Presentation on theme: "Physical Activity and Skills- Related Fitness. Definition: Any form of movement – whether purposeful, as in exercise and sports or recreation, or incidental,"— Presentation transcript:
Physical Activity and Skills- Related Fitness
Definition: Any form of movement – whether purposeful, as in exercise and sports or recreation, or incidental, as when carrying out domestic chores. Lifestyle Activities Definition: Forms of physical activity that are a normal part of your daily routine or recreation and that promote good health throughout a lifetime Examples include Backpacking, Hiking, Dancing, and cross country skiing. Sports Activities Usually Involve competition and are guided by set of rules. Examples include baseball, BASKETBALL, football, hockey, and others.
Individual Sports Skills oriented activities that you can do by yourself. They are usually lifetime activities (activities that are part of a daily routine) Examples include golf, swimming, bicycling. Partner Sports Activities carried out with a partner Examples include tennis or racquetball Nature Sports Activities in which there is some interaction with nature Examples include surfing, rock climbing, and sailing
It is best not to limit yourself to a single type of activity Alternating physical activities works different muscles and body systems, enabling achievement of total fitness Skills-Related Fitness Agility – The ability to control the body’s movements and to change the body’s position quickly. Balance – The ability to remain upright either while standing still or moving. Coordination – The ability to use two or more body parts together well, or use the senses along with the body parts. Speed – The ability to move a distance or complete a body of movement in a short period of time. Reaction Time – The rate of movement once a person realizes the need to move. Power – The ability to use force with great speed.
Physical Activity and Total Health
Training Program – A program of formalized preparation for participation in a sport. Food and drink plays an important part in a training program. Food provides necessary energy for activity while water and other liquids keep you hydrated. Hydration – The addition of body fluids that you get through drinking liquids, especially water During physical activity, the body loses water through sweat and intense breathing. This process is known as dehydration. It is potentially life threatening. To prepare for an activity, the athlete should drink several cups of fluids two hours before, and then 15 minutes before, a heavy workout
Avoiding harmful substances and practices is another part of making healthy decisions and maintaining an athletic training program. Examples of Harmful Substances and Practices include tobacco, excessive consumption of alcohol, anabolic steroids, and drugs not prescribed by a physician. Anabolic Steroids – Chemicals similar to the male hormone testosterone. These steroids are sometimes taken illegally by athletes to increase muscle mass and performance The negative effects of these steroids are immense, including: Increased risk of cancer and heart disease. Sterility – The inability to have children Skin problems, such as acne and hair loss Unusual weight gain or loss Sexual underdevelopment and dysfunction Violent, suicidal, or depressive tendencies. There are also legal ramifications; illegal distribution and possession (without a prescription) are felonies. Adequate Rest Sleep is one of the most important aspects of training. Restful sleep helps to re-energize the body. Insufficient sleep disrupts the nervous system
Although natural ability does play a part in an individual’s success at sports, effort is far more important. While the athlete should be realistic about aspects of her ability, that does not mean that she is limited and cannot excel through hard work. Mind-Body Composition is just as important; having a positive mindset makes the athlete more likely to succeed. Sports and Competition should not make the athlete forget that an obsession with winning is unhealthful from a mental perspective and can be harmful to both his mental and social health.
The most common injuries are inflicted upon the muscular and skeletal systems. Muscle Cramp – A spasm or sudden tightening of a muscle. Usually the result of irritation within the muscle from being overworked or from dehydration. Can often be alleviated by drinking cool water. Especially dangerous to swimmers. Strain – A condition in which muscles have been overworked. Can occur from participating in strenuous activity to which the athlete is unaccustomed. To avoid strains, the athlete should warm up and should not “go all out” on the first day of exercise. Sprain – An injury to the tissues surrounding a joint. Often occurs when ligaments are stretched and torn. Can be accompanied by severe pain, swelling, and difficulty moving. A sprain may even take more time to heal than a broken bone and severe strains are major injuries that require immediate medical attention.
Muscle strains and sprains can be treated through the R.I.C.E. Technique Rest The injured athlete should avoid using the affected muscle or joint. This might entail staying in bed for some time. Ice Ice helps reduce pain and swelling. Should be applied for 20 minutes, removed for 20 minutes, and applied again for 20 minutes. Compression Light pressure (like an Ace Bandage) can help reduce swelling If it cuts off blood flow, that is bad! Elevation Raising the affected limb above the heart can help reduce pain and swelling.
Definition – Injuries for which medical treatment is required Fractures – Any type of break in the bone They require immediate immobilization to heal properly If the bone has entirely broken in two, the two fragments must be forcibly placed back in place (“set”) in order to heal, sometimes with clamps and screws. Dislocation – a condition that results when a bone slips from its normal position at a joint The bone must be put back into place and immobilized by a doctor or trained professional so that the tissue can heal. Tendinitis – a condition in which the tendons are stretched or torn from overuse. Requires rest, medications, and physical therapy to heal most effectively. Blows to the Head Can cause swelling of the brain (and thus unconsciousness and even death) Can cause concussions Definition – A temporary disturbance in the brain’s ability to function. Symptoms include dizziness and headaches. Concussions are serious conditions that should be reported to a physician immediately.
Hot Weather Risks Overexertion – overworking the body. Dehydration – A lack of sufficient fluids within the body. Heat Cramps – Muscle spasms that result from loss of large amounts of salt and water through perspiration. Heat Exhaustion – Overheating of the body resulting in cold, clammy skin and symptoms of shock. Other symptoms include dizziness, headache, shortness of breath, and nausea. Heatstroke – An inability of the body to rid itself of excess heat through perspiration. This is potentially life threatening. Cold Weather Risks Frostbite – Condition that results when body tissue becomes frozen. To avoid frostbite, dress in warm clothes in cold weather and cover all exposed skin. Dress in layers Hypothermia – A condition in which the body temperature becomes dangerously low Can result from long exposure to rainy, windy, or cold weather. The body temperature becomes dangerously low to the point where the brain can no longer function. The victim may act disoriented and lose motor control Hypothermia is life threatening and should be treated medically as soon as possible.
Personal Safety Take note of the time and place where you chose to exercise bearing in mind your personal safety. Using Proper Equipment Use protective equipment in order to avoid injury to both the body and the head. A good way to try out equipment before purchasing it is by borrowing from a friend. Shoes should have cushioned heel, good arch support, and ample toe room; laced shoes are best for proper control of the feet. Chose appropriate clothing for the activity in which you are engaging. Ex: Do not go biking in a long billowing dress that will be caught on the spokes of the bicycle.