:Removed at the end of the work shift or at the completion of their tasks, whichever comes first;Stored and transported in sealed, properly labeled, impermeable bags or other closed, impermeable containers.OSHA does not anticipate that engineering and work practice controls will eliminate the need for protective clothing and equipment and hygiene facilities for protection from dermal hazards.To determine whether there is a hazard (or likely to be a hazard) from skin or eye contact with Cr(VI) in a particular workplace, the employer should ‘‘exercise common sense and appropriate expertise’’ in assessing the hazards. (See non-mandatory appendices providing guidance on hazard assessment in 29 CFR 1910 Subpart I Appendix B; 29 CFR 1915 Subpart I Appendix A).The recommended approach involves a walk-through survey to identify sources of hazards to workers. Review of injury/ accident data is also recommended. Information obtained during this process provides a basis for the evaluation of potential hazards.The Agency does not have sufficient evidence to demonstrate that a skin or eye hazard will necessarily occur when exposures exceed the PEL.
34Protective Work Clothing and Equipment No employees may remove chromium (VI)-contaminated protective clothing or equipment from the workplace, except for those employees whose job it is to launder, clean, maintain, or dispose of such clothing or equipment.All protective clothing and equipment required by this section shall be cleaned, laundered, repaired and replaced as needed to maintain its effectiveness.The removal of chromium (VI) from protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means that disperses chromium (VI) into the air or onto an employee's body is prohibited.
35Protective Work Clothing and Equipment Use where skin or eye contact with chrome 6 will occur or is likely to occur.Normal welding PPE (welding helmet, gloves and welding leathers) is O.K. for weldersRemove all PPE when work shift or task is completed. Don’t wear or take it home.[Note to Employer: Because some hexavalent chromium exposures may also result in adverse effects on the skin and eyes, employers are required to provide and pay for protective work clothing and equipment when this situation exists. Electroplating is one example where rubber gloves, eye protection and rubber boots will likely be necessary. Grinding on chromate paint will likely generate enough dust that coveralls should be used. The normal PPE used by welders (leather gloves, welding helmet and welding leathers or coveralls) during welding on stainless steel will normally provide the needed protection for them.]35
36Protective Work Clothing Use Don’t remove chrome 6 dust or residue from clothing by blowing, shaking, or any other means that disperses the dust into the air or onto the body.Don’t shake out dusty coveralls or clothesDon’t use compressed air to clean clothing36
37Laundering and Cleaning PPE Use of outside service to launder or replace all protective clothing and other protective equipmentPut your contaminated PPE in a sealed bag for laundering or repairThe person doing these tasks must be informed of the hazards of chrome 6This would not normally apply to welders welding on stainless steel.3737
38Types of Respirators for Chrome 6 In some jobs involving chrome 6 exposure, you may need to wear a respirator.The type of respirator worn depends on the amount of chrome 6 in the air.Respirators are required if the amount in the air is more than the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). We provide the respirators at no cost to you. Respirators with cartridges are always the “P100” type which provide the highest filtering capacity of the various types of cartridges. You can tell them by the pink color of the cartridges. If the amount of lead in the air is more than 10 times the permissible limit, then we must provide you with respirators that provide better protection. If the levels in the air are really high, we must provide you with supplied air respirators where you get clean uncontaminated air from a backpack tank (like the lower photo) or a compressor through an airline respirator.Employer: Training on the use of these respirators can be done here or separately.2438
39Respiratory Protection Minimum N-95Based on airborne exposure
40Hygiene Areas and Practices Where protective clothing and equipment is required, the employer shall provide change rooms.Separate storage for contaminated and clean clothesWhere skin contact with chromium (VI) occurs, the employer shall provide washing facilities:Such facilities shall be in near proximity to the worksite and shall be so equipped as to enable employees to remove such substances. MUST BE WATER BASED CLEANING SYSTEM.Washing facilities shall be maintained in a sanitary condition.Use of these facilities when necessary shall be enforced.Change rooms that meet the requirements of 29 CFR (e) or 29 CFR (i) fulfill the change room requirements of this final Cr(VI) rule.The employer must provide readily accessible washing facilities capable of removing Cr(VI) from the skin and ensure that affected employees use these facilities when necessary.Also, the employer must ensure that employees who have skin contact with Cr(VI) wash their hands and faces at the end of the work shift and prior to eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, applying cosmetics, or using the toilet.29 CFR (h)
