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1 The Emergency Planning College Introduction to Civil Protection Self-access pre-course module Click here to start

2 Purpose Learning objectives The purpose of this module is to introduce you to core concepts of civil protection so that you ‘hit the ground running’ when you attend Emergency Planning College courses. It requires you to do 3 to 4 hours of preparatory work so that you derive maximum benefit from the time on your course. About this module By the end of the module you should be able to:  define key civil protection terms  identify the most relevant legislation and guidance and how it has developed  explain the concepts of resilience and Integrated Emergency Management  identify the key organisations involved in emergency response  outline local, regional and central civil protection arrangements  explain the importance of the key inter-agency contingency planning issues  relate the contents to an exploration of your own organisation’s emergency preparedness and your role within it. Click to continue

3 Purpose Learning objectives  define key civil protection terms  identify the most relevant legislation and guidance and how it has developed  explain the concepts of resilience and Integrated Emergency Management  identify the key organisations involved in emergency response  outline local, regional and central civil protection arrangements  explain the importance of the key inter-agency contingency planning issues  relate the contents to an exploration of your own organisation’s emergency preparedness and your role within it. About this module By the end of the module you should be able to: Requirement You are asked to complete the module by:  Working through the three learning sections on-line  Completing the associated Tasksheet for each of the three sections and printing a hard copy which you bring with you to the course.Tasksheet Click to continue The purpose of this module is to introduce you to core concepts of civil protection so that you ‘hit the ground running’ when you attend Emergency Planning College courses. It requires you to do 3 to 4 hours of preparatory work so that you derive maximum benefit from the time on your course.

4 Important - Copyright Notice The material featured on this website is subject to Crown copyright protection unless otherwise indicated. The Crown copyright protected material (other than the Royal Arms and departmental or agency logos) may be reproduced free of charge in any format or medium for research, private study or for internal circulation within an organisation. This is subject to the material being reproduced accurately and not used in a misleading context. Where any of this Crown copyright material is being republished or copied to others, the source of the material must be identified and the copyright status acknowledged. Click to continue

5  Crown copyright C 5 Using this module Clicking on the action buttons at the foot of other pages in this module works as follows: Click on the topic you want If you see: move your mouse to the topic of your choice and click. brings you to this help page takes you to the full contents page takes you to the last slide you viewed takes you to the next sequential slide takes you to the previous sequential slide takes you to the previous section menu takes you to the next section menu in the module links you to more detailed information Click here to start Click to continue displays the next step of the active slide (or you can press the space bar) C takes you to the main menu

6  Crown copyright C 6 Main menu Introduction to Civil Protection Civil protection in context Key terms Key civil protection activities Exit from the presentation Click on the topic you want

7  Crown copyright C 7 Section 1 menu Section 1 Key Terms Major incident Resilience; civil protection; major emergency Emergency (Civil Contingencies Act definition) Return to main menu Click on the topic you want

8  Crown copyright C 8 Major emergency “any event or circumstance (happening with or without warning) that causes or threatens death or injury, disruption to the community, or damage to property or to the environment on such a scale that the effects cannot be dealt with by the emergency services, local authorities and other organisations as part of their normal day-to-day activities”. Civil protection the application of knowledge, measures and practices to anticipate, guard against, prevent, reduce or overcome any hazard, harm or loss that may be associated with natural, technological or man-made crises and disasters in peacetime. Civil protection the application of knowledge, measures and practices to anticipate, guard against, prevent, reduce or overcome any hazard, harm or loss that may be associated with natural, technological or man-made crises and disasters in peacetime. Resilience Central government’s approach to civil contingency planning is built around the concept of resilience. This is defined as the ability "at every relevant level to detect, prevent, and, if necessary, to handle and recover from disruptive challenges". The processes which underpin resilience form the fundamental elements of civil protection. Definitions from Dealing with Disaster (3rd edition revised, 2003) Section 1 (page 1 of 3) Key terms Click to continue Resilience Central government’s approach to civil contingency planning is built around the concept of resilience. This is defined as the ability "at every relevant level to detect, prevent, and, if necessary, to handle and recover from disruptive challenges". The processes that underpin resilience form the fundamental elements of civil protection.

