2EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Established in 2008 by the European Parliament and the Council of the European UnionIn 2010, the European Commission set the criteria for Good Environmental Status (GES) by various Descriptors—11 in totalTargets of MSFD are:protection of marine environmentSustainable use of marine goods and servicesGES in European seas by 2020
3EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive First regulation that specifically mentions noiseA major effort in addressing underwater noise at a large scaleEcosystem scale of managementRegional approach to implementation
4EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Preparatory steps are an initial assessment of actual status in national marine watersNext step is determination of what GES would look likeComparison of actual and desired status leads to establishment of environmental targetsThese three steps must be reported to European Commission in 6-yr cycles, for the first time in July 2012
5Implementation StepsInitial assessment of environmental status of MS waters (2012)Determination of GES (2012)Establishment of environmental targets and indicators (2012)Monitoring programme for ongoing assessment and regular updating of targets (2014)Programme of measures designed to achieve or maintain GES (design 2015, operational 2016)Initial assessment, objectives, targets & indicators2012(+ 6 years)Monitoring Programmes2014Programmes of Measures2015Implementation of the marine strategy2016Six year review of the different elements of the strategy2018 – 2021GES2020Courtesy of:René DekelingMinistry of Infrastructure and the Environment, NL
6EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Laws from the Council of the European Union bind Member States (MS) to implement them.This can be achieved through Council Regulations or Council Directives.- For Regulations, MS directly apply the statements of the regulations;- For Directives, they need to be transposed into national laws
7EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Sets framework—structure and timeline—but no detailsDetails are developed within a common implementation strategyDetails of implementation left to MS to decide how to turn (“transpose”) EU Directive into national lawsQualitative descriptors are “translated” into quantitative criteria and indicators
8EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Coordination and cooperation between EU countries is keyDoes not replace existing legislation that regulates at smaller scales (SEA, EIA and Habitats Directives)No overarching EU targets but this may changeDoes not apply to naval activities, but MS should try to conduct them with objectives of Directive11 Descriptors, 29 Criteria, 56 Indicators
9EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive GES Descriptors:1: Biodiversity2: Invasive species3: Overfishing4: Maintenance of marine food webs5: Eutrophication6: Benthic ecosystems7: Hydrographic conditions8: Contaminants not giving rise to pollution effects9: Seafood contaminants safe for human consumption10: Marine litter11: Introduction of energy, including underwater noise
102 indicators described: Descriptor 11: Introduction of energy, including underwater noise, is at levels that do not adversely affect the marine environment2 indicators described:- short duration: low and mid-frequency impulsive* noise*includes sonars- long lasting: low frequency continuous noiseClarification/guidance required Expert group formed (TSG Noise)
11IndicatorsCriterion Distribution in time and place of loud, low and mid frequency impulsive sounds- The proportion of days and their distribution within a calendar year, over geographical locations whose shape and area are to be determined, and the spatial distribution in which source level (or suitable proxy) of anthropogenic sound sources, measured over the frequency band 10 Hz to 10 kHz, exceeds a value that is likely to entail significant impact on marine animals (11.1.1).
12Impulsive noise indicator Main effect: “considerable” displacement, habitat lossCI of activities, not indiv projectsMost MS no quant. descr. of GES due to insufficient knowledge of CIAs an indicator, behav. change possibly more relevant than injury, because it affects larger part of the pop and areaAssess pressure of piling, seismic, sonar cumulatively (not achieved previously at this scale), then evaluate effects and set targetsAssess area impactedSet up register of impulsive noise activities at regional and EU level, use to establish current level and trend in impulsive sounds
13Impulsive Activities Included in Register Register can be used for noise mappingMost important sources for inclusion: seismic, pile-driving, explosives, sonar, some ADDsFor impact pile-drivers and multiple explosions, no minimum threshold, all should be registeredFor sonars, airguns, acoustic deterrents and single explosions, minimum thresholds used:- Non-impulsive sources 176 dB re 1 μPa m- Impulsive sources 186 dB re 1 μPa² m² s (SEL) , airguns 209 dB re 1 μPa m (0-p)
14Options for Impulse Target Setting: A target on the maximum allowable number of pulse-block days in an assessment areaA no-deterioration (i.e. stable or negative trends) target on the number of pulse-block days in an assessment areaA percentage target on the assessment area that is affected due to noise disturbance -i.e. at any given day less than x% of the assessment area is lost due to noise disturbance
15Impulse Noise Indicator Use as baseline where there is negligible pop displacement from noiseInsufficient knowledge when too much disturbance would compromise GESRealistic target setting only possible once baseline known and more info on noise impactsTSG Noise will continue to work in 2013 and 2014 to provide advice on thresholds and targetsSetting actual threshold level is up to MS
16Indicators Criterion 11.2. Continuous low frequency sound - Trends in the annual average of the squared sound pressure associated with ambient noise in each of two third octave bands, one centred at 63 Hz and the other at 125 Hz, expressed as a level in decibels, in units of dB re 1 μPa, either measured directly at observation stations, or inferred from a model used to interpolate between or extrapolate from measurements at observation stations (11.2.1).
17Continuous LF Noise“The ambient noise level measured by a statistical representative set of observation stations in Regional Seas where noise within the 1/3 octave bands 63 and 125 Hz (centre frequency) should not exceed the baseline values of year  or 100 dB (re 1μPa rms; average noise level in these octave bands over a year).” Tasker ML, Amundin M, Andre M, Hawkins A, Lang W, Merck T Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Task Group 11 Report, Underwater noise and other forms of energy. JRC and ICES.
18Continuous LF Indicator TSG Noise suggested:Trends ONLY are NOT sufficient to describe GES:Trends indicate whether the actual pressure on the environment (e.g., shipping noise) is rising or falling. To describe actual GES levels, a combination of measurements and modelling/ mapping will be needed.
19Summary First reg. that specifically mentions noise GES in European seas by 2020Ecosystem scale of managementNo overarching EU targets but this may change2 indicators: MF and LF impulsive & LF contin.Impulsive: “considerable” displ., habitat lossCI of activities, not indiv projectsSet up register of impulsive noise activitiesFor LF continuous, trends with measurements/ mapping/modelling needed