Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Dan Alvarado Negin Aryaee Maciej Mroczek Medford Xie.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Dan Alvarado Negin Aryaee Maciej Mroczek Medford Xie."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dan Alvarado Negin Aryaee Maciej Mroczek Medford Xie

2

3  Big Impact ◦ ~27% of Indoor Water Use ◦ ~25 gpd per person ◦ ~40% with Leaking  Save Money  Water Shortages

4  Energy Policy Act of 1992 ◦ 3.5 gpf & 5.0 gpf standard ◦ 1.6 gpf by 1994  European Toilets ◦ 1.6 gpf standard  Problems ◦ Poor Performance ◦ Loss in Water Savings

5  Maximum Performance (MaP) Testing ◦ US and Canadian Municipalities ◦ Limitations  Bowl Cleaning  Noise  Water Sense Label ◦ EPA Program ◦ Criteria  Water Efficiency  Performance

6  Ultra Low Flush Toilets ◦ EPAct 1992 ◦ 1.6 gpf  High Efficiency Toilets ◦ Max 1.28 gpf  Dual Flush Toilets ◦ 0.8 gal per light flush ◦ 1.6 gal per heavy flush

7  American Standard Toilets ◦ Water Sense Label  Berkeley County Water Rates ◦ $17.90 per first 2,000 gal ◦ $5.40 per additional 2,000 gal  Average Household Size (2.6)  Flushes ◦ 4 Light Flushes ◦ 1 Heavy Flush ◦ 17.5 gal per person (3.5 gpf toilet)  Compare to 25 gal per person

8 Ultra Low FlushHigh Efficiency Initial: $200 vs. 3.5 gpf $52.29/yr 3.8 yr payback vs. 5 gpf $93.57/yr 2.1 yr payback Dual Flush Initial: $300 vs. 3.5 gpf $61.10/yr 4.9 yr payback vs. 5 gpf $102.38/yr 2.9 yr payback Initial: $400 vs. 3.5 gpf $71.66/yr 5.6 yr payback vs. 5 gpf $112.95/yr 3.5 yr payback

9  Plumbing Fixtures: ◦ Insulate hot water pipes well ( ↑ 2ºF–4ºF) ◦ tape strips of fiberglass insulation around ◦ Pipe sleeves: polyethylene or neoprene foam ◦ (6” away from flue with gas heaters) ◦ Redirect Kitchen/Shower pipe outlets ◦ to water plants/lawn ◦ Fix plumbing leaks ◦ every leak wastes gpd

10  Statistics ◦ Accounts for 30-70% of all household water use depending on lot size and climate zone  Tips: Smart sprinkler controllers (rebates) Decide when & how much to water: SAVE 40 gpd Automatic rain shutoff and self-adjust for cool, overcast days Rotating sprinkler heads that reduce run-off Adjust sprinklers to prevent overspray and runoff: SAVE gpd Fix sprinkler leaks

11  Average homeowner uses twice the water needed to keep plants healthy ◦ Re-examine watering schedule  Sample Improvement in watering schedule:

12

13 Native plants Group plants well Watering needs Arrangements (to shade each other) Less thirsty plants minimize turf grass (instead warm-season turf) Use mulch around trees and plants: saves gallons of water/day 2-4” layer regulates temperature and retains moisture and prevents soil from crusting so get better water penetration Plant trees: lower air and soil temperatures=less moisture loss Don’t cut grass too short: longer grass=less evaporation Soil improvement: cultivate routinely and incorporate organic matter helps soil’s ability to resist evaporation >>retains more moisture; ◦ Aerate heavy/compacted soil around trees to have voids for water to go through

14  Evaporative air conditioner ◦ let water drain line go to plants/tree base/lawn  High-Efficiency Appliances: ◦ Water Heater ◦ Washer ◦ Dishwasher

15

16  High Initial Investment Cost  Weather and geographic location  Time of the day  Orientation of Solar Panels (Southern facing)  Obstructions (trees, neighboring homes)  Adequate roof surface area (maximize system)  Utilities that have net metering policy

17 Crystalline Silicon PV ◦ Firm crystals ◦ Used for over 50 yrs ◦ 85% of market ◦ Avg efficiency: 15-22% ◦ 100 sf per kW required Thin Film PV ◦ Flexible ◦ Unknown longevity ◦ Potential for cost reduction ◦ Avg efficiency: 7-15% ◦ 200 sf per kW required (Shoemaker 2009)

18 (Stars and Wenger 2003)

19  Net metering is a way to measure the amount of electricity consumed and produced at a location that is connected to the electricity grid.  Requires own source of generation ◦ Solar & Wind  Sell electricity back to Grid at Retail Price  $0.00 Bill ?

20 Shoemaker, 2009

21  PG&E Net Metering Program Qualifications ◦ Generator size must be less than or equal to 1 megawatt (1,000 kilowatts). ◦ Your generating system must be powered by an eligible renewable power source. ◦ You are not interconnecting to a secondary network distribution line. ◦ Your generating system components have been reviewed and approved by PG&E.

22 Shoemaker, 2009

23

24  Federal ◦ 30% of total cost of system ◦ No cap ◦ January 2009 to December 2016 ◦ Accelerated depreciation for Businesses first 5 years  California Solar Initiative (CSI)  San Francisco – Go Solar SF

25 Shoemaker, 2009

26  San Francisco Incentives – Go Solar SF

27  3 Bedroom House w/ 3 occupants  Average of Sept-Oct PG&E electric utility bill  325 kWh/mo  $42/mo  3900 kWh/yr used  2.5 kWh PV system ~4000 kWh/yr produced  PGE and US Dept of Energy estimates cost of $9.00/W of generated capacity

28 Base Cost (before rebate) $ 22, CSI Rebate ($1.10/W) $ 2, Fed Tax Credit (30% after CSI rebate) $ 5, NET Cost $ 13, kWh Production 4063 kWh/yr Space Requirements ~ 300 s.f. 1% discount rate3% discount rate 25 yr cost of power (approx) $.15/kWh $.20/kWh 40 yr cost of power (approx) $.10/kWh $.15/kWh

29  Crystalline Silicon Modules or Thin Film PV (lifetime ~ years)  Solar system components (ie inverter lifetime of ~10-12 years)  Efficiency of new technology of solar panels  Efficiency of appliances  Cost of electricity  Weather consistency

30

31  Shoemaker, P. (2009, Summer). Solar Power Basics for Residential Customers. PowerPoint lecture presented by PG&E  Stars, Tom and Wenger, Howard, (2003), “Get Your Power from the Sun,” US Dept of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory  water_heating 


Download ppt "Dan Alvarado Negin Aryaee Maciej Mroczek Medford Xie."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google