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Training Level 1 Version 2.01 Ultrasound in Leak Detection.

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Presentation on theme: "Training Level 1 Version 2.01 Ultrasound in Leak Detection."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Training Level 1 Version 2.01 Ultrasound in Leak Detection

3 Certification Training Level 1 Version Leaks Pressure Vacuum Steam Valves Hydraulic Electrical Rolling Elements Bearings Gearboxes Sheaves Couplings Pumps Passive Ultrasound Sources

4 Certification Training Level 1 Version Leaks happen when a fluid, gas or liquid goes from a high pressure to a low pressure medium through a hole that is not supposed to exist, usually accompanied by irreversible lost of material and / or energy Leaks P1P1 P2P2 P 1 >P 2 Definition

5 Certification Training Level 1 Version Safety Explosions – Combustible fluids Poison – Toxic/Corrosive gases Economic Avoid material loss from leakage Efficient energy management Maintain efficient and reliable processes Quality control Maintenance management Detect faulty components Decrease warranty cost Introduction Reasons for leak detection

6 Certification Training Level 1 Version Immersion or dunk method Chemical trace Chemical penetration Gas sniffing Airborne ultrasound Soap method Pressure decay Search gas tracer probe Water Tunnel Pressure - Vacuum Comparing methods for leak detection

7 Certification Training Level 1 Version Airborne –Pressure –Vacuum –Steam traps –Electrical Structure borne –Vacuum –Valves & Steam traps –Hydraulic Introduction Medium of Transport

8 Certification Training Level 1 Version Leaks External leaks pressure and vacuum leaks

9 Certification Training Level 1 Version When a fluid moves from a high pressure zone to a low pressure zone, friction between fluid molecules and medium molecules generate ultrasonic waves Pressure - Vacuum Understanding the turbulence

10 Certification Training Level 1 Version Air leaks in scfm according orifice size and Pressure in line PSI 1/64”1/16”1/4 “3/8 “1/2 “5/8 “3/4 “7/8 “ , ,0971,494 Air is free, compressed air is not Pressure - Vacuum What is the cost of air?

11 Certification Training Level 1 Version Assumptions Motor service Factor = 110% Power Factor = 0.9 A typical compressor produce 4 CFM per 1 HP 1 HP = 110% x KW/0.9 = KW This means that produce 1 CFM = kW With a cost of 0.06 $/kW/hr : 1 CFM = $0.0137/hr the 1 CFM in 8000 hr operations hours cost a year: 1 CFM x 8000 hr x $/hr = $109.6 Cost to compress 1 CFM of air

12 Certification Training Level 1 Version Leaks - yearly cost in dollars PSI 1/64”1/16”1/4 “3/8 “1/2 “5/8 “3/4 “7/8 “ ,88410,99119,53830,52943,96259, ,84615,40427,38542,79061,61883, ,50016,87530,00146,87767,50391, ,80819,81835,23255,05179,273107,900 Assuming energy cost 5 cents per Kw-h, and 365 operation days Pressure - Vacuum

13 Certification Training Level 1 Version Pressure differential Orifice size and shape Fluid viscosity Pressure - Vacuum Leak factor factors affecting leaks

14 Certification Training Level 1 Version Pressure - Vacuum Procedure for leak detection

15 Certification Training Level 1 Version Safety Know the system Select most suitable collector and accessories Plan the inspection Execute the inspection Document and report findings Take action Pressure - Vacuum General considerations

16 Certification Training Level 1 Version There is no single rule of thumb for leak inspection safety. Each and every circumstance can be different so SDT encourages the Inspector to seek advice and guidance from qualified safety personnel in each facility. All safety procedures must be followed and every risk must be avoided. Pressure - Vacuum Safety

17 Certification Training Level 1 Version Get updated layouts and blueprints of the air system Identify flow direction – supply / demand Identify system components Identify consumption points – general demand and point demand by users Pressure - Vacuum Know the system

