Gender - Social construction of roles, responsibilities and behaviour patterns assigned to men and women, boys and girls in respective societies at a given time - Gender identity acquired through socialisation - Differs from one culture to the other - Changes in time Sex – biological differentiation, natural and permanent "Male" and "female" are sex categories
List three attributes of gender List three attributes of ‘sex’ List three attributes of culture http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IHLl vXOJa3Y
Women menstruate while men do not In my community, men are more involved in herding cattle Men have beards Women breastfeed Women are more involved in farming Men get more government tenders In war men are generally strong fighters
Gender Roles Socially defined tasks/activities/duties/responsibilities ascribed to men and women based on perceived differences They differ by cultural and historical contexts. Are gender roles due to cultural or social factors, or due to biological and physiological differences State roles that women and men play in your community? State three roles women have in the management of UoN? State three roles men have in the management of UoN?
Sex Roles Biological differences between women & men, which remain a constant – does not change with context Natural roles Cannot be interchanged
Men have limited sex and gender roles compared to women Men have more time to invest in other areas that can be productive to them Women have multiple gender and sex roles and are tied up most of the time Women have less time for training, exposure, job searching Women unlikely to accept assignments that are time consuming or away from marital home.
Gender Equality so known as sex equality or sexual equality or equality of the genders, implies that men and women should receive equal treatment, unless there is a sound biological reason for different treatment. - Equal opportunities for women, men, boys & girls to expression & in access to resources & services, opportunities (education, employment, decision making & promotion) - Decision making & promotion important for upward mobility - Measured in terms of equality of opportunities & equality of results or reward for labour - Exists where sex-based discrimination is absent
Gender equality: denotes women having the same opportunities in life as men, including the ability to participate in the public sphere And Gender equity: denotes the equivalence in life outcomes for women and men, recognizing their different needs and interests, and requiring a redistribution of power and resources. Often calls for affirmative action to allow fair play – where there is competition for resources & one group has an advantage over the other
Gender Issues - Consequences of inequalities, inequity and differential treatment between men & women - Biases/discriminatory behaviour on basis of sex or social roles – denial of education for girl child; higher entry fees in clubs for men/boys
Gender Concerns - Triggered by disparities & imbalances which cannot be ignored - Disparities & imbalances viewed as unfair & undesirable at all levels - If imbalances & disparities do not cause anxiety, then it remains a disparity & not a concern - Becomes a concern when majority realise the problem push for change
Gender Gaps/Disparities - Systemic differences in outcome that men & women achieve in a sector - Imbalance/differences that arise due to social assigned gender roles, issues Examples: gap between male and female staff at different levels
Gender Responsive - Taking into account gender gaps & gender issues to inform plans, implementation and design of any process Example: a responsive budget entail an analysis of actual expenditure and revenue of men & women adjusted to address any gender inequality
Gender Analysis - Systematic effort to research, document & understand the roles of women & men in a given context & how a given activity, decision or plan will specifically affect men & women - Exposes the advantages & disadvantages experienced by women & men in relation to specific issues Assists in understanding: - Conditions - Needs, - Participation rates; - Access to resources and development; - Control of assets and, - Decision making powers between men and women in their assigned roles.
Gender Analysis Cont. - Provide the basis for taking steps to address disadvantages, & devising remedial/preventive interventions - Allows for equal representation of women & men in shaping development
GM is a strategy by which a gender perspective & the objective of promoting gender equality is included in all preparatory work and decision making by authorities - embedding of gender equality & equity into analysis, planning, performance, policy, monitoring and evaluation. - Application has potential of changing content and direction of practices at organisational (daily life, projects and programmes) and institutional level
- GM has to take into consideration the triple role of women (reproductive, productive and community) & roles of men - The way roles are valued affect the way women and men set priorities in planning everyday activities, projects, programmes and general management.
Is a strategy for achieving gender equality Strategy to end gender blindness in development process. Implies integrating needs, concerns and priorities of women, men, girls, boys and all vulnerable groups in policies, plans and program. It ensures women & men, girls & boys have equal access to& control over resources, opportunities &benefits at all levels.
