Presentation on theme: "Developing Effective Social Responses to Violence"— Presentation transcript:
1Developing Effective Social Responses to Violence Tell it Like it Is:Developing Effective Social Responses to ViolenceLulea, Sweden. January 17, 2012 Allan Wade, Ph.D.Centre for Response-Based PracticeDuncan B.C. Canada
3Family and individual therapy, supervision, specializing in violence Centre for Response-Based PracticeFamily and individual therapy, supervision, specializing in violenceConsultation with refuges, child protection, police, victim assistance“Islands of Safety”: Child protection for First Nations, Metis, Inuit peoples“Together for Justice”: Yukon Aboriginal women and R.C.M.P.Family law and domestic violenceAnalysis of professional reportsWorkplace training and intervention: Social responses to adversityResearch on language and violence:Courts, professionals, media, therapeutic interviewsAnalysis of emergency protection order interviews
4Linda Coates, Ph.D.Dept. of PsychologyOkanagan CollegeResearcher, ActivistHorse and dog lover
5Family TherapistMountaineerChess MasterLeft WingerNick ToddNear Calgary, Alberta
6Cathy Richardson, Ph.D.Metis Activist, TherapistDept. of Social WorkUniversity of VictoriaMember, United Nations Panel on Violence Against Indigenous Women
12Swedish ColleaguesHarry and Jocelyn Korman: SIKT, MalmoKaren Thorslund: Private Practice, GothenburgAnn Hanbert: Therapist and Author, GothenburgMargareta Hyden: RIV Group, Linkoping, Social Work
13Developing Effective Social Responses to Violence and Adversity Tapas Menu17th AfternoonTell it Like it Is:Developing Effective Social Responses to Violence and Adversity18th MorningSmall Acts of Living:From Treating Effects to Honouring Resistance18th AfternoonDrops of Longing:Children’s Responses to Violence and AdversityOrder of items may vary depending on freshness and seasonal availability
15Developing Response-Based Ideas in Practice Resistance to violence and small affronts is ever-presentPerpetrators work to suppress victim resistanceViolence is deliberate and controlled (with rare exceptions)Offenders are capable and already know how to be respectfulViolence is unilateral: Actions by one person/group against the will of anotherThis did not fit accepted views, discourses, methods: Raised questionsIf victims resist, why are they represented as passive, submissive?If violence is deliberate, why are offenders seen as out of control?If violence is unilateral, why is it seen as mutual?Analysis/research on language and violenceRefined interviewing methods and writing to reflect more accurate viewTied language to social responses: Integrated in interviewing and analysis
17What is dignity?Social life is organized largely around the according and preserving of dignity.Respect/worth: Self-respect & respect from others.- “self-esteem” and “social esteem”Inclusion, belongingAutonomy, freedom to think and act and “be” (identity)Physical and psychological integrity (wholeness)The ability to care for others, especially loved onesA sense of efficacy, agency, the ability to “make a difference”An inherent quality of the person, in spiritual and human rights languageCreated or violated in social interactionVaries with culture and immediate social situations
18Nelson MandelaI learned my lesson one day from an unruly donkey. We had been taking turns climbing up and down on its back and when my chance came I jumped on and the donkey bolted into a nearby thorn bush. It bent its head, trying to unseat me, which it did, but not before the thorns had pricked and scratched my face, embarrassing me in front of my friends. Like the people of the East, Africans have a highly developed sense of dignity, or what the Chinese call "face". I had lost face among my friends. Even though it was a donkey that unseated me, I learned that to humiliate another person is to make him suffer an unnecessarily cruel fate. Even as a boy, I defeated my opponents without dishonouring them. (1994, p )
19Dignity in social interaction Courtesy, politeness, embedded commandsDeference to social station (e.g., elders, leaders/roles)Responses to failed jokesMicro-politics of the accidental fartAdvice-design and receiptExample: Kieran in hand-out package
20DignityDignity is central to individual and collective well-being.Affronts to dignity create immediate social “problems” that participants work to repair.Humiliation is intense and requires “redress” or “repair”. Failure to supply “just redress” leaves an open social wound.For many victims, humiliation is the primary affront, the most lasting and painful injury:“The bruises go away but you never forget what he said to you.”“He got my body but he didn’t get me.”Responses and resistance are often oriented to preserving, asserting dignityRecovery from violence is largely a struggle for dignity.Our central task, whatever else we do, is to acknowledge the dignity to the victim
21Social ResponsesHow do friends, family, authorities, media, pets, organizations respond to interpersonal violence – to victims, offenders, children and others directly involved?How do victims and offenders respond to social responses, positive and negative?What information do we have on this subject?How can this information be used to create positive and socially just social responses?How can this information be used to prevent and limit violence, promote full recovery for victims, and provide effective sanctions for offenders?