18 Certification Training Level 1 Version Pressure - Vacuum Know the system

19 Certification Training Level 1 Version Ultrasonic detector with tuneable frequency, accessories, batteries fully charged 2. Surfactant to intensify acoustic signal (to detect very small leaks) 3. Paper to record leaks 4. Tags to identify leaks 5. Flashlight, blueprints / Layouts 6. Thick fabric to shield and isolate leaks Pressure - Vacuum Select the right equipment

20 Certification Training Level 1 Version Define route to follow from the layouts or blueprints Identify points most likely to have leaks accessories (lubricators, filters, pipe unions, valves etc.) accessories threaded – welded, pneumatic tools Select most appropriate sensors Prepare a list with required information Coordinate with floor supervisors for the best time to do the inspection – maximum pressure in the lines (low demand) Pressure - Vacuum Planning the inspection

21 Certification Training Level 1 Version Begin Compressors End End use points Pressure - Vacuum Execute the inspection

22 Certification Training Level 1 Version Shielding Technique Place a barrier between different ultrasound sources 2. Positioning Look for the best body/sensor position 3. Covering Place a barrier around the inspection point to block other competing ultrasounds 4. Managing Reflection Large leaks reflecting off of hard surfaces may create false positives Leak Detection Managing the inspection area

23 Certification Training Level 1 Version Shielding Technique Blocking a known source Enables inspector to hear additional leaks in near vicinity Use a cloth, a rag, a piece of foam, or even a gloved hand (gloved for safety) Leak Detection Managing the inspection area

24 Certification Training Level 1 Version Leak Detection Positioning Using the body to block a known source of competing ultrasound Enables inspector to find additional leaks Managing the inspection area

25 Certification Training Level 1 Version Leak Detection Covering Minimizing the inspection area Blocks all competing ultrasounds Especially useful finding vacuum leaks Managing the inspection area

26 Certification Training Level 1 Version Managing Reflection Ultrasonic energy reflects more than it absorbs Ultrasound from turbulence reflects off hard surfaces Sometimes, it seems as though a leak is coming from a brick wall! Follow the angle to the source Leak Detection Managing the inspection area

27 Certification Training Level 1 Version Special situations when pressure is not feasible Threshold Leaks (= std – cc/sec, 10 psi) At this level very little ultrasonic disturbance reaches the detector. Using the Acoustic Leak Magnifier the signal is intensified. Un pressurized Systems A bi sonic transmitter is used Leak Detection Leak Detection Techniques

28 Certification Training Level 1 Version When a leak is found it must be identified, and if possible, quantify the air loss using: Mass flow sensor Graph Intensity versus volume Sizing orifice (formula) Use a tag to identify the leak position Document a leak report Leak Detection Documentation and reporting

29 Certification Training Level 1 Version Leak #LocationPSIG oCoCGAScfmComments Leak Detection Documentation examples

30 Certification Training Level 1 Version “It is often noted that finding a leak never saved a dime and no truer words can be spoken on the subject of ultrasonic compressed air leak detection. As satisfying as it may be to spend 8 hours identifying 100’s of compressed air leaks, there is no payback in wrapping a yellow ribbon around a leaking pipe fitting. It has to be fixed to save “ Dan Durbin, Chief Engineer, Anheuser-Busch, St. Louis, Missouri Costs $ Leak Detection Take action

31 Valve Inspection Using Ultrasound Certification Training Level 1 Version

32 Certification Training Level 1 Version Do a comparison method before and after the valve 1. Contact the valve and listen Two ways to check Valves

33 Easy as A B C Checking valve for flow –Upstream and downstream –Works for any gas or liquid

34 Certification Training Level 1 Version Benefits Find internal leaks and passing valves Find cavitation Perform inspection without disassembly Save time Use contact sensor Hydraulic Systems

35 Certification Training Level 1 Version Example Cavitation in a pump Hydraulic Systems

36 Steam Traps and Ultrasound Certification Training Level 1 Version

37 Certification Training Level 1 Version it is vaporised water produced by adding heat energy to its boiling point, then more energy is given to change water to steam without further increasing the temperature 1 lb. water at 70 o F 1 lb. water at 212 o F 1 lb. steam at 212 o F BTU BTU Steam Traps What is steam?

