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E laboration T heory Charles Riegeluth Guidance for Scope and Sequence Decisions The content for this presentation has been prepared using content directly.

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Presentation on theme: "E laboration T heory Charles Riegeluth Guidance for Scope and Sequence Decisions The content for this presentation has been prepared using content directly."— Presentation transcript:

1 E laboration T heory Charles Riegeluth Guidance for Scope and Sequence Decisions The content for this presentation has been prepared using content directly from related websites and texts (principally from Riegeluth’s own publications), as cited on our LINKS.html page) Use the ENTER key to proceed

2 How To Use This Presentation! Proceed to the next sequential slide… Return to the previous slide… Go to a specific slide… Return to the slides’ INDEX … At any time, Exit the presentation... Use either key: ENTER or PG DWN Use PG UP key Type in the Slide # (ref. your handout) Click the HOME link button (slide upper right corner) Click the ESC key Use the following methods to Interact with the Content:

3 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#23 Learning Objectives In describing and demonstrating the Elaboration Theory, these are the anticipated learning objectives: To understand the basic concepts of Elaboration Theory. To realize its affect on the Learning Process. To recognize various Sequencing Strategies applied to curriculum design & development. To assess the performance implications for the learner’s own real-life instructional practice.

4 PART A: The Basics Elaboration Theory What do Sequencing Strategies Entail? What do Sequencing Strategies Entail? Learning Episode Deciding on Scope When Does Sequencing Make a Difference? When Does Sequencing Make a Difference? PART B: Sequencing Strategies Types of Sequencing Strategies Patterns of Sequence Demonstration Illustration Topical Spiral Presentation Index PART C: Types of Sequence What is an Elaboration Sequence? What is an Elaboration Sequence? Conceptual Theoretical Simplifying Conditions Method Simplifying Conditions Method Hierarchical Tasks & Sequencing Hierarchical Tasks & Sequencing Task Analysis & Sequencing with SCM Task Analysis & Sequencing with SCM Comparisons How to Design an SCM Sequence How to Design an SCM Sequence Conclusions WebSite Resources Your Presenters Online Evaluation Remember: To Customize your own Learning, Use the HOME key (upper right hand corner of each slide) at any time, to return to this INDEX to select your next topic of study.

5 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#25 PART A THE BASICS

6 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#26 Elaboration Theory & The Learning Process Paradigm shift from teacher/content-centered to learner centered instruction New need for ways to sequence instruction New approaches: simulations, apprenticeships, goal- based scenarios, problem-based / situated learning More holistic approach to sequencing – learning process more meaningful and motivational Learners empowered to make some scope and sequence decisions during the learning process.

7 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#27 What do Sequencing Strategies Entail? Concerned with ‘how to group and order content’. But ordered content requires different kinds of groupings. Need to decide what content should be in each grouping, “scope and sequence”. Scope and Sequence decisions involve several types of decisions regarding…

8 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#28 E C A DFBDFBDFBDFB The size of each group of content (learning episode): The components of each learning episode: Learning Episode...

9 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#29 A B C D E F The order of components within each episode: And the order of the episodes: Learning Episode All of which influence the quality of the learning experience: its effectiveness, efficiency and appeal.

10 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#210 General Concerns for Deciding on Scope How to select the right content? Training Contexts Conduct needs analysis Educational Contexts Not so easy:  Needs are much less clear  Needs depend largely on values  Students have interests of their own  Benefits may not become apparent until many years later. Technology evolved wherein C-B learning tools allow learners to create /modify their own instruction.

11 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#211 When Does Sequencing Make a Difference? Depends upon … Strength of the relationships (i.e., strong) among the topics. (unrelated topics vs. interdependent topics – analysis & design stages in an ISD process) Size of the course instruction (increases) (Content must be organized logically and meaningfully – sequencing assists this)

12 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#212 PART B SEQUENCING STRATEGIES

13 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#213 Types of Sequencing Strategies Relationships are Key Strong - implies need for Sequencing Method of sequencing based upon single type of relationship: Historical Sequence (chronological relationship) Procedural Sequence (based upon relationship of “order of performance” of steps in procedure Hierarchical Sequence (relationship of learning skills and sub skills that comprise a task)

14 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#214 Topical SequencingSpiral Sequencing Topic A Topic B Topic C Topic A Topic B Topic C Patterns of Sequence:

15 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#215 Types of Sequencing Strategies Topical Sequencing: Cover complete topic depth before next topic Advantage: learner concentration / focus optimized Hands-on materials used within one block of time Disadvantage: Once on to next topic forget the pervious one Whole domain perception limited until END Compensate – incorporating instructional tactics for overview, review, synthesis

16 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#216 Types of Sequencing Strategies Spiral Sequencing: Master a topic or task gradually in several passes; spirals back and forth between topics until depth and breadth of each is cumulatively assimilated (learned) Advantage: synthesis and review (cycling back) in-built Interrelationships easily grasped (similar aspects and close in time) Disadvantage: Disruption in learning process (thought development) Inefficient management of materials & resources.

