2IntroductionA truck manufacturer is considering investment in a new plant.An airliner is planning to buy a fleet of jet aircraftsA commercial bank is thinking of an ambitious computerization programmeA pharmaceutical firm is evaluating a major R&D programme.All these are the examples of situations involving capital expenditure decision.Essentially each of them represents a scheme for investing resources which can be analyzed and appraised reasonably independently.
3Understanding Capital Expenditure Also referred to as Capital Investment or Capital Project or just Project.The basic characteristic of Capital Expenditure is :Typically involves a current outlay (or current and future outlays) of fundsIn the expectation of a stream of benefits extending far into the future.However, from accounting point of view, Capital Expenditure is the one shown as asset on the Balance Sheet. This assets, except in the case of non-depreciable asset like land, is depreciated over its life.
4Understanding Capital Expenditure In accounting, the classification of an expenditure as capital expenditure or revenue expenditure is governed by:Certain conventionsProvisions of lawManagement’s desire to enhance or depress reported profits.Outlays on R&D, major advertising campaign, reconditioning of P&M may be treated as revenue expenditure for accounting purposes, even though they are expected to generate a stream of benefits in future.Therefore, such expenditures qualify for being capital expenditures as per our definition.
5Understanding Capital Expenditure Capital expenditures have three distinctive features:They have long-term consequencesThey often involve substantial outlays.They may be difficult or expensive to reverse.How a firm allocates its capital (the capital budgeting decision) reflects its strategy and business. That’s why the process of capital budgeting is also referred to as strategic asset allocation.Techniques of Capital Budgeting are helpful in identifying valuable investment opportunities.
6What is Capital Budgeting? Capital budgeting refers to the process of deciding how to allocate the firm’s scarce capital resources (land, labor, and capital) to its various investment alternativesThe process of planning for purchases of long-term assets.Nature of capital budgeting:Evaluating and selecting long-term investments in:tangible assetsintangible assetsDesigned to carry out an organization’s strategy
7Managing the Firm’s Resources The ManagerCompetition,Life cycle effects,International events,etc.Resource DecisionsCash ManagementInventory ManagementWorking Capital ManagementInvestment in Human CapitalLong-term AssetsAccounts ReceivableInvestment DecisionsOperatingDecisionsRecruitment, SelectionTraining, ProductivityPerformance AppraisalCompensationUnions & Labor RelationsCash Inflows& EarningsHuman ResourcesDecisionsShare-holderValueEconomics of InformationDatabase ManagementData ModelingIS Planning & DevelopmentInformationDecisionsRisk-adjustedDiscount RateDebt vs. Equity FinancingFinancial LeverageDividend Pay-outCost ofCapitalFinancialMarketsFinancing Decisions
8General Steps in Capital Budgeting Translate strategy to capital needsGenerate alternativesProject financial resultsPerform financial analysisAssess risksConsider non-financial factorsSelect projectsPost-approval review
9Capital Budgeting Process Identification of potential investment opportunities. (Planning Body)Estimate the criteria of target.Monitor external environment regularly to scout investment opportunities.Formulate a well defined corporate strategy based on thorough SWOT analysisShare corporate strategy and perspectives with persons who are involved in the process of capital budgeting.Motivate employees to make suggestions.
10Capital Budgeting Process (contd..) Assembling of proposed investments.Investment proposal identified by the production department and other departments are submitted in a standardized capital investment proposal form.Routed through several persons before it arrives to Capital Budgeting Committee.Investment proposals are usually classified into various categories for facilitating decision making:Replacement investmentExpansion investmentsNew product investmentsObligatory and welfare investments
11Capital Budgeting Process (contd..) Decision making.A system of rupee gateways usually characterizes capital investment decision making.Executives at various levels are vested with the power to okay investment proposals up-to certain limits.Investment requiring higher outlays need the approval of the BoD.Preparation of Capital Budget and appropriationsThe purpose is to check in order to ensure that the fund position of the firm is satisfactory at the time of implementation.Provides an opportunity to review the project at the time of implementation.
12Capital Budgeting Process (contd..) ImplementationTranslating an investment proposal into a concrete proposal is complex, time-consuming, and risk-fraught task.For expeditious implementation at a reasonable cost, the following are helpful:Adequate formulation of projects – necessary homework and preliminary studies.Use of the Principle of Responsibility AccountingUse of Network Techniques – CPM and PERTPerformance review.Post-Completion Audit- provides feedback.Comparing actual performance with budgeted ones.
15OverviewAll of these techniques attempt to compare the costs and benefits of a projectThe over-riding rule of capital budgeting is to accept all projects for which the cost is less than, or equal to, the benefit:Accept if: Cost £ BenefitReject if: Cost > Benefit
16The ExampleWe will use the following example to demonstrate the techniques of capital budgetingAssume that your company is investigating a new labor-saving machine that will cost $10,000. The machine is expected to provide cost savings each year as shown in the following timeline:1234520002500300035004000-10,000If your required return is 12%, should this machine be purchased?