38 Certification Training Level 1 Version Steam Traps Properties of saturated steam

39 Certification Training Level 1 Version Steam application Heating –Industrial –Home Industrial processes –Distillation –Humidification Cleaning Steam Traps

40 Certification Training Level 1 Version It is an automatic valve that opens for condensate, air and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and closes for steam Steam Traps What is a steam trap?

41 Certification Training Level 1 Version Steam Traps How steam traps operate DensityTemperature Velocity

42 Certification Training Level 1 Version Occupies precious space in the steam line Air/steam mix has less calorific energy to transfer Insulating property of air acts as heat transfer barrier Steam Traps Effects of air in heating system

43 Certification Training Level 1 Version Temperature reduction caused by air Pressure Psi Temp. o F steam Temperature of steam mixed with different percentages of air (volume) 10 %20 %30 % Steam Traps

44 Certification Training Level 1 Version Effects of CO 2 in a heating system CO 2 enters the system as carbonates from the feed water, a few ppm stays after the DI plant and mixes with the cooled condensate to form carbonic acid which is highly corrosive. Steam Traps

45 Certification Training Level 1 Version Effects of condensate in a heating system Dramatic decrease in heat transfer capability of system Occurrence of water hammer in steam lines Steam Traps

46 Certification Training Level 1 Version Air, CO 2 and condensate are removed as quickly and as completely as possible Steam traps do the job! Steam Traps Efficient heating system

47 Certification Training Level 1 Version Operation: Density How it works Uses the difference in density between condensate and steam. When steam is predominant the trap is closed When condensate is predominant the trap is open Usual failure mode Open Steam Traps Inverted bucket

48 Certification Training Level 1 Version Operation: Temp./Density How its works Float traps work on the basis of the difference in density between steam and condensate. A thermostatic element opens a valve when the trap cools to a specified temperature Usual failure mode Closed Steam Traps Float and thermostatic

49 Certification Training Level 1 Version Operation: Temperature How its works The float operates on the basis of a difference between steam and condensate Usual failure mode Open Steam Traps Thermostatic

50 Certification Training Level 1 Version Venting live steam to the atmosphere Can pose safety issues Steam Traps Visual inspection

51 Certification Training Level 1 Version Allows one to hear inside the trap Steam Traps Ultrasonic inspection

52 New generation of ultrasound systems can record scalable, comparable time signals Now instead of just listening we can compare:

53 Trap example Good trap: Temp 225 F Max RMS (43.3 dBµV) is higher than RMS (29.7 dBµV) Peak (51.7 dBµV) RMS Max RMS

54 Trap example Failed closed: Temp 140 F RMS is low (9.4 dBµV) Max RMS (11.5 dBµV) is close to RMS RMS Max RMS

55 Trap example Failed open: Temp 226 F, RMS is high (39.5 dBµV) Max RMS is close to RMS (41.9 dBµV) RMS Max RMS

56 Certification Training Level 1 Version You Decide

57 Certification Training Level 1 Version Upstream and downstream temperature are taken and compared Can be affected by back pressure T1T1 T2T2 Steam Traps Thermal inspection

58 Certification Training Level 1 Version The value of a steam trap inspection programme Promotes efficient heating system Save $$$ in chemicals, fuel, material and maintenance costs Steam Traps

59 Lots of info here Certification Training Level 1 Version

60 Keep Your Trap Shut Application Video Tutorial Series Take Upstream Temperature If Temp is too low If Temp is normal Know the operating pressure of the steam system to determine the system temperature Subtract 10% for heat transfer through pipe

61 Keep Your Trap Shut Application Video Tutorial Series If Temp is too low CONFIRM Is Trap in Service? NO! Diagnosis Not Possible YES! Listen to Ultrasound Signal