22Some Swedish Research on Social Responses Ninni Carlsson: University of Gothenburg, Dept. of Social Work- Changes in social responses in the 1980’s made it more possible for girls and women to talk about experiences of sexual abuse and express open resistance.Ulla-Carin Hedin: University of Gothenburg, Dept. of Social Work- Social responses to whistleblowersMargareta Hyden: Linkoping- Victims and offenders social networks responses to wife-assaultLucas Forsberg: Linkoping- Men’s subjective experience of violence and responses to them by authorities, friends and families.Steig Larsson: Deceased- The Man who Hated Women (The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo)
26First Duino ElegyWho, if I cried out, would hear me among the angels’ heirarchies?and even if one of them pressed me suddenly against his heartI would be consumed in that overwhelming existence.For beauty is nothing but the beginning of terror, which we are still just able to endure,and we are so awed because it serenely disdains to annihilate us.Every angel is terrifying.And so I hold myself back and swallow the call-note of my dark sobbing.Ah, whom can we ever turn to in our need?Not angels, not humans, and already the knowing animals are awarethat we are not really at home in our interpreted world.Rainer Maria Rilke
27Some Research Results on Social Responses A majority of victims of violence report receiving negative social responses.What does “positive” and “negative” mean?Examples: Wife-assault, child sexualized abuse, bullyingFriends, family, professionals, mediaMarginalized, disadvantaged people are more likely to receive negative social responses.Examples: LGBTQ, Aboriginal, Refugee, Disabled, PoorThe quality of social responses may be the best single predictor of the level of victim distress.
28Victims’ Responses to Social Responses Victims respond physically, emotionally, mentally, socially and spiritually to positive and negative social responsesE.g., Epigenetic responses to social responses: Brenda AdamsVictims who receive POSITIVE social responses:- tend to recover more quickly and fully- are more likely to work with authorities- are more likely to report violence in futureVictims who receive NEGATIVE social responses:- less likely to cooperate with authorities- less likely to disclose violence again- more likely to experience distress- more likely to receive diagnosis of mental disorder
29Victim and Offender Responses to Social Responses Victims and offenders are mindful of social responsesVictims:Children/youth decide to tell, or notSecrecy to avoid judgment, isolationTo keep children - knowing she will be blamedProtect children from abuser - knowing he will be protectedImmediately during and after attacks (e.g., nightclub)Offenders:Isolation, secrecy, public appearances, surveillanceThreats for telling, in home, on body not face, sudden controlExcuses, justifications, denials, minimizingMutualizing, blaming victim
30Social Conditions and Social Responses: Understanding Offender Actions and Victim Responses/Resistance in ContextSocial responsesactual and anticipatedSocial ConditionsOffenderactions, strategiesVictimresponses, resistance
33Victim and Offender Responses and Social Responses in Context IndividualCollectiveResponsesViolenceAdverseActionsSocial situationSocialResponsesVictimOffenderSocialContext,LocalConditionsResponsesToSocial
34Violence is Unilateral Violence consists of actions by one person against the will and well being of anotherMutual Acts vs. Unilateral ActsHand-shaking vs. hand-shakingBoxingKissingMutual acts entail consent, co-action, co-agencyQuote from anonymous Canadian genius
35Unilateral Mutual forced his mouth on hers wife-assault, beating forced vaginal penetrationbeating, attack, assaultworkplace bullyinginvasion, genocideinternational child rapekissabusive relationshipssex, intercoursefight, conflict, argumentpersonality conflictwar, conflict, historical relationship problemsex tourist, sex with minors
