Presentation on theme: "Recognition and enforcement in Romania of foreign judgments in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility International Conference."— Presentation transcript:
Recognition and enforcement in Romania of foreign judgments in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility International Conference Logos Universality Mentality Education Novelty - 21st of May – 3rd of June National and European context in juridical sciences Europeanization of Romanian legislation Bantaş Teodora-Maria Assistant university lecturer Faculty of Law University of Bucharest
At EU level regulatory means were sought to respond to the desire to create a space governed by freedom, security and justice in civil and commercial matters. For this purpose, a sunstantial amount of legal instruments have been used, through which most private international law regulations are transfered from the sphere of sovereignty of Member States, to European Union institutions Context of developing Council Regulation (EC) No. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and matters of parental responsibility (“Brussels II”) 2.
Judicial cooperation aims at promoting compatibility between the rules applicable in EU Member States in respect of conflicts of laws and jurisdiction Harmonization of applicable rules regarding conflicts of laws has a direct influence on the mutual recognition of judgments between Member States In applying the same conflict rules for determining the applicable law of a particular situation strengthens mutual confidence in judgments given by various authorities of the Member States In this context, Council Regulation No. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and and the matters of parental responsibility, was adopted 3.
The regulation was published in the Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 338 of 23 December 2003 Regulation No. 2201/2003 played a role in repealing Regulation (EC) no. 1347/2000 of 29 May 2000 on jurisdiction, recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and matters of parental responsibility for the children of both spouses Regulation No. 2201/2003 became applicable on 1 March 2005 in all EU Member States, except Denmark. 4.
Role of Regulation no. 2201/2003 To establish a single Community set of provisions on private international law, applicable to requests, appeals, claims and judgments based on legal relations with foreign elements, in the area which constitutes the object of the regulation To regulate the provisions applicable to determine the jurisdiction of the courts of the Member States to settle disputes in matrimonial and parental responsibility Effective insurance in other states than the origin of the decision, which involves two aspects: recognizing the binding force of judgment, admission via an application for recognition, likely to lead to acquisition of res judicata in the State addressed and declaration of enforceability in another Member State, by acquiring enforceable effect in that State It is a helpful guide and aid given to parties, judges, lawyers, notaries and central authorities entrusted with settling claims in matrimonial matters and parental responsibility. 5.
Scope of Regulation no. 2201/2003 The Regulation is applicable for requests filed in civil matters, which concern matrimonial problems or issues that challenge the parental responsibility for children. A. the notion of matrimonial dispute refers to a litigation concerning an application for divorce, legal separation or the annulment of marriage. 6.
B. matters concerning the attribution, exercise, delegation, restriction or termination of parental responsibility, come within the scope of the regulation and regard, in particular, the following: custody and rights of access to the child guardianship, curatorship and similar institutions the designation and functions of any person or body having charge of the child's person or property, representing or assisting the child the placement of the child in a foster family or in institutional care measures for the protection of the child relating to the administration, conservation or disposal of the child's property. In this category of applications or decisions, we can include matters pertaining to the appointment and powers conferred on the person responsible for administration of the measures to be taken to conserve or proper administrate of property of the child. 7.
Issues excluded from the scope of Regulation No. 2201/2003 Although in relation to the person of the child, the following aspects, in particular, will not be considered as part of the scope of this Regulation: public law provisions regarding education and health the establishment or contesting of a parent-child relationship decisions on adoption, measures preparatory to adoption, or the annulment or revocation of adoption the name and forenames of the child maintenance obligations trusts or succession regarding the child criminal offenses committed by children. 8.
Effects produced by foreign judgments Regulation no. 2201/2003 is an expression of the principle of free movement of judgments. This principle enables decisions rendered by competent courts of Member States to produce effects outside that territory in any other Member State. The effects of foreign judgments regard the following: 1. the possibility for the interested party to obtain the recognition of the respective judgment 2. the possibility to enforce decisions in another state than their own. 9.
1. Recognition of foreign judgments in matrimonial matters and matters of parental responsibility Relevant provisions: Articles of the Regulation. Main rule: article 21 (1) – judgments given in an EU Member State are recognized in other Member States without the need for a special procedure. Regulation no. 2201/2003 establishes the principle of mutual recognition between Member States, of judgments in matrimonial matters and the matter of parental responsibility. Condition: that neither of the grounds for refusal of recognition, as provided by article 22 and 23 of the Regulation, is applicable. Substantial jurisdiction: applications regarding the recognition of foreign judgments, will be brought before the tribunal. 10.
Persons filing the request for recognition: the request for recognition may be filed by any person concerned - article 21 (3). For example: the ex-spuose requesting for an update of the alimony for which the other former spouse is obligated, will have an interest to rely on the judgment of divorce pronounced by the courts of another Member State the holder of the parental responsibility is interested in invoking the judgment that entrusted the child for care and education, in order to obtain restitution of the child unlawfully detained by the other former spouse 11.
Annexes to the request for recognition (articles 37 and 39): a)a copy of the judgment which meets the legal requirements for establishing its authenticity a)a certificate from the competent courts of the State of origin of the decision, issued on request of any interested party a)if the foreign judgment which forms the object of the request for recognition was given in default, there is the requirement to provide original or certified copies of the document which establishes that the defaulting party was served with the document instituting the proceedings or with an equivalent document, or any other document indicating that the defendant has accepted the judgment unequivocally, in the manner in which it was made (by default). 12.
The absence of these documents may entail: the granting of a short term by the competent court within the state where the request for recognition is filed, for their proper presentation the request for equivalent documents the total exemption of the requirement, of the person concerned, whenever it is considered that sufficient information has been portrayed so that the court can give an informed decision. 13.
Limitations of the freedom to act of the forum the court competent to solve the request for recognition of foreign judgments in matrimonial matters and parental responsibility, does not have the right to verify the jurisdiction of the court in the home Member State Consequence: the lack of jurisdiction of the court that gave the judgment can not be invoked as grounds to refuse the recognition of the said foreign judgment, even the way of public policy. 14.
the court hearing the application for recognition of a foreign judgment, is absolutely forbidden to review the judgment as to its substance. Consequence: the court is not a superior court, acting as a judicial body, and the request for recognition filed is not intended as a means of appeal. The court only responds to the admission or rejection of the effects of the judgment rendered abroad, as an expression of the principle of mutual recognition of judgments between EU Member States. 15.
A. Grounds for non-recognition of judgments in matrimonial matters Relevant provisions: article 23 of Regulation No. 2201/2003 The court hearing a request for recognition of judgments in matrimonial matters, may reject the request, provided it finds any of the following impediments for recognition: such recognition is manifestly contrary to the public policy of the Member State in which recognition is sought; Example: the foreign judgment states in favor of discrimination between the spouses, based on sex. Consequence: the foreign judgment will be refused any effects in the lex fori Member State. Such refusal does not imply that the judgment is prevented from producing effects in its home territory or the territory of any other state where the application for recognition is filed 16.
if the judgment was given in default of appearance, the respondent was not served with the document which instituted the proceedings or with an equivalent document in sufficient time and in such a way as to enable the respondent to arrange for his or her defence unless it is determined that the respondent has accepted the judgment unequivocally. The defendant was, therefore, unable to exercise its right to a proper defence. the judgment is irreconcilable with a judgment given in proceedings between the same parties in the Member State in which recognition is sought Consequence: the prevention of two decisions concerning divorce, legal separation or marriage annulment, between the same parties, to produce effects, as they may contain conflicting provisions. 17.
the judgment is irreconcilable with an earlier judgment given in another Member State or in a non- Member State between the same parties, provided that the earlier judgment fulfils the conditions necessary for its recognition in the Member State in which recognition is sought 18.
B. Grounds for non-recognition of judgments in matters of parental responsibility Relevant provisions: article 24 of Regulation No. 2201/2003 The competent court refuses the request for recognition, provided it observes any of the following impediments for recognition of a foreign judgment in matters of parental responsibility: the recognition is manifestly contrary to the public policy of the Member State in which recognition is sought taking into account the best interests of the child; Example: the foreign judgment states in favor of a discrimination between the child born from a marriage and the child born out of wedlock, or between boys and girls. 19.
the judgment was given, except in case of urgency, without the child having been given an opportunity to be heard, in violation of fundamental principles of procedure of the Member State in which recognition is sought; the judgment was given in default of appearance if the person in default was not served with the document which instituted the proceedings or with an equivalent document in sufficient time and in such a way as to enable that person to arrange for his or her defence; on the request of any person claiming that the judgment infringes his or her parental responsibility, if it was given without such person having been given an opportunity to be heard; the judgment is irreconcilable with a later judgment relating to parental responsibility given in the Member State in which recognition is sought; 20.
the judgment is irreconcilable with a later judgment relating to parental responsibility given in another Member State or in the non-Member State of the habitual residence of the child provided that the later judgment fulfils the conditions necessary for its recognition in the Member State in which recognition is sought. the procedure laid down in article 56 has not been complied with. According to this procedure, if the court competent to hear cases relating to parental responsibility, contemplates the placement of a child in institutional care or with a foster family and where such placement is to take place in another Member State, it shall first consult the central authority or other authority having jurisdiction in the latter State where public authority intervention in that Member State is required for domestic cases of child placement. The response of such authority influences the mere judgment given by the competent court, in that the placement of the child may occur inly if the requested authority has approved it. 21.
2. Enforcement of foreign judgments in matrimonial matters and matters of parental responsibility Relevant provisions: articles 28 – 36 of Regulation No. 2201/2003. The enforceability of foreign judgments in matrimonial matters and matters of parental responsibility, means that such judgments can be enforced in another Member State than the state of origin. General rule: judgments given in a Member State, which are enforceable in the state of origin and have been communicated or notified, are enforced in another Member State after having been declared enforceable at the request of any interested party - article
Annexes to the request for enforceability: documents mentioned in articles 37 and 39 of the regulation, as presented before. Material and territorial jurisdiction: the competent court for the examination and settlement of the request for enforcement of foreign judgment is the court (tribunal) of the place of performance. 23.
Procedural steps taken for the solving of the request for enforcement: 1. First instance In this stage of the proceedings, the person against whom enforcement is sought has no right to present defenses, objections or to submit comments on the request. Equally, children referred to in the request for enforceability of a judgment on parental responsibility, do not have the possibility to comment on the request. The court is prohibited from reviewing the judgment as to its substance. 24.
The court exclusively checks the following: if the request is filed correctly the presenting of all necessary documents the existence or the absence of either of the cases that justify the refusal of the request for enforceability, as regulated by articles 22, 23 and 24 (applied, by analogy, from the matter of recognition of foreign judgments ). The first instance phase ends with the court’s decision to accept or reject the request for enforcement, which will be immediately notified to the applicant. 25.
2. Appeal (recurs) The decision on the application for a declaration of enforceability of the foreign judgment in matrimonial matters or matters of parental responsibility, may be appealed against by either party. Material jurisdiction: Court of Appeal (Curtea de apel). The court solves the request in genuine contradictory proceedings, summoning the party against whom enforcement is sought, if the appeal is brought by the party which sought the enforceability. In this procedural stage, interested parties may submit comments and defense against the request for enforceability. 26.
Deadlines for filing an appeal: general term - one month from the notification of the decision exceptionally, if the party against whom enforcement is sought is habitually resident in another Member State than the state where the judgment has been declared enforceable, the deadline for filing the appeal is two months from the date when such decision is notified to the respective party. 3. Appeal for annulment (contestatie in anulare) An appeal for annulment is lodged with the court whose decision is appealed, which is the the court whose decision remained final and the reconsideration of which is being requested 27.