62 Keep Your Trap Shut Application Video Tutorial Series If Temp is too low Trap is in Service Listen to Ultrasound Signal Signal is Low & Constant Trap is Failed in Closed Position or there is a blockage up or downstream

63 Keep Your Trap Shut Application Video Tutorial Series If Temp is Too Low Trap is in Service Ultrasound Signal is Irregular Record Dynamic Signal Record Upstream Temperature Compare data with a good trap to build a reliable diagnosis and baseline data

64 Keep Your Trap Shut Application Video Tutorial Series If Temp is Normal Listen to Ultrasound Signal Distinct On/Off Cycles YesNo

65 Keep Your Trap Shut Application Video Tutorial Series Distinct On/Off Cycles Yes Confirm Downstream Temperature Trap is in good condition No

66 Keep Your Trap Shut Application Video Tutorial Series Distinct On/Off Cycles YesNo Listen to Ultrasound Signal Rushing Sound and High U/S Signal? YesNo

67 Keep Your Trap Shut Application Video Tutorial Series Rushing Sound and High U/S Signal? Yes Large Leak, Failed Trap in Open Position No Record Dynamic Measurement Record Upstream Temperature Analyze Time Signal to detect an early stage failure or confirm the good condition of the trap

68 Certification Training Level 1 Version Questions??

69 Certification Training Level 1 Version Electrical Leaks

70 Certification Training Level 1 Version There are no second chances Learn and follow the safety procedures Know your work environment If have doubts, clarify them with a safety supervisor Obey and understand reasons for lockouts Safety Electrical Leaks

71 Certification Training Level 1 Version Shock Arc Flash NFPA 70e Arc Blast Electrical Leaks Electrical risks

72 Certification Training Level 1 Version Current can pass through the human body’s nervous or vascular systems, and across the surface of the body. The current required to light a 7 1/2 W, 120 V lamp, passing through the chest, can cause death. Of those killed while working on voltages below 600 V, half were intentionally working on "hot" energised equipment. Most electrocutions can be avoided with proper training, planning, job preparation, procedures, and equipment. Electrical Leaks Shock

73 Certification Training Level 1 Version An extremely high temperature conductive plasma and gases resulting from an arc fault incident. As many as 80 percent of all electrical injuries are burns resulting from an arc-flash contact and ignition of flammable clothing. Arc temperatures can reach 35,000 F four times hotter than the sun’s surface. Arc-flash can cause second and third degree burns. Electrical Leaks Arc flash

74 Certification Training Level 1 Version A pressure wave caused by the rapid expansion of gases and conducting material with high flying molten materials and shrapnel. An arc-blast may result in a violent explosion of circuit components and thrown shrapnel. The blast can destroy structures, and knock workers from ladders or across a room. The blast can rupture eardrums and collapse lungs. Electrical Leaks Arc blast

75 Certification Training Level 1 Version Faults lead to failure Short Circuit Fires Transformer explosion Outages Machine damage Electrocution Electrical Leaks

76 Certification Training Level 1 Version Transformer stations Switchgears Relays Bushings Transmission lines Street poles Junction boxes and circuit breakers Bus bars Insulators Electrical Leaks Where to inspect

77 Certification Training Level 1 Version Electrical discharge or faults Corona Nuisance corona Destructive corona Tracking Arcing All faults exist to find ground What Look For

78 Certification Training Level 1 Version Phenomenon that only occurs at high AC voltages (usually above 2000 V ac rms phase-to-phase) Usually only problematic above 4000V Is exaggerated at higher altitudes The higher the voltage, the more destructive the activity PD is a leading cause and indicator of insulation breakdown (will detect many mechanical defects) What is Partial Discharge?

