Presentation on theme: "Current Liabilities and Contingencies"— Presentation transcript:
1Current Liabilities and Contingencies Chapter 13Chapter 13: Current Liabilities and Contingencies.Chapter 13 deals with short-term liabilities. In Part A of the chapter, the focus is on liabilities that are classified appropriately as current. In Part B of the chapter, we turn our attention to situations in which there is uncertainty as to whether an obligation really exists. These are designated as loss contingencies. Some loss contingencies are accrued as liabilities, but others only are disclosed in the notes.
2Characteristics of Liabilities Probable future sacrifices of economic benefits.Arise from present obligations to other entities.Result from past transactions or events.Most liabilities obligate the debtor to pay cash at specified times and result from legally enforceable agreements. Liabilities have three essential characteristics. Liabilities: Are probable, future sacrifices of economic benefits. Arise from present obligations to transfer goods or provide services to other entities. Result from past transactions or events.
3What is a Current Liability? LIABILITIESCurrent LiabilitiesLong-term LiabilitiesObligations payable within one year or one operating cycle, whichever is longer.In a classified balance sheet, we categorize liabilities as either current liabilities or long-term liabilities. The general definition of a current liability is an obligation payable within one year or within the company’s operating cycle, whichever is longer. Another more discriminating definition identifies a current liability as an obligation expected to be satisfied with current assets or by the creation of other current liabilities. Liabilities should be recorded at their present values, but the relatively short-term maturity of current liabilities makes the time value component immaterial.Expected to be satisfied with current assets or by the creation of other current liabilities.
4Short-term notes payable Cash dividends payable Current LiabilitiesCurrent LiabilitiesShort-term notes payableAccrued expensesCash dividends payableTaxes payableAccounts payableUnearned revenuesExamples of obligations reported as current liabilities are:Accounts payable.Taxes payable.Unearned revenues.Cash dividends payable.Accrued expenses.Short-term notes payable.
5Open Accounts and Notes Accounts PayableObligations to suppliers for goods purchased on open account.Trade Notes PayableSimilar to accounts payable, but recognized by a written promissory note.Short-term Notes PayableCash borrowed from the bank and recognized by a promissory note.Credit linesPrearranged agreements with a bank that allow a company to borrow cash without following normal loan procedures and paperwork.Accounts payable are obligations to suppliers for goods purchased on open account.Trade notes payable are similar to accounts payable but are recognized by a written promissory note.Short-term notes payable are cash borrowings from a bank that are recognized by promissory notes.Credit lines are prearranged agreements with a bank that allow a company to borrow cash without following normal loan procedures and paperwork.
6Interest rate is always stated as an annual rate. Interest on notes is calculated as follows:Amount borrowedInterest rate is always stated as an annual rate.Interest owed is adjusted for the portion of the year that the face amount is outstanding.When a company borrows money, it pays the lender interest for the term of the loan. The interest on short-term loans is calculated by multiplying the amount borrowed times the annual interest rate times the fraction of the year the loan is outstanding.