171. The Payback Period Method The payback period measures the time that it takes to recoup the cost of the investment.If the cash flows are an annuity, then we can simply divide the cost by the annual cash flow to determine the payback periodOtherwise, as in the example, we subtract the cash flows from the cost until the remainder is zeroThe shorter the payback period, the betterGenerally, firms will have some maximum allowable payback period against which all investments are compared
18The Payback Period: An Example For our example project, we will subtract the cash flows from the initial outlay until the entire cost is recovered:Since it will take years (= 2500/3500) to recover the last 2,500, the payback period must be years
19Cumulative Net Cash Flow ComputationYearCash FlowCumulative Net Cash Flow-10,00012,000-8,00022,500-5,50033,000-2,50043,5001,000Hence, Payback Period lies between year 3 and 4
20Evaluation of Payback Period Method Simple; both in concept and application.Has only few hidden assumptions.Rough and Ready method for dealing with risk.Favors projects which generate substantial cash inflows in earlier years and discriminates against project which bring substantial cash inflows in later years but not in earlier years.If risk tends to increase with futurity – the payback criterion may be helpful in weeding out the risky projects.Since it emphasizes earlier cash inflows, it may be a sensible criterion when the firm is pressed with the problems of liquidity.
21Problems with the Payback Period It ignores the time value of moneyIt ignores all cash flows beyond the payback periodIt is a measure of project’s capital recovery, not profitabilityThough it measures a project’s liquidity, it doesn’t indicate the liquidity position of the firm as a whole, which is more important.The cutoff payback period is subjective.
22ExampleYearCash flow of ACash flow of B(100,000)150,00020,000230,0003410,00040,00056-60,000Payback Criterion prefers A with payback period of 3 years over B with payback period of 4 years.But B has very substantial cash inflows in the years 5 and 6
232. The Discounted Payback Period The discounted payback period is exactly the same as the regular payback period, except that we use the present values of the cash flows in the calculationSince our required return (WACC) is 12%, the timeline with the PVs looks like this:12345-10,000The discounted payback period is 4.82 yearsNote that the discounted payback period is always longer than the regular payback period
24Cumulative net cash flow ComputationsYearCash FlowDiscounting 12 %Present ValueCumulative net cash flow-10,0001.00012,0000.8931,786-821422,5000.7971992.533,0000.712213643,5000.636222654,0000.5672268408.5Payback Period = 4.1 years
25Problems with Discounted Payback The discounted payback period solves the time value problem, but it still ignores the cash flows beyond the payback periodTherefore, you may reject projects that have large cash flows in the outlying years that make it very profitableIn other words, any measure of payback can lead to a focus on short-run profits at the expense of larger long-term profits
263. Accounting Rate of Return (ARR) Also called Average Rate of ReturnAlso called Average Accounting Return (AAR)There are many different definitions of the ARR.However, in one form or other, ARR is always defined asMeasure of accounting profit can be PAT or NMeasure of accounting value is Book Value
27ExampleSuppose we are deciding whether or not to open a store in a new shopping mall. The required investment in improvements is $ 500,000. The store would have a five-year life because everything reverts to the mall owners after that time. The required investment would be 100 % depreciated over five years. So the depreciation would be $ 500,000 / 5 = $ 100,000 per year. The tax rate is 25 %.Table ahead shows the projected revenues and expenses
28Computation Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Revenue 433,333 450,000 266,667200,000133,000Expenses150,000100,000EBDT233,333DepreciationEBT133,33325 %33,333NI50,000
29SolutionThe project is acceptable if the ARR exceeds the target ARR
30Evaluation of ARR method It is simple to calculateIt is based on accounting information, which is readily available and familiar to businessmen.While it considers benefits over the entire life of the project, it can be used even with the limited data.
31Problems with ARR method ARR is not the rate of return in any meaningful economic sense. It is just the ratio of two accounting numbers, and is not comparable to the returns actually offered.It is based upon accounting profit, not cash flow.It does not take into account the time value of money.The ARR measure is internally inconsistent. While the numerator represents profit belonging to equity and preference stockholders, its denominator represents fixed investments, which is rarely, if ever, equal to the contributions of equity and preference stockholders.
32The Net Present ValueThe net present value (NPV) is the difference between the present value of the cash flows (the benefit) and the cost of the investment (IO):In other words, this is the increase in wealth that the shareholders will receive if the project is acceptedAll projects with NPV greater than or equal to zero should be accepted
33Present value of future cash flows NPV Decision RulePresent value of future cash flows=Profitability IndexInvestment Cost
34The NPV: An ExampleNPV is calculated by subtracting the initial outlay (cost) from the present value of the cash flowsNote that the discount rate is the WACC (12% in this example)Since the NPV is positive, the project is acceptableNote that a positive NPV also means that the IRR is greater than the WACC
35The Internal Rate of Return The internal rate of return (IRR) is the discount rate that equates the present value of the cash flows and the cost of the investmentUsually, we cannot calculate the IRR directly, instead we must use a trial and error processFor our example, the IRR is found by solving the following:In this case, the solution is 13.45%
37Problems with the IRRThe IRR is a popular technique primarily because it is a percentage which is easily compared to the WACCHowever, it suffers from a couple of flaws:The calculation of the IRR implicitly assumes that the cash flows are reinvested at the IRR. This may not always be realistic.Percentages can be misleading (would you rather earn 100% on a $100 investment, or 10% on a $10,000 investment?)
38The Profitability Index The profitability index is the same as the NPV, except that we divide the PVCF by the initial outlay:Accept all projects with PI greater than or equal to 1.00For the example, the PI is: