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Physical Activity and Skills- Related Fitness.  Definition: Any form of movement – whether purposeful, as in exercise and sports or recreation, or incidental,

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Activity and Skills- Related Fitness.  Definition: Any form of movement – whether purposeful, as in exercise and sports or recreation, or incidental,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Activity and Skills- Related Fitness

2  Definition: Any form of movement – whether purposeful, as in exercise and sports or recreation, or incidental, as when carrying out domestic chores.  Lifestyle Activities  Definition: Forms of physical activity that are a normal part of your daily routine or recreation and that promote good health throughout a lifetime  Examples include Backpacking, Hiking, Dancing, and cross country skiing.  Sports Activities  Usually Involve competition and are guided by set of rules.  Examples include baseball, BASKETBALL, football, hockey, and others.

3  Individual Sports  Skills oriented activities that you can do by yourself.  They are usually lifetime activities (activities that are part of a daily routine)  Examples include golf, swimming, bicycling.  Partner Sports  Activities carried out with a partner  Examples include tennis or racquetball  Nature Sports  Activities in which there is some interaction with nature  Examples include surfing, rock climbing, and sailing

4  It is best not to limit yourself to a single type of activity  Alternating physical activities works different muscles and body systems, enabling achievement of total fitness  Skills-Related Fitness  Agility – The ability to control the body’s movements and to change the body’s position quickly.  Balance – The ability to remain upright either while standing still or moving.  Coordination – The ability to use two or more body parts together well, or use the senses along with the body parts.  Speed – The ability to move a distance or complete a body of movement in a short period of time.  Reaction Time – The rate of movement once a person realizes the need to move.  Power – The ability to use force with great speed.

5 Physical Activity and Total Health

6  Training Program – A program of formalized preparation for participation in a sport.  Food and drink plays an important part in a training program.  Food provides necessary energy for activity while water and other liquids keep you hydrated.  Hydration – The addition of body fluids that you get through drinking liquids, especially water  During physical activity, the body loses water through sweat and intense breathing.  This process is known as dehydration.  It is potentially life threatening.  To prepare for an activity, the athlete should drink several cups of fluids two hours before, and then 15 minutes before, a heavy workout

7  Avoiding harmful substances and practices is another part of making healthy decisions and maintaining an athletic training program.  Examples of Harmful Substances and Practices include tobacco, excessive consumption of alcohol, anabolic steroids, and drugs not prescribed by a physician.  Anabolic Steroids – Chemicals similar to the male hormone testosterone.  These steroids are sometimes taken illegally by athletes to increase muscle mass and performance  The negative effects of these steroids are immense, including:  Increased risk of cancer and heart disease.  Sterility – The inability to have children  Skin problems, such as acne and hair loss  Unusual weight gain or loss  Sexual underdevelopment and dysfunction  Violent, suicidal, or depressive tendencies.  There are also legal ramifications; illegal distribution and possession (without a prescription) are felonies.  Adequate Rest  Sleep is one of the most important aspects of training.  Restful sleep helps to re-energize the body.  Insufficient sleep disrupts the nervous system

8  Although natural ability does play a part in an individual’s success at sports, effort is far more important.  While the athlete should be realistic about aspects of her ability, that does not mean that she is limited and cannot excel through hard work.  Mind-Body Composition is just as important; having a positive mindset makes the athlete more likely to succeed.  Sports and Competition should not make the athlete forget that an obsession with winning is unhealthful from a mental perspective and can be harmful to both his mental and social health.

9 Avoiding Injuries

10  The most common injuries are inflicted upon the muscular and skeletal systems.  Muscle Cramp – A spasm or sudden tightening of a muscle.  Usually the result of irritation within the muscle from being overworked or from dehydration.  Can often be alleviated by drinking cool water.  Especially dangerous to swimmers.  Strain – A condition in which muscles have been overworked.  Can occur from participating in strenuous activity to which the athlete is unaccustomed.  To avoid strains, the athlete should warm up and should not “go all out” on the first day of exercise.  Sprain – An injury to the tissues surrounding a joint.  Often occurs when ligaments are stretched and torn.  Can be accompanied by severe pain, swelling, and difficulty moving.  A sprain may even take more time to heal than a broken bone and severe strains are major injuries that require immediate medical attention.

11  Muscle strains and sprains can be treated through the R.I.C.E. Technique  Rest  The injured athlete should avoid using the affected muscle or joint.  This might entail staying in bed for some time.  Ice  Ice helps reduce pain and swelling.  Should be applied for 20 minutes, removed for 20 minutes, and applied again for 20 minutes.  Compression  Light pressure (like an Ace Bandage) can help reduce swelling  If it cuts off blood flow, that is bad!  Elevation  Raising the affected limb above the heart can help reduce pain and swelling.

12  Definition – Injuries for which medical treatment is required  Fractures – Any type of break in the bone  They require immediate immobilization to heal properly  If the bone has entirely broken in two, the two fragments must be forcibly placed back in place (“set”) in order to heal, sometimes with clamps and screws.  Dislocation – a condition that results when a bone slips from its normal position at a joint  The bone must be put back into place and immobilized by a doctor or trained professional so that the tissue can heal.  Tendinitis – a condition in which the tendons are stretched or torn from overuse.  Requires rest, medications, and physical therapy to heal most effectively.  Blows to the Head  Can cause swelling of the brain (and thus unconsciousness and even death)  Can cause concussions  Definition – A temporary disturbance in the brain’s ability to function.  Symptoms include dizziness and headaches.  Concussions are serious conditions that should be reported to a physician immediately.

13  Hot Weather Risks  Overexertion – overworking the body.  Dehydration – A lack of sufficient fluids within the body.  Heat Cramps – Muscle spasms that result from loss of large amounts of salt and water through perspiration.  Heat Exhaustion – Overheating of the body resulting in cold, clammy skin and symptoms of shock.  Other symptoms include dizziness, headache, shortness of breath, and nausea.  Heatstroke – An inability of the body to rid itself of excess heat through perspiration.  This is potentially life threatening.  Cold Weather Risks  Frostbite – Condition that results when body tissue becomes frozen.  To avoid frostbite, dress in warm clothes in cold weather and cover all exposed skin.  Dress in layers  Hypothermia – A condition in which the body temperature becomes dangerously low  Can result from long exposure to rainy, windy, or cold weather.  The body temperature becomes dangerously low to the point where the brain can no longer function.  The victim may act disoriented and lose motor control  Hypothermia is life threatening and should be treated medically as soon as possible.

14  Personal Safety  Take note of the time and place where you chose to exercise bearing in mind your personal safety.  Using Proper Equipment  Use protective equipment in order to avoid injury to both the body and the head.  A good way to try out equipment before purchasing it is by borrowing from a friend.  Shoes should have cushioned heel, good arch support, and ample toe room; laced shoes are best for proper control of the feet.  Chose appropriate clothing for the activity in which you are engaging.  Ex: Do not go biking in a long billowing dress that will be caught on the spokes of the bicycle.

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