7Interest-bearing Notes On September 1, Eagle Boats borrows $80,000 from Cooke Bank. The note is due in 6 months and has a stated interest rate of 9%. Record the journal entry.September 1:Cash ,000Notes payable ,000To record short-term note payable to Cooke Bank.Part IOn September 1, Eagle Boats borrows $80,000 from Cooke Bank. The note is due in six months and has a stated interest rate of 9%. Record the borrowing on September 1. Record the journal entry.Part IIWe record the borrowing on books of Eagle Boats with a debit to cash and a credit to notes payable for $80,000. The borrowing increased the asset cash and also increased the liability notes payable. Now let’s compute the interest.Part III.How much interest is owed to the bank at the end of the year?Part IV.To answer this question we will use the interest computation formula, multiplying the amount borrowed times the annual interest rate times the fraction of the year that the loan is outstanding. The amount borrowed is $80,000. The annual interest rate is 9%. The loan has been outstanding for four months, or four-twelfths of a year. Eighty thousand dollars times 9% times four-twelfths equals $2,400.How much interest is owed to Cooke Bank at year-end, on December 31?$80,000 × 9% × 4/12 = $2,400
8Interest-bearing Notes Assume Eagle Boats’ year-end is December 31. Record the necessary adjustment at year-end.December 31:Interest expense ,400 Interest payable ,400To accrue interest on note due to Cooke Bank.Record the journal entry for the loan repayment when the note matures on February 28.Part I.Next let’s record the adjusting entry on December 31 to recognize the interest obligation to the bank.Part II.We debit interest expense and credit the liability interest payable for $2,400.The loan matures six months from the date of borrowing on February 28 of the next year. Let’s record the loan repayment. Don’t forget that we need to recognize additional interest for the two months since the last entry on December 31.Part III.The total amount of interest for the six months from September 1 until February 28 is $3,600 — $2,400 for the four months from September 1 until December 31, and $1,200 for the two months from January 1 until February 28.The $2,400 interest obligation for the first four months was recorded as an interest payable in the adjusting entry made on December 31. Since we are now repaying the bank, we remove this liability with a debit to interest payable for $2,400. In addition, we debit interest expense for the $1,200 of interest for the two months from January 1 until February 28. Also, we debit note payable to remove the $80,000 for the original amount borrowed.The total amount owed to the bank is the $80,000 originally borrowed plus the $3,600 of interest. We credit cash for $83,600 to record this payment.February 28:Interest payable ,400Interest expense ,200Notes payable …………………………… 80,000Cash …………………………… 83,600To pay off note and interest.
9Noninterest-bearing Notes Notes without a stated interest rate carry an implicit, or effective, rate.The face of the note includes the amount borrowed and the interest.On occasion, a bank might make a loan with a noninterest-bearing note. Even though the note is called a noninterest-bearing note, the note actually does bear interest. The face amount of the note includes both the amount borrowed and the interest.Let’s look at an example to see how we might determine the amount of interest on a noninterest-bearing note.
10Noninterest-bearing Notes On May 1, Batter-Up Inc. issued a one-year, noninterest-bearing note with a face amount of $10,600 in exchange for equipment valued at $10,000.How much interest will Batter-Up pay on the note?Interest = Face Amount – Amount Borrowed= $10, – $10,000= $600Part I.On May 1, Batter-Up Inc. issued a one-year, noninterest-bearing note with a face amount of $10,600 in exchange for equipment valued at $10,000.How much interest will Batter-Up pay on the note?Part II.The actual amount borrowed is $10,000, the value of the equipment. The amount that Batter-Up will repay is $10,600, the face amount of the note. To compute the amount of interest on the note, we subtract the amount borrowed from the face amount to get $600 of interest.
11Noninterest-bearing Notes On May 1, Batter-Up Inc. issued a one-year, noninterest-bearing note with a face amount of $10,600 in exchange for equipment valued at $10,000.What is the effective interest rate on the note?Part I.The information is the same.On May 1, Batter-Up Inc. issued a one-year, noninterest-bearing note with a face amount of $10,600 in exchange for equipment valued at $10,000.What is the effective interest rate on the note?Part II.We divide the amount of interest, $600, by the $10,000 borrowed to get a 6% effective interest rate.
12Recorded in the same manner as notes payable. Commercial PaperCommercial paper is a term used for unsecured notes issued in minimum denominations of $25,000 with maturities ranging from 30 days to 270 days.Issued directly to the lender and is backed by a line of credit with a bank.Some large corporations obtain temporary financing by issuing commercial paper, often purchased by other companies as a short-term investment. Commercial paper is a term used for unsecured notes issued in minimum denominations of $25,000 with maturities ranging from 30 days to 270 days. Normally commercial paper is issued directly to the lender and is backed by a line of credit with a bank.Interest often is discounted at the issuance of the note. Commercial paper has become an increasingly popular way for large companies to raise funds, the total amount having expanded over fivefold in the last decade. In fact, large companies have become so dependent on obtaining financing through the commercial paper market that a freeze-up of that market contributed to a global economic crisis in Commercial paper is recorded in the same manner as notes payable.Recorded in the same manner as notes payable.
13Salaries, Commissions, and Bonuses Compensation expenses such as salaries, commissions, and bonuses are liabilities at the balance sheet date if earned but unpaid.These accrued expenses/accrued liabilities are recorded with an adjusting entry prior to preparing financial statements.Compensation for employee services can be in the form of hourly wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, stock compensation plans, or pensions. Accrued liabilities arise in connection with compensation expense when employee services have been performed as of a financial statement date, but employees have yet to be paid. These accrued expenses/accrued liabilities are recorded by adjusting entries at the end of the reporting period, prior to preparing financial statements.
14Vacations, Sick Days, and Other Paid Future Absences An employer should accrue an expense and the related liability for employees’ compensation for future absences (such as vacation pay) if the obligation meets all four of these conditions:The obligation is for services already performed.The paid absence can be taken in a later year—the benefit vests or the benefit can be accumulated over time.Payment is probable.The amount can be reasonably estimated.An employer should accrue an expense and the related liability for employees’ compensation for future absences (such as vacation pay) if the obligation meets all four of these conditions:The obligation is attributable to employees’ services already performed.The paid absence can be taken in a later year—the benefit vests (will be compensated even if employment is terminated) or the benefit can be accumulated over time.Payment is probable.The amount can be reasonably estimated.The liability is accrued at the current wage rate.A liability for sick leave is normally not accrued because future absence depends on future illness, which usually is not a certainty. However, if employees are paid for unused sick days (such as at retirement) it’s appropriate to record a liability for the unused sick pay.Sick pay quite often meets the conditions for accrual, but accrual is not mandatory because future absence depends onfuture illness, which usually is not a certainty.
15Liabilities from Advance Collections Refundable depositsAdvances from customersGift cardsCollections for third partiesLiabilities are created when amounts are received that will be returned or remitted to others. Examples are:Refundable depositsAdvances from customers (called unearned revenue or deferred revenue)Gift cards (also unearned revenue)Collections for third parties
16Gift CardsDuring their December 2012 Christmas promotion, MegloMart sold 20,000 gift cards at $25 each. All gift card sales were for cash. On December 31, 2012, only 1,000 gift cards had been redeemed. Unused gift cards expire on December 31, 2013, if not used to purchase MegloMart merchandise.Prepare the journal entries on December 31, 2012, to record the December 2012 sale and redemption of gift cards.December 31, 2012:Cash (20,000 × $25) ,000 Unearned revenue … ,000To record cash received from gift card sales.Part I.During their December 2012 Christmas promotion, MegloMart sold 20,000 gift cards at $25 each. All gift card sales were for cash. On December 31, 2012, only 1,000 gift cards had been redeemed. Unused gift cards expire on December 31, 2013, if not used to purchase MegloMart merchandise. Prepare the journal entries on December 31, 2012, to record the December 2012 sale and redemption of gift cards.Part II.In the first entry, we record the receipt of cash from gift card sales. The cash received is recorded as unearned revenue, a liability. Although payment has been received, revenue will not be earned until gift card recipients exchange gift cards for merchandise or until the gift cards expire (gift card breakage).In the second entry, we record the revenue earned from gift card redemptions. When gift cards are redeemed for merchandise, revenue is earned. The liability unearned revenue is reduced and revenue is recognized.December 31, 2012:Unearned revenue (1,000 × $25) ,000Sales revenue … ,000To record revenue from gift card redemptions.
17Gift CardsBy December 31, 2013, 18,500 additional gift cards had been redeemed. Prepare the journal entry on December 31 to record the 2013 redemptions.December 31, 2013:Unearned revenue (18,500 × $25) … ,500 Sales revenue (18,500 × $25) … ,500To record revenue from gift card redemptions.On December 31, 2013, the 500 remaining cards had not been redeemed. Prepare the journal entry on December 31 to record the gift card expirations.Part I.By December 31, 2013, 18,500 additional gift cards had been redeemed. Prepare the journal entry on December 31 to record the 2013 redemptions.Part II.Again, if gift cards are redeemed for merchandise, revenue is earned. The liability unearned revenue is reduced and revenue is recognized.On December 31, 2013, the 500 remaining cards had not been redeemed. Prepare the journal entry on December 31 to record the gift card expirations.Part III.Revenue is also recognized when gift cards expire. Whether redeemed or expired, the liability unearned revenue is reduced and revenue is recognized. The revenue from expired gift cards (breakage) is not reported separately, but is included in sales revenue.December 31, 2013:Unearned revenue (500 × $25) … ,500 Gift card breakage revenue ………..… ,500To record revenue from gift card expirations.
18A Closer Look at the Current and Noncurrent Classification Current maturities of long-term obligations usually are reclassified and reported as current liabilities if they are payable within the upcoming year (or operating cycle, if longer than a year).Long-term obligations (bonds, notes, lease liabilities, deferred tax liabilities) usually are reclassified and reported as current liabilities when they become payable within the upcoming year (or operating cycle, if longer than a year). For example, a 20-year bond issue is reported as a long-term liability for 19 years but normally is reported as a current liability on the balance sheet prepared during the 20th year of its term to maturity.The requirement to classify currently maturing debt as a current liability includes debt that is callable (in other words, due on demand) by the creditor in the upcoming year (or operating cycle, if longer), even if the debt is not expected to be called.Debt that is callable by the lender in the coming year (or operating cycle, if longer) should be classified as a current liability, even if the debt is not expected to be called.
19Short-Term Obligations Expected to be Refinanced A company may reclassify a short-term liability as long- term if two conditions are met:It has the intent to refinance on a long-term basis.It has demonstrated the ability to refinance.andThe ability to refinance on a long-term basis can be demonstrated byan existing refinancing agreement, oractual financing prior to issuance of the financial statements.A company may reclassify a short-term liability as long-term only if two conditions are met:It has the intent to refinance on a long-term basis.It has demonstrated the ability to refinance.The ability to refinance on a long-term basis can be demonstrated byAn existing refinancing agreement, orActual financing prior to issuance of the financial statements.
20Classification of Liabilities to be Refinanced U.S. GAAP vs. IFRSClassification of Liabilities to be RefinancedLiabilities payable within the coming year are classified as long‐term liabilities if refinancing is completed before date of issuance of the financial statements.Liabilities payable within the coming year are classified as long‐term liabilities if refinancing is completed before the balance sheet date.Under U.S. GAAP, liabilities payable within the coming year are classified as long‐term liabilities if refinancing is completed before date of issuance of the financial statements. Under IFRS, refinancing must be completed before the balance sheet date for liabilities payable within the coming year to be classified as long‐term liabilities.
21Loss ContingenciesA loss contingency is an existing uncertain situation involving potential loss depending on whether some future event occurs.Two factors affect whether a loss contingency must be accrued and reported as a liability:The likelihood that the confirming event will occur.Whether the loss amount can be reasonably estimated.A loss contingency is an existing uncertain situation involving potential loss depending on whether some future event occurs.Two factors affect whether a loss contingency must be accrued and reported as a liability: The likelihood that the confirming event will occur. Whether the loss amount can be reasonably estimated.
22Likelihood of occurrence: Probable Reasonably Possible Loss ContingenciesLikelihood of occurrence:ProbableA confirming event is likely to occur.Reasonably PossibleThe chance the confirming event will occur is more than remote, but less than likely.RemoteThe chance the confirming event will occur is slight.Accounting standards require that the likelihood that the future event(s) will confirm the incurrence of a liability be categorized asprobable, meaning that the confirming event is likely to occur.reasonably possible, meaning that the chance the confirming event will occur is more than remote, but less than likely.remote, meaning that the chance the confirming event will occur is slight.
23Loss ContingenciesThe table on this screen summarizes the accounting and reporting for loss contingencies. The information presented here should provide you with a quick reference and a very useful study guide for loss contingencies.In summary, a loss contingency is accrued only if a loss is probable and the amount can reasonably be estimated.A loss contingency is accrued only if a loss is probable and the amount can reasonably be estimated.