36Colonial DiscourseColonization has always been based upon the existence of need and dependency. Not all people are suitable for being colonized; only those who feel this need are suitable. In almost all cases where Europeans have founded colonies we can say that they were expected, and even desired in the unconscious of their subjects.(Mannoni, 1947, cited in Macey)
37Wife-AssaultThe partners’ characteristics hold them together As abused partners adapt and become more compliant the partners’ characteristics make them increasingly dependent on one another. After prolonged abuse they develop complementary characteristics: aggressive/passive, demanding/compliant, blaming/accepting guilt. (Anonymous Family Violence Project, 2008)
38Wife-assault, Sexualized Assault: Judge’s Remarks “The appellant & his wife engaged in an argument Mr. X became upset over something said during this argument. He thereupon grabbed his wife’s neck, squeezing it until she nearly lost consciousness. He then let go. This brought the argument to an end. That the earlier of the two assaults arose spontaneously in the course of an argument is not in dispute. To that extent it can be said to have been unpremeditated. He was willing to take counselling in reference to his anger & his marital problems. He expressed his deep remorse for what had happened & his desire to improve the marriage. They went to bed and he said, ‘Jane, I’ll have to screw you one more time’, and he had intercourse with her It is obvious difficulties were present in the marriage.”
39Assumed Equivalence in a Mutualizing Frame (with apologies for the heteronormative pronouns)he had sex with hershe had sex with himthey had sex togetherhe kissed hershe kissed himthey kissedshe was in a loving relationshiphe was in a loving relationshipthey jointly created a loving relationshipshe was in an abusive relationshiphe was in an abusive relationshipthey jointly created an abusive relationship
40Lulea Woman Charged with Illegal Money Sharing Response-Based Wire ServiceLulea. Police arrested Tanya Jendersen yesterday for allegedly illegally sharing money in the amount of $500,000.00, from the Bank of Lulea. The bank clerk, who agreed to the transaction when a gun was pointed at her face, was unhurt. “I’m just happy the incident is over”, said Kerri Lightly, who has participated in three similar transactions in recent years. “I don’t know why these customers choose me”, she said. The bank manager, Mr. R.E. Tentive, stressed that Ms. Lightly would receive “psychiatric help to address her anxiety and ensure she no longer attracts greedy customers.”Tanya Jendersen was released on condition that she have no contact with bank clerks and attends specialized treatment for “wealthophelia”, a congenital disorder, more common in first degree biological relatives, characterized by the compulsive pursuit of illegally obtained financial independence.
41MutualizingObscures and reduces offender responsibilityIs associated with reduced sentencesCo-opts victim consentPortrays victim as co-agent, co-responsibleConceals victim resistanceBlames, pathologizes victimInfluences descriptions in diverse settings (e.g., courts)
44Sexualized Assault of Minor Judge’s Remarks (2004)In January of 1997, shortly after Hazel moved into this new “safe” home, Gordon Hunter (foster parent) began to have sexual intercourse with her. The first incident took place in a caravan parked in front of the home, where Gordon was repairing a water system and Hazel was watching him work. He began to kiss Hazel, pushed her onto a bed in the trailer. He withdrew a condom from his pocket and removed her clothing. He proceeded to sexually assault Hazel, who was 11 years old, a peri-pubescent girl. Notwithstanding the order to stay away from Hazel, the accused continued to meet and sexually assault her until early in On at least one occasion the accused had sexual intercourse with Hazel in a public park. The sexual relationship of Mr. Hunter and Hazel was disclosed early in the proceedings.
