Presentation on theme: "Energy, Ecosystems, and Ecology! Energy flow in Ecosystems."— Presentation transcript:
Energy, Ecosystems, and Ecology! Energy flow in Ecosystems
What is Energy? What is energy? How do you know something has energy? What types of energy do different things have? Energy in science is defined as the ability to do work or the ability to cause change. Different forms of energy include: mechanical, thermal, sound, light, and nuclear.
Different Types of Energy Mechanical Energy is the energy associated with the motion or position of an object. Mechanical energy can be kinetic or potential energy. Mechanical Energy is the total energy of the system. Examples: School Bus Moving, Frog Jumping, and even sounds moving through the air. Roller Coaster Kinetic and Potential Energy Gizmo Roller Coaster Kinetic and Potential Energy Gizmo
Kinetic or Potential Energy Categories Kinetic energy is energy associated with the motion of an object. The following are various types of kinetic energy that deal with molecules moving. Motional Energy Thermal Energy Sound Energy Electromagnetic Radiation Energy (Type of Heat Energy) Electric Energy Potential energy is the energy that is stored with the atoms/molecules that make up objects. Objects can also have potential energy based upon their position. The following are various types of potential energy. Chemical Energy Nuclear Energy Elastic Energy Gravitational Energy
Different Types of Energy Thermal Energy is the total energy of the particles in a substance or material. When the thermal energy of an object increases it’s particles move faster, making the temperature of the object rise. Ice Cream melts when its thermal energy increases.
Different Types of Energy Chemical energy is potential energy stored in chemical bonds that hold chemical compounds together. Chemical energy is stored in the foods you eat and in a match that is used to light a candle. Chemical energy is even stored in the cells or your body. Chemical Energy can either be stored or released when a chemical reaction occurs. What chemical reaction do we use for our chemical energy?
Different Types of Energy Solar (nuclear) Energy is energy that originates from the sun. This energy is created by the sun fusing hydrogen atoms together into helium. The sun is like a giant nuclear reactor where elements are fused together during solar fusion.
The Importance of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the chemical process where plants take sunlight and convert it into chemical energy. This is the equation for photosynthesis. 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Solar Energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 The reactants for photosynthesis are Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Sunlight Energy The products for photosynthesis are Sugar and Oxygen. Photosynthesis Video The Chemistry of Photosynthesis (Complicated Version) The Chemistry of Photosynthesis Complex Photosynthesis Video
The Importance of Photosynthesis The sunlight is the source of energy for all living things on Earth. The energy source for all ecosystems is the Sun. Without sunlight being converted into useable chemical energy plants could not grow. If plants quit reproducing and growing the foundation for all food chains would be ruined. Only a few rare archaebacteria would survive.
The Importance of Photosynthesis Not only does photosynthesis provide food and energy to other organisms it’s our source for oxygen. 99% of organisms are aerobic. That means they need oxygen to live and a certain amount of it. Without plants producing oxygen most of the world’s organisms would die out within weeks. Plants use sugar for their energy and growth needs. Plants use up carbon dioxide. The more carbon dioxide there is in our atmosphere the warmer the temperature of our Earth is. A planet like Venus has tons of carbon dioxide in it’s atmosphere and the average temperature there is over 800 degrees.
Photosynthesis-Related Story Scientists in Siberia discovered a collection of seeds that were 31,800 years old buried in the frozen tundra. They took the seeds from the and were able to grow the once extinct plant Silene stenophylla. The seeds were found around mammoth, bison, and wooly rhino bones. As long as the elements needed for photosynthesis are present even very old dormant seeds can grow.
Where does photosynthesis occur and how does it influence a plant? Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of the plant cells. Chloroplasts convert the light energy into sugar through various reactions including the light and dark reactions as well as the Calvin Cycle. The sugar is converted into useable energy or ATP for the plant cell so it can grow and reproduce. ATP is a chemical that is the source of energy for every living thing.
Photosynthesis Continued…… Photosynthesis converts Solar Energy into Chemical Energy.
Cellular Respiration the opposite of Photosynthesis During respiration, cells break down simple food molecules such as glucose and release the energy they contain. The following is the equation for respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy The reactants for this equation are sugar glucose and oxygen. The products are carbon dioxide and water and mechanical and thermal energy. Respiration and Photosynthesis are Chemical Reactions. Respiration releases energy from food. Chemical Energy is converted into Mechanical and Thermal Energy in this process! Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration BRAIN POP Video Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration BRAIN POP Video
Photosynthesis vs. Respiration 1. Photosynthesis occurs in the presence of light (and chlorophyll in plant cells) 2. Requires energy (light) to make sugar (glucose) 3. Complex substances (sugar) are formed from simpler ones 4. Carbon dioxide and water are the reactants. 5. Oxygen is a product. 6. Solar Energy is converted into Chemical Energy 1. Respiration occurs at all times in cells. 2. Releases energy from sugar 3. Complex substances (sugar) are broken down into simpler ones. 4. Carbon Dioxide and water are the products. 5. Oxygen is a reactant 6. Chemical Energy is converted into Mechanical and Thermal Energy.
Reactants and Products for Photosynthesis and Respiration What are the reactants for photosynthesis? What is the optimal temperature for plant/seed growth? What is the optimal water amount for plant/seed growth? What is the optimal amount of light for plant/seed growth? The right amount of all the products is dependant upon the plant. There is no one correct obvious answer, but it is important that you are able to look at graphs and find out what variable is best for a specific plant.