Gender sensitive institutions Gender sensitive policies Gender sensitive plans & programs Institutions free from gender based violence Gender equity and equality Sustainable development
Identify gender issues/concerns & strategies for addressing them-Institutional gender analysis Develop a gender framework/policy Establish gender committees or GFP Collect sex-disaggregated data from your sector ( for gender analysis) Sensitize staff on G/M Engender your programs and activities
Relevance of organisational gender policy for gender mainstreaming UoN Gender policy, 2008 - Aims at creating and sustaining fair and just academic environment where women and men have equal opportunities, voice, rights and access to resources, so that persons of both gender realise their full potential and contribution within a community of scholars and workers with a culture of mutual respect
Summary of staff count by grade and gender 2011
Student admission 2011
Code of practice on: - Decision making organs - Recruitment, training and promotion - Student admissions - Gender sensitive curriculum - Working and learning environment - Role Models - Student organisations and Co-Curriculum Activities - University staff Awards - Examination & Coursework - Gender Violence - Staff & Student Welfare
Functions of Gender Division Raise and sustain gender awareness within the University; Promote gender sensitive, friendly, inclusive and secure environment in the University for staff and students; Ensure that gender parity in student enrolment and performance is improved across disciplines; Promote gender equality in staff recruitment, training and promotion;
Functions of Gender Division Cont. Undertake the training of trainers in gender analysis skills within the University; Advocate and promote gender equality in decision-making at all levels within the University; Establish and coordinate gender outreach programmes incorporating schools, colleges, media and cultural communities;
Functions of Gender Division Cont. Promote the use of gender sensitive language in all forms of communication; Facilitate gender research; Collect, analyse and update sex- disaggregated information on all sections of the University system in order to monitor and evaluate the relative positions of women and men, and produce regular reports; and Establish and maintain a comprehensive resource centre.
Functions of Gender Division Cont. Develop an effective and participatory monitoring and evaluation system for periodic assessment of progress and impact of gender mainstreaming and for the enforcement of the UoN Gender Policy; Provide technical guidance and advisory support to other units in their gender mainstreaming efforts; Establish public-private partnerships for research collaboration, networking and funding; and Coordinate the events of gender awareness week.
In collaboration with Gender Division responsible for: Interpreting and domesticating the objectives of UoN Gender Policy; Ensuring that information and action flow to and from departments, faculties, schools, institutes and other units within the university; Coordinating with Campus Based Gender Focal Points on relevant gender activities and issues; Providing quarterly reports on College gender activities and issues; Compiling Annual report on gender mainstreaming activities and issues; and Other matters determined by the committee to be of relevance to gender mainstreaming within the college in line with the UoN Gender Policy.
Each campus to have a gender focal point or unit with full time staff assisted by part time staff/student interns; Responsible for identifying new gender issues & offering advice on gender issues as well as liaison with other organs & units of the university; and 24 hour service delivered through a variety of methods such as office staff during working hours, help line outside office hours & other lower structures as may be determined.
Integrate gender needs, concerns & priorities in UoN Strategic Plan Resources, facilities & Infrastructure Teaching & Learning Research, Innovation & Technology Competitiveness of UoN Collaborations & Partnerships Scaling down to colleges, Institutes, Faculties, Departments & Centres
Ensuring gender responsive management and administration of the university and equity in all teaching, research and administration programmes; Reaching out to marginalised groups especially women, boys and girls; Establishing appropriate administrative structures to implement strategies in line with the gender policy;
Partial implementation - Gender mainstreaming Division - College Based Gender Committees - Campus Gender Focal Points - Complaint Procedures - Resource Mobilisation - Monitoring and Evaluation Systems Sensitization not a panacea for GM
Establish a baseline through research Mapping and allocating available resources - Identify and analyse how resources are shared and used across gender - Identify how services are provided across gender - If analysis shows skewed usage and/or allocation the situation has to be addressed and reallocation done - Tendency to block analysis and reallocation.
Begin a responsive approach Reflect on the situation in your various Faculties, Departments, Institutes, Centers, Sections and units and analyse the situation of women and men in respect to opportunities, and access to resources & services Identify the challenges facing women and men in respect to the above assessment Come up with a strategy for ensuring that both women and men have adequate and equal opportunities to fully exert themselves. Think of relevant indicators for monitoring & evaluating ideal GM