24Product Warranties and Guarantees Product warranties inevitably entail costs.The amount of those costs can be reasonably estimated using commonly available estimation techniques.The estimate requires the following entry:Product warranties inevitably entail costs. Since the amounts of those future costs can be reasonably estimated, usually based on past experience, we should accrue a liability for the estimated cost of the warranty obligation. To accrue the warranty liability, we debit warranty expense and credit estimated warranty liability. This entry is recorded in the period of the sale of the items under warranty in order to match the future warranty expense to the revenues earned.Warranty expense $,$$$Estimated warranty liability $,$$$To accrue warranty expense.
25Extended Warranty Contracts Extended warranties are sold separately from the product.The related revenue is not earned until:Claims are made against the extended warranty, orThe extended warranty period expires.Extended warranties are sold separately from the product.Even though cash is received at the time the warranty contract is sold, revenue is not recognized until it is earned. At the time of the sale, an entry is made to record a liability for the deferred revenue. In most cases, the deferred revenue (liability) is recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the life of the extended warranty.
26PremiumsPremiums included with the product are expensed in the period of sale.Premiums that are contingent on action by the customer require accounting similar to warranties.Premiums are promotional items provided with a product to enhance the sale of the product. Premiums included with the product are expensed in the period of sale. Premiums that are contingent on action by the customer require accounting similar to warranties. Mail-in, cash rebate offers are an example of the second type of premium. The cost of the cash rebates, based on estimated redemptions, using past redemption history, is recognized as an expense in the period of sale, and as an estimated liability. While it is difficult to predict whether a particular buyer will redeem a premium, it is much easier to predict the total number of premiums that will be redeemed based on how previous customers have tended to react.
27The most common disclosure is a note to the financial statements. Litigation ClaimsThe majority of medium- and large-size corporations annually report loss contingencies due to litigation.The most common disclosure is a note to the financial statements.The majority of medium- and large-size corporations annually report loss contingencies due to litigation. The most common disclosure is a note to the financial statements. Accrual of a loss due to pending or actual litigation is extremely rare.Most companies realize that the outcome of litigation is highly uncertain, making likelihood predictions difficult. Companies may accrue estimated lawyer fees and other legal costs, but usually do not record a loss until after the ultimate settlement has been reached or negotiations for settlement are substantially completed. Instead, disclosure notes typically describe the specifics of the litigation along with whether management feels an adverse outcome would materially affect the financial position of the company.
28Subsequent EventsEvents occurring between the fiscal year-end date and report date can affect the appearance of disclosures on the financial statements.Cause of Loss ContingencyClarificationEvents occurring between a company’s fiscal year‐end date and the financial statement issue date are called subsequent events. These subsequent events can be used to determine how contingencies, existing before the fiscal year‐end, are reported.Fiscal Year EndsFinancial Statements
29Subsequent EventsEvents occurring after the year-end date but before the financial statements can also affect the appearance of disclosures on the financial statements.Cause of Loss ContingencyClarificationIf a contingency occurs after the fiscal year‐end date, a liability cannot be accrued because it didn’t exist at the end of the year. However, if failure to disclose any possible loss would result in misleading financial statements, the situation should be described in a disclosure note, including the effect of any possible loss on key accounting numbers.In fact, any event occurring after the fiscal year-end but before the financial statements are issued that has a material effect on the company’s financial position must be disclosed in a subsequent events disclosure note. Examples are an issuance of debt or equity securities, a business combination, and discontinued operations.Fiscal Year EndsFinancial Statements
30Unasserted Claims and Assessments Is a claim or assessment probable?No disclosure neededNoAn unfiled lawsuit or an unasserted claim or assessment need not be disclosed unless it is probable that the claim or assessment will occur. If it is probable, then the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome and the feasibility of estimating a dollar amount should be considered in deciding whether and how to report the probable loss.A two-step process is involved in deciding how an unasserted claim should be reported:1. Is a claim or assessment probable? (If the answer to this question is no, no disclosure is needed; skip step 2.)2. Only if a claim or assessment is probable should we evaluate (a) the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome and (b) whether the dollar amount can be estimated. If the conclusion of step 1 is that the claim or assessment is not probable, no further action is required. If the conclusion of step 1 is that the claim or assessment is probable, the decision as to whether or not a liability is accrued or disclosed is precisely the same as when the claim or assessment already has been asserted.YesEvaluate (a) the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome and (b) whether the dollar amount can be estimated. An estimated loss and contingent liability would be accrued if an unfavorable outcome is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated.