45sexual intercourse with her began to have sexual intercourse with her Hazelintercoursesexual intercoursesexual intercourse with herbegan to have sexual intercourse with herrelationshipsexual relationshipthe sexual relationshipthe sexual relationship of Mr. Hunter and Hazelthe sexual relationship of Mr. Hunter and Hazel was disclosed
46Macleans Magazine (2009): Priest sexually assaults three boys In 1969, John Swales and his brothers attended a summer camp for low income kids where they met a charming, larger than life volunteer named Father Barry Glendinning. [T]he priest soon became a surrogate big brother. He gained the trust of the boys’ parents, showered them with pizzas, movies and booze, and, when opportunity knocked, introduced them to sex. John was 10 years old when the first assault took place. “You name it, he did it,” Swales says. “The impact is so intense and so deep-rooted it is beyond my ability to express it. When you have sex at the age of 10 with your priest, it’s pretty weird.” John’s family won a landmark $1.3-million judgment against Glendinning and the London diocese, but not before a bitter court battle that dragged on for years
47when opportunity knocked, introduced them to sex Priestsexto sexthem to sexintroduced them to sexwhen opportunity knocked, introduced them to sexhave sexhave sex at the age of 10 withyou have sex at the age of 10 with your priestwhen you have sex at the age of 10 with your priest its pretty weird
48Kamloops man accused of procuring sex with child Vancouver Province Newspaper 2009A 33 year-old man who allegedly wanted to purchase sex from a three-to-five-year-old girl remained in police custody Monday. The man was arrested Saturday night at a home in Kamloops where he went believing he was to meet a young child for sex. Police received a report from a person who said they had received a text message from the suspect. “The text allegedly asked the person to provide the suspect with a three-to-five-year-old girl for sex, and that he would pay for the service by way of a finder’s fee”, said Sgt. Scott Wilson. The man was arrested for procuring for sexual purposes under Sec. 212 of the Criminal Code. Wilson said the suspect is known to police and was charged with a sexual-related offence with a person under 12 years of age in He was convicted of sex assault in 1999, police added.
49sex from a three-to-five-year-old girl Kamloops mansexsex fromsex from a three-to-five-year-old girlpurchase sex from a three-to-five-year-old girlwanted to purchase sex from a three-to-five-year-old girlfor sexa young child for sexmeet a young child for sexbelieving he was to meet a young child for sex
50procuring for sexual purposes Kamloops man cont’dsexualsexual purposesfor sexual purposesprocuring for sexual purposesthe man was arrested for procuring for sexual purposes
51Misrepresenting Intent: Drawing Mental Inferences from Distorted Accounts“wanted to purchase sex from a three-to-five-year-old girl”“believing he was to meet a young child for sex”“the man was arrested for procuring for sexual purposes”
52Alternative: Re: Kamloops man violateviolate a young childabduct and violate a young childplanning to abduct and violate a young childIntent: “planning to abduct and violate”
54Colm O’Gorman“The boy lies there, frozen. The covers move as the priest moves over and brings his hand down. He starts to masturbate the boy, who lies there motionless. And then in moments it is over. The confusion and urgency of the sexual charge that took me over and blurred all else has passed and there is only the shock and guilt of what has just happened. I am dizzy and frightened.” (49-50)“I felt so betrayed by my own body, which reacted to what was happening. I was sickened that I could become aroused and experience sexual pleasure at the same time as feeling terrified and disgusted. (49)
55Colm confronts the Priest “’Father’, I say. ‘That can never happen again. It’s wrong’.He [Fortune] nods his agreement but doesn’t say anything. Instead he waits to hear what I will say next.‘It shouldn’t have happened and I don’t know what to do. It’s so very wrong. I feel sick.’He finally speaks just as I feel I’m about to burst apart with guilt and shame.‘You’re right, of course you are right. It was wrong and must never happen again. You must never do such a thing again.’” (p. 51)
56Priest Springs the Trap “Before long we were close to home, just minutes away Then he [Fortune] cleared his throat and said, ‘I’m worried about you. You have a problem.’ I froze and said nothing, too scared to speak.‘I am a priest and I have a duty to do something about it’. My mind raced, I didn’t know what he meant by ‘do something’. I didn’t have time to think it through. We were moments away from home, from my parents.‘I could talk to your father that might be best.’I started to scream inside. Panic raced through me and the world started to spin. I wanted to escape, jump from the car, anything to get away from that awful moment. Anything to prevent what he said he might do. My father it would kill him to know what I’d done, what I was. He would die from shame.”