41Hygiene Areas and Practices If you have a job where chrome 6 can get on your skin or in your eyes, the employer must provide the following:Change rooms – separate storage facilities for PPE and street clothesWashing facilitiesBe sure to wash hands and face:at the end of the work shiftbefore eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, applying cosmetics, or using the toiletThese procedures would not normally be required for welding operations. They would likely be required for electroplating, spray painting or removing chromate paints from metal surfaces.41
42HousekeepingKeep all surfaces as free as practicable of accumulations of dust containing chrome 6.Promptly clean up all spills and releases of chrome 6 containing materialsUse a HEPA vacuum or wet methods for cleaning areas contaminated with dust or other materials containing chrome 6Dispose of chrome 6 contaminated waste in labeled & sealed bags or containers.[Note: applies to General Industry. only]“Methods other than HEPA vacuums would include wet methods such as wet shoveling, wet sweeping, or wet brushing.“Dry shoveling, dry sweeping, and dry brushing may be used only where HEPA-filtered vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of exposure to Cr(VI) have been tried and found not to be effective.“42
43Medical Surveillance A medical examination consists of: A medical and work history;A physical examination of the skin and respiratory tract.Information to PLHCPEmployer shall obtain written opinion within 30 days containing:Any detected conditions placing employee at increased risk of material impairment from Cr+6 exposureLimitations of exposure or use of PPEStatement that Physician or other Licensed Health Care Professional’s (PLHCP’s) explained results of exam to employeeEmployer shall provide copy to employee within 2 weeksCPMA cautioned that in the ‘‘current malpractice environment’’, a requirement for any additional examination deemed necessary by the PLHCP would result in licensed health care professionals ordering a battery of tests in order to prevent the possibility of malpractice claims, and the employer would be required to pay for them (Ex. 38–205).Copy of standardDescription of employee’s duties of exposureEmployee’s former, current and anticipated levels of exposurePPE used and duration of useInformation from records of employment –related medical examinations29 CFR (i)
44Who Must Be Provided Medical Exams? Any employee exposed at or above the action level for 30 or more days per year.Any employee experiencing signs or symptoms of chrome 6 exposure.Any employee exposed in an uncontrolled release of large amounts of chrome 6 in any form.“There are three categories of employees who must be offered medical surveillance:“Because routine exposures to chrome 6 may cause adverse effects such as nasal septum ulcerations, asthma, skin ulcerations or dermatitis, the standard requires medical surveillance to be offered to employees exposed above the action level for 30 or more days per year.“Some employees may experience signs and symptoms of chrome 6 exposure with less than 30 days exposure, so it is required that medical surveillance be offered to such individuals.“Medical surveillance after exposure during an emergency which results in an uncontrolled release of Cr(VI). Short-term effects such as skin ulcerations and dermatitis might result from high exposure during an emergency.”44
45Medical Exams (cont.)Are done by or under the supervision of a physician or other licensed health care professionalProvided at no cost to you at a reasonable place and time4545
46Medical Exams will do the following: Determine if you can be exposed to Chrome 6 without experiencing adverse health effects.Identify chrome 6 related adverse health effects so that appropriate measures can be taken.Determine your fitness to use respirators.“ If you have never worn a respirator before, the health care professional needs to determine if you have any health issues that would prevent you from wearing one. Breathing through a respirator can be difficult for anyone with a heart condition, asthma or other lung health issues.46
47Medical exams will include the following: Medical and work historyCr(VI) exposure (past, present, future)History of respiratory system dysfunctionHistory of asthma, dermatitis, skin ulceration or nasal system perforationSmoking status and historyPhysical examination, with emphasis on the respiratory tract and skinAny additional tests deemed appropriate by the healthcare professional“We must offer you the medical exams, but you are not necessarily obliged to take them. However, it would be to your benefit to do so.”Employer: you can make medical exams a condition of employment. The hexavalent chromium standard simply requires you to make them available at no cost to the employee.47