79 Certification Training Level 1 Version PD is a localized electrical discharge in an insulation system that does not completely bridge the electrodes. What is Partial Discharge? Arc or Spark Phase-conductor to Phase-conductor or Phase-conductor to Ground PD is destructive

80 Certification Training Level 1 Version PD activity is influenced by –Voltage –Shape of void –Temperature –Insulation condition –Environmental influences Time before failure is therefore related to these factors

81 Certification Training Level 1 Version a discharge, frequently luminous, at the surface of a conductor or between two conductors of the same transmission line, accompanied by ionisation of the surrounding atmosphere and often by a power loss. Does not generate heat Ultrasonic Sound Characteristic Steady, regular, popping sound Corona Discharge Corona discharge

82 Certification Training Level 1 Version Atomic reaction which produces ionisation due to electron movements Ozone and nitrogen oxide are produced High humidity makes it worse Result: Breakdown of insulating compounds Corona Discharge Corona – what is it?

83 Certification Training Level 1 Version Why locate corona discharge Leads to more serious electrical problems Breakdown of components - corrosion Unexpected shutdowns Fire and explosion Waste of electricity Corona Discharge

84 Certification Training Level 1 Version Corona characteristics Two types of Corona activity Nuisance Corona Can be caused from dirty insulators or bushings and high humidity Does not pose an immediate threat Is wasteful Destructive Corona Steady frying or buzzing sound accompanied with an intermittent popping sound Lower deeper sound Oxidation by-products are being produced Does not generate heat Corona Discharge

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86 Certification Training Level 1 Version Corona signature displayed using AVM Ultranalysis Corona Discharge

87 Certification Training Level 1 Version Exists to find ground. Uses any carbon build up to track as it starts a path to ground As intensity builds, and as the amplitude increases and builds to a point of “flashover”, discharge occurs and starts this process all over again This condition normally requires immediate attention Record and save wave files for comparisons with colleagues Tracking does not generate heat unless its very intense Tracking Tracking characteristics

88 Certification Training Level 1 Version The flow of electricity through the air from a conductor to another object that conducts electricity Clear indication of insulator failure All electricity to ground (wasteful) Ultrasonic sound pattern is a quick stop and start at random intervals Violent sound Arcing Arcing

89 Certification Training Level 1 Version Arcing can be seen with Infrared Infrared and Ultrasound used together is most effective in an electrical inspection. Arcing is often accompanied by heat Arcing can be identified as an “abrupt start and stop”. Can be violent When heard, should be inspected by a qualified technician Arcing Arcing characteristics

90 Certification Training Level 1 Version Arcing Signature as displayed using AVM Ultranalysis Arcing

91 Certification Training Level 1 Version Safety First Know your environment Note the ambient temperature Note the conditions, humidity, dusty, etc. Know the equipment Document your findings Performing the Inspection

92 Electrical Applications Use ultrasound to find electrical faults –Arcing –Tracking –Corona –Special areas Flow Loose part monitoring

93 BEFORE CLEANINGAFTER CLEANING Find it, Fix it, Check it Measurement Cycle

94 Certification Training Level 1 Version Field inspections Medium distance Long distance Plant inspection Short distance Contact Sensor Options

95 Certification Training Level 1 Version Field inspection Long range Parabolic dish Use up to 200 ft (60 mts) Medium range Extended Distance Sensor Use up to 30 ft (10 mts) Scan 360 o up and down, right to left listening for characteristic fault sounds Sensor Options

96 Certification Training Level 1 Version Plant inspection Short range Internal Sensor or EDS Contact Flexible Sensor or magnetic sensor Scan between doors grooves listening for characteristics fault sounds Sensor Options

97 Certification Training Level 1 Version Plant inspection-airborne Sensor Options transmission line insulators, bushings, dry type transformers and reactors, exposed joints and connections, medium voltage switchgear panels, cable terminations, low voltage MCC panels.

98 Certification Training Level 1 Version Plant inspection-structure borne Sensor Options Oil cooled transformer core windings tap changers trending can also be useful here if the load is relatively constant

99 Certification Training Level 1 Version Questions???


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