Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Implementing EC Systems: From Justification to Successful Performance."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 14 Implementing EC Systems: From Justification to Successful Performance
Learning Objectives 1.Describe the major components of EC implementation. 2.Describe the need for justifying EC investments. 3.Understand the difficulties in measuring and justifying EC investments. 4.Recognize the difficulties in establishing intangible metrics. 5.List and describe traditional and advanced methods of justifying EC investments. 6.Describe some examples of EC justification.
Learning Objectives 7.Describe the role of economics in EC evaluation. 8.Discuss the steps in developing an EC system. 9.Describe the major EC development strategies. 10.List the various EC development methods along with their benefits and limitations. 11.Discuss the major outsourcing strategies. 12.Describe EC organizational structure and change management. 13.Understand how product, industry, seller, and buyer characteristics influence the success of EC.
The Implementation Landscape The Major Implementation Factors o Justification/Economics o Acquire or Self Develop Your E-Commerce System o Organizational Readiness and Impacts of E- Commerce o How to Succeed
Why Justify E-Commerce Investments? How Can They be Justified? Increased Pressure for Financial Justification Other Reasons Why EC Justification Is Needed EC Investment Categories and Benefits How Is an EC Investment Justified? o *Cost–benefit analysis o Cost–Benefit Analysis and the Business Case What Needs to be Justified? When Should Justification Take Place?
Why Justify E-Commerce Investments? How Can They be Justified? Using Metrics in EC Justification o Metrics, Measurements, and Key Performance Indicators *Key performance indicators (KPIs) *Web Analytics
Difficulties in Measuring and Justifying E-Commerce Investments The EC Justification Process Difficulties in Measuring Productivity and Performance Gains o Data and Analysis Issues Relating EC and ITS Expenditures to Organizational Performance o Other Difficulties Intangible Costs and Benefits o Tangible Costs and Benefits o Intangible Costs and Benefits o Managing Intangible Benefits
A Model for IT Project Justification Sources: Based on Gunasekaran et al. ( 2001 ) and Misra ( 2006 ); and the authors’ experience.
Difficulties in Measuring and Justifying E-Commerce Investments The Process of Justifying EC and IT Projects The Use of Gartner’s Hype Cycle o What Is Gartner’s Hype Cycle? o *Hype cycle o The five stages of the hype cycle are: 1.Technology trigger 2.Peak of inflated expectations 3.Trough of disillusionment 4.Slope of enlightenment 5.Plateau of productivity o Application of the Hype Cycle
Methods and Tools for Evaluating and Justifying E-Commerce Investments Opportunities and Revenue Generated by EC Investments Methodological Aspects of Justifying EC Investments o Types of Costs Distinguish between initial (up-front) costs and operating costs Direct and indirect shared costs In-kind costs
Methods and Tools for Evaluating and Justifying E-Commerce Investments Traditional Methods for Evaluating EC Investments o The ROI Method o Payback Period o NPV Analysis o Internal Rate of Return (IRR) o Break-Even Analyses o The Total Costs and Benefits of Ownership *Total cost of ownership (TCO) *Total benefits of ownership (TBO) o Economic Value Added o Using Several Traditional Methods for One Project o Business ROI Versus Technology ROI
Methods and Tools for Evaluating and Justifying E-Commerce Investments *ROI Calculators o The Offerings from Baseline Magazine o Other Calculators Advanced Methods for Evaluating IT and EC Investments o Financial approaches o Multicriteria approaches o Ratio approaches o Portfolio approaches
Examples of E-Commerce Metrics and Project Justification Justifying E-Procurement Justifying Social Networking and the Use of Web 2.0 Tools Justifying an Investment in Mobile Computing and in RFID o Justifying Investing in RFID Justifying Security Projects Justifying Buying Products or Services from Vendors
The Economics of E-Commerce Reducing Production Costs o Product Cost Curves o *Production Function o * Agency Costs o * Transaction Costs 1. Search costs 2. Information costs 3. Negotiation costs 4. Decision costs 5. Monitoring and policing costs 6. Legal-related costs
Average Cost Curve of (a) Regular and (b) Digital Products
The Economic Effects of EC: The Production Function and Agency Costs
A Five-Step Approach to Developing an E-Commerce System The Essentials of the SDLC: An EC Application o The Five Traditional Steps Step 1: Identifying, justifying, and planning EC systems Step 2: Creating an EC architecture Step 3: Selecting a development option Step 4: Installing, testing, integrating, and deploying EC applications Step 5: Operations, maintenance, and updates Managing the Development Process
Development Strategies for E-Commerce Projects There are four popular options for developing an EC website: 1.Develop the site in-house 2.Buy a packaged application 3.Outsource the system development 4.Lease the application
Development Strategies for E-Commerce Projects In-House Development: Insourcing o *Insourcing Buy the Applications (Off-the-Shelf Approach) o * Turnkey approach o Advantages and Limitations of Ready Made Packages Outsourcing EC Systems Development and Applications o Types of Outsourcing Options
Development Strategies for E-Commerce Projects Leasing EC Applications: Cloud Computing and Software As A Service (SAAS) o * Cloud Computing o Advantages of Cloud Applications Other Development Options o Join an e-marketplace o Join a consortium o Join an auction or reverse auction third-party site o Form joint ventures o Use a hybrid approach
Development Strategies for E-Commerce Projects Selecting a Development Option o Before choosing an appropriate development option, you need to consider the following factors: Customers Merchandising Sales service Promotion Transaction processing Marketing data and analysis Branding
Organizational Impacts of E-Commerce Improving Direct Marketing and Sales Transforming Organizations and Work o Technology and Organizational Learning o The Changing Nature of Work o Disintermediation and Reintermediation o Restructuring Business Processes Redefining Organizations o New and Improved Products and Services o *Mass Customization and *On-Demand Manufacturing o The On-Demand Revolution o * 3D Printing
How Customization Is Done Online: The Case of Nike Shoes
Organizational Impacts of E-Commerce * Change Management How to Organize an EC Unit in a Company o Options for Organizing the EC Workforce Report to the Marketing Department Report to the Finance Department Report to the Chief Operating Officer Distribute the EC Workforce in Several Departments Report to the IT Department Create a New, Possibly Autonomous EC Department No Formal Structure for EC Exists o Create an Autonomous Division or a Separate Online Company
Opportunities For Success In E-Commerce and Avoiding Failure Factors That Determine E-Commerce Success o E-Commerce Failures E-Commerce Successes o Strategies for EC Success Cultural Differences in EC Successes and Failures o Can EC Succeed in Developing Economies?
Managerial Issues 1.How should the value of EC investments be justified? 2.Which investment analysis method should we adopt for EC justification? 3.Who should conduct the justification? 4.Should we use the hype cycle? 5.Should we embark on cloud computing products for our EC initiatives? 6.Which strategy should we choose for vendor selection: the inside-out or outside-in approach? 7.What kinds of organizational changes may be needed? 8.Is it possible to predict EC success?
Summary 1.The major components of EC implementation. 2.The need for EC justification. 3.The difficulties in justifying EC investment. 4.Difficulties in establishing intangible metrics. 5.Traditional methods for evaluating EC investments. 6.Describe the justification of representative EC projects.
Summary 7.EC economic evaluation. 8.The major steps in developing an EC system. 9.The major EC development strategies, along with their advantages and disadvantages. 10.The variety of EC application development methods, along with their benefits and limitations. 11.EC application outsourcing strategies. 12.Organizational structure and change management. 13.Reasons for EC success and failure.