The Right Amount of Light
The Right Temperature Range
Energy in our Ecosystem Where does energy in our ecosystem start? Drawing of ENERGY PATHWAY ON THE BOARD What path does it follow to get to us? There is an energy pathway that goes from Sunlight to mechanical energy. It is as follows: 1. Sunlight: Light Energy: Plants Use Photosynthesis to form Sugars: 2. Sugars Stored as Chemical Energy in Plants: 3. Plants are consumed: 4. Through Respiration Chemical Energy from plants is converted into Mechanical Energy for our Muscles
Energy Pyramids Energy pyramid shows how much energy is available at each step of the food chain/web. Most of the energy the primary consumer gets from the producer is used by the consumer. Most of the energy lost in this pyramid is lost as heat to the atmosphere. Whatever energy is left is available for the next consumer. (if there is one) The picture to the right is an energy pyramid.
Energy Pyramids The amount of available energy decreases as you go up the food chain. It takes a large number of producers to support a small number of primary consumers It takes a large number of primary consumers to support a small number of secondary consumers The # of organisms and the amount of energy decreases as you move up the pyramid.
Biomass The total mass of the organic matter at each trophic level is called biomass. Biomass is just another term for potential energy- energy that is to be eaten and used. The transfer of energy from one level to another is very inefficient. (10% Law)
Another Energy Pyramid Which level has the most energy? Which level has the most organisms? Which level has the least organisms? Which level has the least energy? Musk Oxen and Wolves Video Musk Oxen and Wolves Video
Humans can disrupt or help Food Webs Can anybody think of any food webs or chains that humans have influenced positively or negatively?
Some ways we have helped our world People create wetlands and nesting boxes that increase the number and range of wood ducks. Restoring natural habitats by planting trees and increasing foliage.
Some ways we have damaged our World The increase of acid rain is caused by more greenhouse gases in the air. The acid rain can damage amphibian eggs and reduce the population of frogs. Acid rain is found in parts of the country where there are many cars and power plants. Water in the form of rain is chemically combined with sulfur dioxide and oxygen to create sulfuric acid, which then becomes rain.
Some ways we have damaged our World Clear cutting is a logging practice when all or most of the trees in a harvest area are cut down. Clear cutting causes a major loss of habitat and a large increase in soil erosion. Without tree seedlings to grow an area such as this can not recover for many years. Human Impacts on the Environment Crash Course Video Human Impacts on the Environment Crash Course Video Write down the: -4 Ecosystem Services -5 Human Impacts
To Be or not To Be Extinct Extinction occurs when members of a species are no longer surviving in any environment. Endangered is when you have a very small number of individuals left in a specific species. If an organism goes extinct what effects does that have on other organisms and it’s environment? Tasmanian Tiger went extinct within the last 100 years. As many as 27,000 species of various organisms go extinct each year.
Why try and Save Endangered Species? So why is protecting endangered species important? What can you do?
How can we make our World better? The following is going to be a discussion on what we have done that is wrong or bad as of late. We are all guilty of one or quite a few of these problems. I have suggestions written out on how you can payback the environment for certain negative things you have done.
1- View Lot Homes Building a big house on the hill gives a great view of the valley When land is cleared for a home or a parking lot then it will decrease the amount and types of animals that can live nearby. Status Symbol
1- View Lot Homes Require some habitat destruction Birds Deer Elk Rodents Reptiles
1- View Lot Homes Require some removal of vegetation, which allows erosion to occur faster Better views = steeper slopes = more erosion Building Roads into areas that are not residential.
1- View Lot Homes Uses a lot of Wood and Tree’s! Create lots of construction waste
View Lot Homes - Payback Create areas for wildlife in the landscape Provide nesting boxes and year-round food for birds
View Lot Homes - Payback Re-plant native vegetation Do not overly use insecticides or pesticides
View Lot Homes - Payback Slow erosion by planting trees Use erosion control fabric on steep slopes Place large boulders or imbed logs along pathways
View Lot Homes - Payback Recycle household trash as much as possible Look for the recycle symbol JUST DO IT!
2- High Energy Demands Here in the west, most people drive large vehicles to get around They require more fuel and create more pollution We use lots of electricity at our homes, sometimes needlessly.
2- High Energy Demands Oil has to be refined into gasoline before it can go into our vehicles Refineries create more pollution
2- High Energy Demands We have many homes and businesses which means that we need lots of electricity
2- High Energy Demands Electricity is produced by burning coal, which pollutes the air (That’s why electric cars only solve half of the pollution problem.)
2- High Energy Demands The coal is dug from a mine (probably in eastern Utah) This mining requires more energy output and more pollution This mining contributes to erosion.
High Energy Demands - Payback Use frontrunner for commuting (if possible)
High Energy Demands - Payback Carpool to school and combine trips to the store Ecological Footprint Calculator Ecological Footprint Calculator
High Energy Demands - Payback Become part of the team that creates an alternate fuel source (The mother of all science fair projects) A Different Kind of Fuel Video A Different Kind of Fuel Video
High Energy Demands - Payback Program your thermostat at home drop the temperature when no-one is home
High Energy Demands - Payback When regular bulbs burn out, replace them with energy-saving compact fluorescent bulbs
High Energy Demands - Payback Turn off stuff when you’re not using it! Unplugging it is even better
High Energy Demands - Payback Buy energy efficient appliances
High Energy Demands - Payback Support programs to use alternate energy sources, such as wind power, geothermal energy, and hydro-electric power
3- Urban Sprawl Most people want to move to “the open” With lots of new houses, comes new roads and new shopping centers and new hospitals – bingo – we have unplanned sprawl with no “open”