9  Crown copyright C 9 Major incident "any emergency that requires the implementation of special arrangements by one or more of the emergency services, the NHS or the local authority for: the initial treatment, rescue and transport of a large number of casualties; the involvement either directly or indirectly of large numbers of people; the handling of a large number of enquiries likely to be generated both from the public and the news media, usually to the police; the need for the large scale combined resources of two or more of the emergency services; the mobilisation and organisation of the emergency services and supporting organisations, e.g. local authority, to cater for the threat of death, serious injury or homelessness to a large number of people." Section 1 (page 2 of 3) Key terms Definitions from Dealing with Disaster (3rd edition revised, 2003) For specific National Health Service purposes (including ambulance services), a major incident may be defined as: The Association of Chief Police Officers Emergency Procedures Manual and the Fire Service Major Incident Emergency Procedures Manual (1994) define a ‘major incident’ as: "Any occurrence which presents a serious threat to the health of the community, disruption to the service, or causes (or is likely to cause) such numbers or types of casualties as to require special arrangements to be implemented by hospitals, ambulance services or health authorities." Click to continue

10  Crown copyright C 10 Meaning of Emergency (Civil Contingencies Act Section 1) ‘Emergency’ is defined in subsection 1 as an event or situation which threatens serious damage to: 1a) human welfare in a place in the United Kingdom 1b) the environment of a place in the United Kingdom, or 1c) the security of the United Kingdom or of a place in the United Kingdom. Section 1 (page 3 of 3) Key terms Click to continue The event or situation in section 1, subsection 1 may occur or be inside or outside the United Kingdom.

11  Crown copyright C 11 Emergency ‘Emergency’ is defined in subsection 1 as an event or situation which threatens serious damage to: 1a) human welfare in a place in the United Kingdom 1b) the environment of a place in the United Kingdom, or 1c) the security of the United Kingdom or of a place in the United Kingdom. Section 1 (page 3a) Key terms For the purposes of subsection (1)(a) an event or situation threatens damage to human welfare only if it involves, causes or may cause — (a) loss of human life, (b) human illness or injury, (c) homelessness, (d) damage to property, (e) disruption of a supply of money, food, water, energy or fuel, (f) disruption of an electronic or other system of communication, (g) disruption of facilities for transport, or (h) disruption of services relating to health. Click to continue

12  Crown copyright C 12 Emergency ‘Emergency’ is defined in subsection 1 as an event or situation which threatens serious damage to: 1a) human welfare in a place in the United Kingdom 1b) the environment of a place in the United Kingdom, or 1c) the security of the United Kingdom or of a place in the United Kingdom. Section 1 (page 3b) Key terms For the purposes of subsection (1)(b) an event or situation threatens damage to the environment only if it involves, causes or may cause — (a) contamination of land, water or air with biological, chemical or radio-active matter, or (b) disruption or destruction of plant life or animal life. Click to continue

13  Crown copyright C 13 Emergency ‘Emergency’ is defined in subsection 1 as an event or situation which threatens serious damage to: 1a) human welfare in a place in the United Kingdom 1b) the environment of a place in the United Kingdom, or 1c) the security of the United Kingdom or of a place in the United Kingdom. Section 1 (page 3c) Key terms Click to continue

14  Crown copyright C 14 Section 2 menu Section 2 Civil Protection in Context 2.2: Learning from the past 2.1: From civil defence to civil protection 2.3: New horizons Return to main menu Click on the topic you want

15  Crown copyright C : From civil defence to civil protection 2.1.1: ‘Civil defence’ and associated legislation Section 2 Civil Protection in Context 2.1.3: Developments in the 1990s 2.1.2: Changing perceptions - the 1980s 2.1.4: The new millennium Click on the topic you want 2.1 sub-menu

16  Crown copyright C : From civil defence to civil protection (1 of 4) 2.1.1: ‘Civil defence’ and associated legislation Section 2 Civil Protection in Context ‘Civil defence’ and associated legislation Changing perceptions - the 1980s Developments in the 1990s The new millennium Emergency planning in the UK and government funding for it grew out of the wartime requirement. Following World War II, the term ‘civil defence’ related to community self- help during large-scale emergencies resulting from war rather than peacetime events. During the Cold War, civil defence planning focused on the threat from the Warsaw Pact and the possibility of a major war culminating in a catastrophic nuclear exchange. The 1948 Civil Defence Act and associated regulations placed a duty on local government, police and other organisations to undertake civil defence planning. The Local Government Act 1972 Section 138 provided powers (but not duties) to spend public money in order to alleviate or eradicate the effects of peacetime emergencies. Following reorganisation of local government in 1974, local authorities established small emergency planning teams. The Home Office recognised the value in producing peacetime contingency plans provided work did not conflict with civil defence responsibilities. The Civil Protection in Peacetime Act of 1986 allowed councils to use civil defence resources and facilities for peacetime civil emergencies. Click to continue

17  Crown copyright C Changing perceptions - the 1980s ‘Civil defence’ and associated legislation Changing perceptions - the 1980s Developments in the 1990s The new millennium Perceptions of emergency planning changed towards the end of the 1980s for two main reasons. the changed world situation reduced likelihood of nuclear attack. there was a succession of tragic events in the UK during the late 1980s. Section 2 Civil Protection in Context May Bradford City football stadium fire Aug Manchester airport Boeing 737 fire Mar capsize of Herald of Free Enterprise ferry Nov King’s Cross underground fire Jul Piper Alpha oil platform fire 2.1: From civil defence to civil protection (2 of 4) Click to continue

18  Crown copyright C Changing perceptions - the 1980s ‘Civil defence’ and associated legislation Changing perceptions - the 1980s Developments in the 1990s The new millennium Perceptions of emergency planning changed towards the end of the 1980s for two main reasons. the changed world situation reduced likelihood of nuclear attack. there was a succession of tragic events in the UK during the late 1980s. Over a thousand people died in these events and many more were injured. Various investigations and enquiries identified many issues. For example: failings in risk assessment and appropriate prevention mechanisms. lack of joined-up planning. poor inter-agency co-operation, collaboration and command and control response deficiencies in handling casualty enquiries, communication procedures, providing material and psychological welfare to survivors and relatives. Section 2 Civil Protection in Context May Bradford City football stadium fire Aug Manchester airport Boeing 737 fire Mar capsize of Herald of Free Enterprise ferry Nov King’s Cross underground fire Jul Piper Alpha oil platform fire Dec Clapham rail crash Dec Lockerbie air crash Apr Hillsborough stadium disaster Aug Sinking of the Marchioness, River Thames Jan Kegworth air crash 2.1: From civil defence to civil protection (2 of 4) Click to continue

19  Crown copyright C : Developments in the 1990s ‘Civil defence’ and associated legislation Changing perceptions - the 1980s Developments in the 1990s The new millennium A 1991 Home Office review concluded that more needed to be done to improve co-ordination of emergency response in the UK. With the reduced risk of nuclear conflict following the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and improvements in East/West relations, the time was right to develop more flexible civil defence arrangements. Section 2 Civil Protection in Context Central guidance came in a booklet called Dealing with Disaster. The first edition in 1992 outlined the principles of Integrated Emergency Management for handling emergencies from both a single and multi-agency perspective. Prime responsibility for responding still lay at local level, relying heavily on contingency plans made by local emergency services (fire, police, ambulance, coastguard), local government, utility companies, voluntary organisations and private sector operators. New regulations (Civil Defence [General Local Authority Functions] Regulations 1993) came into force, but were still framed under the auspices of the 1948 Civil Defence Act. Practitioners continued pressing for legislative change to reflect the move from Cold War civil defence to modern civil protection. 2.1: From civil defence to civil protection (3 of 4) Click to continue

20  Crown copyright C : The new millennium ‘Civil defence’ and associated legislation Changing perceptions - the 1980s Developments in the 1990s The new millennium A further review of arrangements in England and Wales followed the fuel crisis and severe flooding (autumn and winter, 2000). The foot and mouth disease outbreak identified further issues (2001). During the public consultation period of the Emergency Planning Review the attacks on the USA on 11 September 2001 occurred. Government reviewed its own procedures to deal with emergencies, and how well the UK as a whole would respond. Potential legislation also needed to accommodate devolution settlements appropriately. Responsibility for civil contingencies moved from the Home Office to the Cabinet Office. The Civil Contingencies Secretariat was created (July 2001) to lead on improving the UK's resilience by working with others to anticipate, assess, prevent, prepare, respond and recover. The final report of the 2001 Emergency Planning Review was made public in February Government recognised that although arrangements to deal with disasters affecting a localised area were well established, robust regional arrangements were lacking and needed to be put in place. The scope of the review was broadened to all legislation relating to emergencies in the UK, including the outdated and recently unused Emergency Powers Acts. The outcome is the Civil Contingencies Act. Section 2 Civil Protection in Context 2.1: From civil defence to civil protection (4 of 4) Click to continue

21  Crown copyright C : Learning from the past Section 2 Civil Protection in Context Certain investigations have acted as milestones in prompting improvements to critical areas. Examples: Investigation into the King's Cross underground fire Public inquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster Investigation into the Clapham Junction railway accident The Hillsborough Stadium disaster, 15 April 1989 Public Inquiry into the Shootings at Dunblane Primary School Sea Empress grounding and oil spill incident, Milford Haven 1996 The Easter 1998 floods Ladbroke Grove Rail Inquiry Parts 1 and 2, 1999 (Lord Cullen) Public inquiry into the identification of victims following major transport accidents (Lord Justice Clarke) The great flood, York City and area, November 2000 Foot and mouth disease Lessons from these have been incorporated into guidance documents for the UK as a whole and for its constituent parts. Many past events have identified important generic or specific issues where improvements were needed: command, control and co-ordination arrangements intra-agency and inter-agency alerting and communication management frameworks dealing with the media handling casualty enquiries material and psychological welfare warning and informing the public. Lessons have also been fed into more specific guidance for particular sectors or activities. For example: hazardous materials, dealing with fatalities, dealing with the media, public information, welfare, venue safety. Click to continue

22  Crown copyright C 22 Section 2 Civil Protection in Context 2.3: New horizons 2.3.1: Bringing it together - the Civil Contingencies Act (CCA) 2.3.2: Changes in structures 2.3.3: Duties under the CCA 2.3.4: New emergency powers Click on the topic you want 2.3 sub-menu

23  Crown copyright C : Bringing it together - The Civil Contingencies Act (CCA) The Civil Contingencies Act Changes in structures Duties under the CCA New Emergency Powers The CCA (18/11/2004) delivers a single statutory framework for civil protection in the UK. At local level, a two-tier duty is placed on local responders to codify existing best practice. This clearly identifies local responder roles and responsibilities for civil protection, ensuring consistency and enhancing performance and communication. A regional civil protection tier gives a clear role for the regions in civil protection to ensure consistency of activity across and between the tiers, from local arrangements right through to central government departments. The outdated Emergency Powers Act was also replaced by provisions within Part 2 of the Act, with effect from Nov Section 2 Civil Protection in Context 2.3: New horizons (1 of 4) It covers assessment, prevention, planning, training, exercising and responding. Click to continue Regulations for most other parts of the Act come into force from the autumn of 2005, with business continuity duties to be applied in 2006.

24  Crown copyright C : Changes in structures (local level) The Civil Contingencies Act Changes in structures Duties under the CCA New Emergency Powers Section 2 Civil Protection in Context 2.3: New horizons (2 of 4) Category 2 responders: utilities (water, sewerage, gas, electricity) telecommunications service providers railway operators airport operators harbour authorities highways authorities Strategic Health Authorities Health and Safety Executive Common Services Agency (Scotland) Certain operators have assessment, planning and response duties under legislation affecting, for example, hazardous chemicals and radiation and are not specified in the CCA. Previous civil defence legislation related to local authorities, police authorities and certain fire authorities only. The CCA places duties at local level on a wider range of organisations and classifies them as either Category 1 or Category 2 responders. To link to the relevant section of the CCA click here: Category 1 responders: police forces, fire authorities, ambulance services local authorities hospitals with provisions for accidents and emergencies primary care trusts local health boards, Health Protection Agency, port health authorities Environment Agency; Scottish Environment Protection Agency Sec. Of State for maritime and coastal matters – includes Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) Click to continue In N. Ireland, only police and MCA are Cat 1 responders. Only telecomms service providers have Cat 2 duties.

25  Crown copyright C : Duties under the Civil Contingencies Act (CCA) The new Civil Contingencies Act Changes in structures Duties under the CCA New Emergency Powers Category 1 responders (see for who they are)2.3.2 Category 1 responders are required to: assess the risk of emergency occurrences take measures to prevent emergencies maintain plans for dealing with an emergency collaborate on sharing information, training and exercising in relation to emergency preparedness. If an emergency occurs, Category 1 responders must take appropriate action to: reduce, control or mitigate its effects warn the public provide information and advice to the public obtain assistance from or co-operate with other Category 1 responders obtain assistance from Category 2 responders. Section 2 Civil Protection in Context 2.3: New horizons (3 of 4) Category 2 responders (see for who they are)2.3.2 Category 2 responders are required to co-operate with Category 1 bodies in the performance of the Category 1 bodies’ duties by: providing information assisting in all aspects of plan preparation and maintenance playing a part in multi-agency plans taking part in multi-agency exercises. Category 2 bodies may also seek co-operation in developing their own plans from their Category 1 partners. Such co- operation could include asking for relevant information or for their participation in exercises. Click to continue

26  Crown copyright C : Emergency powers The new Civil Contingencies Act Changes in structures Duties under the CCA New Emergency Powers Section 2 Civil Protection in Context 2.3: New horizons (4 of 4) The emergency powers provisions in the Act are aimed at larger scale eventualities affecting the UK, a constituent part of the UK or a region. The CCA allows senior ministers of the crown the power to make emergency regulations in extreme circumstances. When emergency powers are invoked: each Part of the United Kingdom where they have an effect will have an Emergency Co- ordinator appointed each region where they have an effect will have a Regional Nominated co-ordinator appointed. The CCA repealed all previous emergency powers legislation Click to continue

27  Crown copyright C : Emergency powers Section 2 Civil Protection in Context 2.3: New horizons (4 of 4) The emergency powers provisions in the Act are aimed at larger scale eventualities affecting the UK, a constituent part of the UK or a region. The CCA allows senior ministers of the crown the power to make emergency regulations in extreme circumstances. Their introduction must meet strict criteria of necessity and proportionality. There are constraints on: duration geographical extent types of emergency for which regulations can be made. Emergency regulations are to be made only in extreme circumstances where there is a widespread threat to human life, health, the environment, critical infrastructures or critical institutions. When emergency powers are invoked: each Part of the United Kingdom where they have an effect will have an Emergency Co- ordinator appointed each region where they have an effect will have a Regional Nominated co-ordinator appointed. The CCA repeals all previous emergency powers legislation Click to continue The new Civil Contingencies Act Changes in structures Duties under the CCA New Emergency Powers

28  Crown copyright C 28 Section 3 Key Civil Protection Activities 3.0: Integrated Emergency Management - overview 3.1: Assessing 3.2: Preventing Click on the topic you want 3.3: Preparing 3.4: Responding 3.5: Recovering Return to main menu Section 3 menu

29  Crown copyright C 29 Civil contingency planning arrangements need to be integrated both within and between organisations. Section 3 Key civil protection activities 3.0: Integrated Emergency Management (IEM) - an overview IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering They should be an integral part of departmental and organisational planning. Organisations should work both individually and in collaboration with each other on key activities. Events in recent years have highlighted the importance of assessment and prevention activities. Preparing for sudden impact disasters with identifiable scenes (transport accidents, flooding, etc.), is as important as ever. Preparing to respond effectively to the 'creeping crisis’, which can be widespread and where a specific ‘scene’ is less apparent, is receiving long overdue attention (epidemics, widespread protest, etc.). Five activities are key to an integrated approach PreventPrepareRespondAssessRecover These activities all interact with each other - they are not separate stages Click to continue

30  Crown copyright C 30 Assessment activities can be broadly seen as : 1:Anticipatory assessment, which should identify measures which may prevent an emergency occurring or reduce its severity if it occurs 2.Dynamic assessment, which evaluates ongoing events and circumstances with a view to dealing with them with optimal effectiveness 3. Horizon scanning, which should be a regular and continuous activity aimed at identifying potential significant events, assessing their implications and reporting to relevant stakeholders. Section 3 Key civil protection activities IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering 3.1: Assessing (1 of 2) hazard threat risk Something with the potential to cause harm. The existence of an intention to cause harm, and potential capacity to do so. The product of the probability x impact of a hazard or threat materialising. Assessment activities identify and evaluate hazards, threats and risks. a river, a blocked fire exit, a virus badly maintained chemical plant in densely populated area = higher risk well maintained chemical plant in sparsely populated area = lower risk a hostile country, a violent protest group, threatened industrial action Click to continue

31  Crown copyright C 31 Through risk assessment (i.e recognition of hazards, threats and their associated risks), we can identify: priorities vulnerabilities shortfalls critical dependencies. Section 3 Key civil protection activities IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering Assessment activities help identify both prevention measures and the capabilities required if something occurs. Assessment activities underpin: planning activities drawing up of inventories identification of required skills identification of sources of supply provision of resources (human and material). Assessment of higher probability risks facing particular communities or localities is vital. But a principle of sound contingency planning is that many types of emergency, for example an aircraft crash, or serious epidemic, can happen anywhere. Assessment should therefore not restrict planning to second guessing the exact nature of a possible emergency - it should help ensure that plans are flexible and based on the delivery of functions. Experience has shown that it is advisable to consider 'worst case' scenarios. One final dimension to assessment is critical: learning from the past to deal more effectively with the future. 3.1: Assessing (2 of 2) Click to continue

32  Crown copyright C 32 Section 3 Key civil protection activities IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering 3.2: Preventing Certain kinds of activity carry known risks and are subject to legal requirements for adopting prevention measures which aim to eliminate or isolate hazards or reduce risks as far as is reasonably practicable. Relevant legislation, regulations, codes of practice and guidance documents should be consulted to identify stipulated or recommended measures for preventing many dangerous occurrences or reducing their severity. Where assessment identifies hazards, threats and associated risks the basic options are to: EliminateIsolateReduce require / prohibit certain materials ; forbid specific activities provide protective clothing ; build a flood barrier vaccinate ; plan for decontamination For example: Click to continue

33  Crown copyright C 33 Preparing involves planning, training and exercising. The Civil Contingencies Act places duties on individuals and organisations in respect of each of these activities. Section 3 Key civil protection activities IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering 3.3: Preparing (1 of 2) Plans should be developed so that: emergencies can be prevented whenever possible, or if an emergency occurs people and organisations can: continue to perform their functions respond in an appropriate manner to reduce, control or mitigate its effects. Plans not only have to be developed, they have to be published and made available to people who need them if they are to carry out their obligations effectively. Regulations arising from the Act may require: provision for the carrying out of exercises provision for training of staff or other people. There is a duty to maintain arrangements to warn and inform the public. Organisations must be ready to provide information and advice to the public if an emergency is likely to occur or has actually occurred. There is a duty to maintain and review arrangements when assessments identify a need to do so. For example, changes in circumstances or responsibilities, feedback from exercises, experience of actual incidents or near misses. Click to continue

34  Crown copyright C 34 To be effective plans should be: flexible clear and understandable up-to-date in line with organisational culture(s) regularly practised compatible and consistent with those of key partners and stakeholders. Section 3 Key civil protection activities IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering Planning should: ensure a prepared approach enable an organised response assist you to solve problems provide an agreed framework within which people work in a concerted manner. 3.3: Preparing (2 of 2) Click to continue

35  Crown copyright C 35 Section 3 Key civil protection activities IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering 3.4: Responding (1 of 5) The initial response to a major emergency aims to deal with the first effects. It is about implementing appropriate plans for: alerting appropriate people and organisations establishing command and control identifying primary aims and objectives maintaining collaboration, co-ordination and communication obtaining and providing appropriate resources effective decision-making, logging and recording. With sudden impact emergencies (explosions, major transport accidents, riots) the initial response is normally provided by the statutory emergency services and, as necessary, by the appropriate local authorities and possibly voluntary organisations. Those managing both the initial and longer term response must assess how the emergency is developing and try to anticipate its knock-on consequences. The aim must be to mitigate the effects of the emergency by implementing measures that provide the necessary resources for the longer term response and for ensuring the continuity of critical services. Experiences of slower onset or less localised emergencies or crises (BSE, fuel protests of 2000, foot and mouth disease) show that other organisations may face the brunt even in the early stages of a major emergency. Priority tasks: To save life To protect property To protect people (public and personnel) To contain the incident To safeguard the environment To facilitate criminal investigation To inform the public To restore essential services Click to continue

36  Crown copyright C 36 Section 3 Key civil protection activities IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering Under a nationally agreed framework, the management of the response to major emergencies will normally be undertaken at one or more of three levels - Operational, Tactical and Strategic (sometimes referred to as bronze, silver and gold). The degree of management required will depend on the nature and scale of the emergency. Operational The ‘doers’, who manage front-line operations to carry out specific tasks and functions Tactical Identify resource priorities; plan and co-ordinate Strategic Formulate organisation’s overall policy; contribution to Strategic Co-ordinating Group At or near scene(s) or associated areas: overall general management (of the emergency response) obtain and allocate resources plan and co-ordinate specific response liaise and participate in joint meetings maintain inter-agency communication Away from the scene(s): corporate approach anticipation executive decisions: policy spending resource reassignment inter-agency contribution as required political, legal, financial, PR, public information issues Widespread or slower onset emergencies may result in top down implementation. At each level of management that is implemented (operational, tactical, strategic) there is a need for an individual agency to manage its own activities effectively while contributing to effective liaison and co-ordination meetings with counterparts in other organisations. 3.4: Responding (2 of 5) With localised sudden impact emergencies the command and control framework tends to be implemented from the bottom up. Click to continue At the scene(s) or associated areas: assess the extent of problem(s) carry out specific specialist tasks liaise with managers from other agencies on scene co-ordinate activities.

37  Crown copyright C 37 Section 3 Key civil protection activities IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering The need for strategic management may be confined to one particular agency. However, some emergencies affect the responsibilities or activities of more than one organisation. It may then be appropriate to convene a Strategic Co-ordinating Group (SCG). This does not replace individual agencies' strategic mechanisms. Each organisation retains its own responsibilities but co-ordinated senior level discussions ensure that links between strategic decisions are identified and corporate policies agreed The purpose of this corporate approach at senior level is essentially to take strategic decisions in relation to the response. The SCG should be based at an appropriate pre-planned location, away from the noise and confusion of any disaster scene. For most events it will be a police responsibility to establish the SCG and chair it initially. Chairmanship may at some stage pass from one agency to another (for example to the local authority for the recovery phase). The nature of some emergencies may require other agencies to initiate its formation and chair it (for a rabies threat, for example). The (SCG) is normally made up of senior members from each key organisation involved. Each must be able to make executive decisions about their organisation's resources and have the authority to seek the aid of others in support of their role. For a wide area emergency the SCG may need to liaise with similar neighbouring SCGs, with the appropriate Government Office of the Region or devolved administration. When appropriate, it provides the focus for communication to and from the lead government department. Government advisors or liaison officers may attend SCG meeting depending on the nature of the incident (for example, for nuclear or terrorist incidents). Strategic co-ordination 3.4: Responding (3 of 5) Click to continue

38  Crown copyright C 38 Section 3 Key civil protection activities IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering There is substantial experience of localised sudden impact emergencies in the UK. Arrangements for the immediate vicinity of an such emergency scenes include : assessing control measures with regard to reducing risk. deciding which functions should be controlled by which agency according to: statutory obligations circumstances expertise of emergency services and other agencies overall priorities at the scene how to render working areas safe. setting up an inner cordon to secure the immediate scene and provide a measure of protection and control of personnel on scene. On-scene management issues for localised emergencies For localised incidents, tactical management is usually undertaken from an incident control point established in the vicinity of the incident site. For emergencies with an identifiable scene the police normally assume management of overall co-ordination. This ensures best use of resources and avoids resources being called upon simultaneously by different agencies. An outer cordon may have to be established around the vicinity of the incident to control access to a much wider area around the site. 3.4: Responding (4 of 5) Some emergencies may give rise to a number of different scenes, and possibly entail difficulty of movement between one and the next. Management arrangements for the response will need to take this into account. Click to continue

39  Crown copyright C 39 Section 3 Key civil protection activities IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering For more detailed information on response arrangements see Dealing with Disaster: ‘The Combined Response, Part 1 For definitions of terms, see Dealing with Disaster Glossary Decisions need to be made about the location of key functions or facilities at the scene(s). For example: casualty clearing station(s) to which the injured can be taken ambulance loading point for those who need to be taken to hospital collection/assembly point for survivors before they are taken to a survivor reception centre possible helicopter landing sites rendezvous point(s) for all responding personnel, which may be some distance from the scene in incidents involving hazardous materials or bomb(s) marshalling area for assembling vehicles and equipment body holding area which is under cover and protected from public view media liaison point. Evacuation or shelter of the public in the immediate vicinity may also have to be considered at a very early stage. Some functions are discharged outside cordons and away from the scene(s) but may be essential components of an integrated response: rest centres, survivor reception centres, friends and relatives reception centres, temporary mortuaries, casualty bureau, receiving hospitals. rendezvous points marshalling area casualty clearing station ambulance loading point survivor assembly point body holding area media liaison point 3.4: Responding (5 of 5) Click to continue

40  Crown copyright C 40 Recovery management encompasses the physical, social, psychological, political and financial consequences of an emergency. Anticipation of consequences and appropriate recovery planning must start right from the beginning of any response. Organisations and communities need to plan, manage and undertake those activities that will provide as rapid a return to normality as possible - for both the community and responders. Lessons from the past emphasise the need to involve the community fully in its own recovery. The promotion and support of self-help activities are important considerations. Section 3 Key civil protection activities IEM - overview Assessing Preventing Preparing Responding Recovering 3.5: Recovering Restoring essential services Cleaning up and restoring Reconstructing Assessing economic impact Maintaining confidence and morale Catering for welfare needs Returning to normality as far as possible Adapting to new realities Reviewing performance and plans Involving the community fully in its own recovery Click to continue

41 End of module To exit press Escape key If you want to repeat anything you can either go back to the main menu by clicking on the home icon or obtain the full contents with the C icon. If you have any feedback or suggestions relating to this module, please contact Steve Hick Course Director, Emergency Planning College Direct line : Switchboard : College website: C

42  Crown copyright C 42 Contents 2: Civil protection in context 1: Key terms 3: Key civil protection activities Click on the topic you want 2.2: Learning from the past2.1: From civil defence to civil protection 2.3: New horizons Major incident Resilience; civil protection; major emergency Emergency (Civil Contingencies Act definition) 3.0: IEM - overview 3.1: Assessing 3.2: Preventing 3.3: Preparing 3.4: Responding 3.5: Recovering 2.1.1: ‘Civil defence’ and associated legislation 2.1.3: Developments in the 1990s 2.1.2: Changing perceptions - the 1980s 2.1.4: The new millennium 2.3.1: Bringing it together - the CCA 2.3.2: Changes in structures 2.3.3: Duties under the CCA 2.3.4: New emergency powers


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