17 Level 2 Lesson 1 Lesson 1.3 Lesson 1.2 Lesson 1.4 Lesson 1.1 Lesson Lesson Level 1 Epitome Level 3 Diagrammatic Representation of a Set of Lessons

18 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#218 This sequence is one in which the general ideas epitomize rather than summarize, and the epitomizing is done on the basis of a single type of content. Epitomes must be ideas that are presented at a concrete, meaningful, application level. They present core principles (although we cannot equate epitome and principle) that provide a basis for moving to specifics.

19 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#219 Epitomes are done with three types of content: concepts, procedures or principles. Concepts are certain sets of objects, events or symbols that have certain common characteristics. Procedures are sets of actions intended to achieve an end. Principles are changes in something else, generally denoting cause and effect. One of these types of content is chosen as the most important one to achieve the goals of a lesson or course.. The sequence is then said to have an organization based on this content (conceptual, procedural, and theoretical organizations). Epitomizing is then structured as follows: one type of content is chosen, then all the organizing content in the course is listed, after which the most basic and fundamental ideas are selected and presented at the application level rather than the abstract level.

20 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#220 From the epitome, we can elaborate upon the organizing content presented therein. This is the first level of elaboration The second level elaborates upon the organizing content in the first level The process continues in the same way. The relationships that result between the levels are organized according to content including the prerequisites, thus, conceptual, procedural, theoretical and learning-prerequisite relationships. At each level and expanded epitome is used to create a means to elaborate upon the next level.

21 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#221 Types of Sequencing Strategies Which Type of Sequencing pattern is Best? or When is each best? Neither exists in pure form – they are two endpoints on a continuum – the decision is where on the continuum to situate the curriculum. But content must be fairly complex and large to make it worthwhile.

22 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#222 Topical SequencingSpiral Sequencing Topic A Topic B Topic C Topic A Topic B Topic C Topic A Topic B Topic C Topic A Topic B Topic C Topic A Topic B Topic C Topic A Topic B Topic C Topical Sequencing Spiral Sequencing Click Click to See Illustration B. Click Click to See Illustration A. Demonstration:

23 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#223 I llustrations: (class activity) Topical Sequencing Illustration File Management Topical Spiral Sequencing Illustration File Management Spiral

24 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#224 Topical Example- File Management: Topic “A” A. Theory of Hierarchical Organization of Files B. Analogy: A. Concepts of Tree and Directories B. Definitions and Characteristics of Files File = eFile File = Folder eFile = Folder C. Amending/ Reorganizing Files (i.e., Removing, Repositioning, Renaming, Splitting, Duplicating, Amalgamating) D. Locating/ Finding Files Filing Cabinethard/virtual storage medium (drive) Tree Filing Cabinet Drawers Folders/Directories at root level Hanging Folders/ File Folders/Tabbed Dividers Successive levels of Sub-Folders (declension)

25 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#225 Topical Example- File Management: Topic “B” A. Windows ® G.U.I. EXPLORER File Mgt Program Orientation and Navigation B. File Attributes (Hidden, Archival, Read-Only, File Types) C. Graphical representation of of Tree (Root) and Directory (Nested Folders) & Features D. Menus: File / Commands /Properties E. Amending/ Reorganizing Files (i.e., Creating (Naming), Deleting, Moving, Copying, Renaming, Merging, Dividing) F. Find/Search Methods: By Name, By Date, By Content, By Size, By Type G. Within & Across Drives & Directories H. Use of Indexes

26 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#226 Topical Example- File Management: Topic “C” A. Menu and Command Selection B. Navigation of Tree Panel through hierarchical levels C. Navigation of Directory Pane through hierarchical levels D. Creating (Naming) Folder E. Renaming Folder Deletion Folder(s) Moving Folder(s) Copying Folder(s) Moving File(s) Searching Files & Folders using size, date, type, name criteria cross multiple drives Creating Search Indices

27 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#227 Theory of Hierarchical Organization of Files Analogy Concepts of Tree and Directories Definitions and Characteristics of Files File = eFile File = Folder eFile = Folder Amending/ Reorganizing Files (i.e., Removing, Repositioning, Renaming, Splitting, Duplicating, Amalgamating) Locating/ Finding Files user-defined criteria (keyword, subject, author, chronology, etc) Cross-Referencing Files Windows ® G.U.I. EXPLORER File Mgt Program Orientation and Navigation File Attributes (Hidden, Archival, Read-Only, File Types) Graphical representation of of Tree (Root) and Directory (Nested Folders) & Features Menus: File / Commands /Properties Amending/ Reorganizing Files (i.e., Creating (Naming), Deleting, Moving, Copying, Renaming, Merging, Dividing) Find/Search Methods: By Name, By Date, By Content, By Size, By Type Within & Across Drives & Directories Use of Indexes Menu and Command Selection Navigation of Tree Panel through hierarchical levels Navigation of Directory Pane through hierarchical levels Creating (Naming), Renaming, Deleting Folders Moving, Copying, Moving Files & Folders Searching Files & Folders using size, date, type, name criteria cross multiple drives Creating Search Indices A Theory B Mechanics C Practical Application Spiral Example- File Management Topic“ A” Theory Topic“ B” Mechanics Topic“ C” Practical Application Theory of Hierarchical Organization of Files Analogy Concepts of Tree and Directories Definitions and Characteristics of Files File = eFile File = Folder eFile = Folder Amending/ Reorganizing Files (i.e., Removing, Repositioning, Renaming, Splitting, Duplicating, Amalgamating) Locating/ Finding Files user-defined criteria (keyword, subject, author, chronology, etc) Cross-Referencing Files Windows ® G.U.I. EXPLORER File Mgt Program Orientation and Navigation File Attributes (Hidden, Archival, Read-Only, File Types) Graphical representation of of Tree (Root) and Directory (Nested Folders) & Features Menus: File / Commands /Properties Amending/ Reorganizing Files (i.e., Creating (Naming), Deleting, Moving, Copying, Renaming, Merging, Dividing) Find/Search Methods: By Name, By Date, By Content, By Size, By Type Within & Across Drives & Directories Use of Indexes Menu and Command Selection Navigation of Tree Panel through hierarchical levels Navigation of Directory Pane through hierarchical levels Creating (Naming), Renaming, Deleting Folders Moving, Copying, Moving Files & Folders Searching Files & Folders using size, date, type, name criteria cross multiple drives Creating Search Indices Instruction: Hit ENTER key to see the dynamics of spiral sequencing within the learning process.

28 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#228 PART C TYPES of ELABORATION SEQUENCES

29 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#229 What is an Elaboration Sequence? Task Task Expertise start with simplest real-world version of a task and gradually progress to evermore complex versions as each is mastered. Domain Domain Expertise ranges from simple to complex, but also from general to detailed; gaining expertise involves: Conceptual Conceptual – understanding “what” Theoretical Theoretical – understanding “why”

30 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#230 General-to-Detailed Continuum A N I M A L Reptile Mammal Insects DogBearWhale Black Bear Polar Bear Grizzly Bear

31 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#231 The Conceptual Elaboration Sequence Concepts are groupings or classes of objects, events, or ideas and can be broken down into narrower, less inclusive concepts. Teach from Broad (most inclusive) to Narrow (less inclusive but more detailed) concepts. Does not violate the notion of learning prerequisites because higher level concepts contain prerequisites for concepts below them.

32 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#232 The Theoretical Elaboration Sequence Intended for courses that focus on interrelated sets of principles which are elaborations on each other (e.g., how & why something works not how it works). Teaches the broadest, most general principles (usually the simplest) with gradual progression to narrower, more precise principles (usually more complex). To TOPIC Start

33 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#233 The Simplifying Conditions Method How to Design an SCM Method Phase I – Prepare for Analysis & Design Phase II – Identify the First Learning Episode Phase III – Identify the next Learning Episode

34 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#234 Hierarchical Task Analysis and Sequencing Complexity of SUB SKILLS Diversity of SUB SKILLS Hierarchical Analysis Hierarchical Sequencing CONCEPTUAL MAP

35 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#235 Task Analysis and Sequencing with SCM Complexity of TASK Diversity of TASK CONCEPTUAL MAP

36 Complexity of SUB SKILLS Diversity of SUB SKILLS Complexity of TASK Diversity of TASK Part to whole/Simple to Complex (Sub skills to main skills) Simple to Complex (simple task to complex task) Task Analysis should be done prior to sequencing as separate task. Task Analysis and sequencing can be done simultaneously – the prototype can be developed rapidly. Facilitates the learning of higher-order skills.From the very first lesson it provides 1) the flavor of the whole task 2) a simple but applicable skill, and 3) enhanced motivation The hierarchical approach is necessary but not sufficient. It also introduces a fragmentary approach. Conceptual Map Underlying Logic For Designer For Learner

37 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#237 Conclusions Elaboration Theory of Instruction deals with the macro level of instruction, meaning that it is primarily concerned with the sequencing of ideas as opposed to the individual ideas themselves and examples relating to them. Specifically, sequencing in this case relates to fundamental and representational ideas or core principles, which are presented first, that lead to specifics. These ideas are called epitomes in elaboration theory. The epitome serves as a foundation from which more specific information may be developed.

38 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#238 Website Resources Elaboration Theory Definition Illustrative Instruction Additional Resources & Links Online Evaluation

39 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#239 Questions?  In your estimation, was this a example of an ‘elaboration’ learning exercise?  Would you incorporate this instructional design and development theory into your own practice?

40 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#240 Outcomes We have described and demonstrated the Elaboration Theory, both in our presentation and in our class activity, please evaluate our effectiveness in providing the learner with: A basic understanding of the concepts of Elaboration Theory. A realization of its affect on the Learning Process. The ability to recognize various Sequencing Strategies applied to curriculum design & development. The ability to assess the performance implications for your own real-life instructional practice. by completing the following online evaluation….

41 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#241 We Value Your Feedback! Evaluation Please complete the following online Evaluation of our presentation:

42 Click Here for HOW To Navigate This PresentationHere October 1, 2002EDER673-Activity#242 Thank You !


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