57The case of Colm O’Gorman Victim and Offender Responses and Social Responses in ContextIndividualCollectiveResponsesViolenceAdverseActionsSocial situationSocialResponsesVictimOffenderSocialContext,LocalConditionsResponsesToSocial
58Man Arrested in Frying Pan Dispute SydneyThings got too hot in the kitchen for Bill and Sue Smith yesterday, when a disagreement over dinner turned violent. Sue was hit on the head with a frying pan and went to hospital with minor injuries, after police and paramedics attended the scene. While being lifted into the ambulance, she exclaimed, “Being hit on the head with a frying pan is not what I call cooking!”Bill was arrested and released. He stated, “I feel very bad about what’s happened. Cooking has always been a strain on our relationship. We come home tired and hungry and just can’t communicate.” Bill was apparently triggered by Sue’s basil cream sauce. “That’s no excuse”, said Bill, “I can’t allow Sue’s cooking to affect me this way. I need to deal with my basil cream sauce issues”. The couple will attend a new evidence-based, trauma-informed program offered by the Not-So-Brief-or-Solution-Focused Therapy Institute, for couples caught in the cycle of culinary conflict.
59Developing Effective Social Responses to Violence “A sense of the unique, specific and concrete circumstances of any situation is the first indispensable step to solving the problems posed by that situation.” (Former Co-President of Ireland, David Trimble, 1998)The nature of violence and resistance in context.The functional links between the different forms of violence.War – rape – child abuse.Colonialism – land theft – rape/wife-assault – child apprehension.Concrete and accurate descriptions are essential in cases of violence.Can be hard to obtain, due partly to the power of language.Analysis of how violence, victims and offenders are portrayed in language.Tomorrow: If we do not have a description of the victim’s responses and resistance, we do not have a full description of the violence.
61The emotionally abused woman is a particular kind of woman, a woman who has established a pattern of continually being emotionally abused by those she is involved with, whether it be her lover or husband, her boss, her friends, her parents, her children, or her siblings. No matter how successful, how intelligent or how attractive she is, she still feels “less than” other people. Despite perhaps having taken assertive-training classes, she still feels afraid to stand up for herself in her relationships and is still victimized by her low self-esteem, her fear of authority figures, or her need to be taken care of by others. She was emotionally abused as a child, but she may or may not recognize how extensively this kind of childhood continues to affect her life.(Beverly Engel, 1990, p. 7)
62The Jew is a particular kind of person, a person who has established a pattern of continually being emotionally abused by those she is involved with, whether it be her lover or husband, hr boss, her friends, her parents, her children, or her siblings. No matter how successful, how intelligent or how attractive she is, she still feels “less than” other people. Despite perhaps having taken assertive-training classes, she still feels afraid to stand up for herself in her relationships and is still victimized by her low self-esteem, her fear of authority figures, or her need to be taken care of by others. She was emotionally abused as a child, but she may or may not recognize how extensively this kind of childhood continues to affect her life. (Beverly Engel, 1990, p. 7)
63Social Responses to Offenders Swift and decisive social responses (E. Gondolf)“The effectiveness of offender treatment depends in large part on the system of which the treatment is a part.”Criminal Justice & Mental HealthSlow, non-enforcementDual chargingMitigate offender responsibilityMen lacking skills and awareness, out of controlSpecialized courts, services not availableBlame victim, stigmatize childrenSection 15 reports
64Examples of Resistance to Injustice (Groups of three) One person shares an instance when they resisted control or oppression of some kind, overtly or covertly, on behalf of themselves or someone else. The second person obtains as much detail as possible about (a) the circumstances the person is responding to, (b) responses of the person that can be seen as resistance and (c) the real and possible social responses the person was aware of or could have faced at the time.