48Medical Exams are offered: Within 30 days after initial assignment and annually thereafterWithin 30 days after a doctor recommends additional examinationsWhen employees shows signs or symptoms of Chrome 6 exposureWithin 30 days after exposure during an emergencyAt the termination of employment“The requirement that the employer offer a medical examination at the termination of employment is intended to assure that no employee terminates employment while carrying an active, but undiagnosed, disease.”48
49Healthcare professional’s written medical opinion After your medical exam the health care professional will give a written medical opinion to us within thirty daysSpecific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to chrome 6 will be not revealed to usThe medical opinion contains information about:- any medical conditions and any increased risk from further exposure to Cr(VI)- recommended limitations regarding exposure or use of PPE such as respirators- statement that healthcare professional explained to you the results of your medical examination and any special provisions for use of protective clothing or equipment“4049
50Communication of Hazards The employer shall ensure that each employee can demonstrate knowledge of at least the following:The contents of this section; andThe purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program.Hazard CommunicationThe final standard also requires that the employer make a copy of the standard readily available to employees without cost.Specifically, with regard to the purpose and description of the medical surveillance program, OSHA intends that employees be trained about the signs and symptoms of Cr(VI)-related adverse health effects.The communication of hazards elements proposed, but not included the final rule, are requirements for: Warning signs for regulated areas; Warning labels for Cr(VI)-contaminated work clothing and equipment and Cr(VI) wastes and debris; Employees to be provided training and training records; Initial training; Training that is understandable; Certain topics for training; and Additional training.The items removed address: the health hazards associated with Cr(VI) exposure; the location, manner of use and release of Cr(VI); engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee’s job assignment; the purpose, selection and use of respirators and protective clothing; emergency procedures; and measures employees can take to protect themselves.29 CFR (j)
51WA State Department of Labor and Industries, Video Six ModulesCan down load for free from:
52Background Information OSHA has determined that the PEL of 5 µg/m3 is technologically feasible for all affected welding job categoriesOSHA has concluded that no carbon steel welders are exposed to Cr(VI) above 5 µg/m3, with the exception of a small portion of workers welding on carbon steel in enclosed and confined spaces.Many welding processes, such as tungsten-arc welding (TIG) and submerged arc welding (SAW), already achieve Cr(VI) exposures below the PEL because they inherently generate lower fume volumes.OSHA has determined that engineering and work practice controls are available to permit the vast majority (over 95 percent) of welding operations on carbon steel in enclosed and confined spaces to comply with a PEL of 5 µg/m3.The two most common welding processes, shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW), generate greater exposures and may require the installation or improvement of local exhaust ventilation.
53Inspection Activity Hexavalent chromium inspections May 30, 2006 to December 31, 200778 Fed inspections with violations of72 inspections in General Industry6 inspections in Construction0 inspections in Shipyards# of total Cr(VI) violations = 155$ amount of total current penalties = $157,534.00
54Inspection Activity72 inspections in General Industry with violationsBreakdown of these 72 employers by SIC code:(7) Electroplating, Plating, Polishing, Anodizing, and Coloring(5) Fabricated Metal Products, Not Elsewhere Classified(5) Fabricated Plate Work (Boiler Shops)(3) Sheet Metal Work(3) Fabricated Structural Metal(3) Steel Foundries, Not Elsewhere Classified(2) Repair Shops and Related Services, Not Elsewhere Classified(2) Railroad Equipment(2) Aircraft Parts and Auxiliary Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified(2) Special Industry Machinery, Not Elsewhere Classified(2) Conveyors and Conveying Equipment(2) Metal Doors, Sash, Frames, Molding, and Trim Manufacturing(2) Wood Office Furniture(1) ---- etc., for (32) other SIC codes
55Inspections List of the 5-most cited Cr(VI) violations: (d)(1) - didn't determine exposure(c) - exposure exceeded PEL(e)(1) - no regulated area(k)(1)(i)(A) - no medical surveillance(l)(2)(i)(A) - no employee knowledge of standard
57ConclusionsThe Hexavalent Chromium standard can be a problem. It is a comprehensive vertical standard with many requirements, if it applies to youRecommendationsEvaluate your Workplace(Stainless Steel is the trigger)Conduct samplingEvaluate exposure controlsImplement the full standardSelf check using the CPL
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