31U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS Loss Contingencies Refers to both accrued and non- accrued obligations as contingent liabilities.Defines probable as an event is likely to occur.Refers to accrued liabilities as provisions and nonaccrued as contingent liabilities.Defines probable as more likely than not, a lower threshold than U.S. GAAP.Accounting for contingent losses is quite similar between IFRS and U.S. GAAP. IFRS refers to these accrued liabilities as “provisions,” and refers to possible obligations that are not accrued as “contingent liabilities,” while the term “contingent liabilities” alone is used for all of these obligations in U.S. GAAP. A loss contingency is accrued under U.S. GAAP if it’s both probable and can be reasonably estimated. IFRS is similar, but defines “probable” as “more likely than not” (greater than 50 percent), which is a lower threshold than typically associated with “probable” in U.S. GAAP.
32U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS Loss Contingencies Does not make a distinction between the two types of contingencies, distinguished under IFRS, but typically requires disclosure of the same contingencies.Makes a distinction between and requires disclosure of two types of contingent liabilities:Those whose existence will be confirmed by uncertain future event(s) that the company does not controlThose where a present obligation for a future outflow is not probable or where the future outflow cannot be measured.IFRS requires disclosure (but not accrual) of two types of contingent liabilities: (1) possible obligations whose existence will be confirmed by some uncertain future events that the company does not control, and (2) a present obligation for which either it is not probable that a future outflow will occur or the amount of the future outflow cannot be measured with sufficient reliability. U.S. GAAP does not make this distinction but typically would require disclosure of the same contingencies.
33U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS Loss Contingencies Requires use of low end of a range of equally likely outcomes.Allows using present value under some circumstances.With the exception of long-term construction contracts and terminated contracts, anticipated losses on money losing contracts are generally not recognized or disclosed until incurred.Requires use of midpoint of a range of equally likely outcomes.Requires reporting present values when material.IFRS recognizes provisions and contingencies for contracts, where the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations exceed the expected benefits.If a liability is accrued, IFRS measures the liability as the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation. If there is a range of equally likely outcomes, IFRS requires using the midpoint of the range, while U.S. GAAP requires use of the low end of the range.If the effect of the time value of money is material, IFRS requires the liability to be stated at present value. U.S. GAAP allows using present values under some circumstances, but liabilities for loss contingencies like litigation typically are not discounted for time value of money.IFRS recognizes provisions and contingencies for “onerous” contracts, defined as those in which the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations exceed the expected benefits. Under U.S. GAAP we generally don’t disclose or recognize losses on such money-losing contracts, although there are some exceptions (for example, losses on long-term construction contracts are accrued, as are losses on contracts that have been terminated).
34As a general rule, we never record GAIN contingencies. Note that the prior rules have supported the recording of LOSS contingencies.As a general rule, we never record GAIN contingencies.A gain contingency is an uncertain situation that might result in a gain. Although loss contingencies are accrued when certain conditions are met, gain contingencies are not accrued. The practice of conservatism accounts for the difference in treatment of loss contingencies and gain contingencies.Even though gain contingencies are not accrued, those that are material may be disclosed in notes to the financial statements. When disclosing gain contingencies, the wording should not be so optimistic as to give misleading implications as to the likelihood of realization.
35U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS Gain Contingencies Gain contingencies are never accrued.Gain contingencies are disclosed when future realization is probable,Defines probable as an event is likely to occur.Gain contingencies are accrued if their future realization is virtually certain to occur.Gain contingencies are disclosed when future realization is probable.Defines probable as more likely than not, a lower threshold than U.S. GAAP.Under U.S. GAAP, gain contingencies are never accrued. Under IFRS, gain contingencies are accrued if their future realization is “virtually certain” to occur. Both U.S. GAAP and IFRS disclose contingent gains when future realization is probable, but under IFRS “probable” is defined as “more likely than not” (greater than 50 percent), and so has a lower threshold than it does under U.S. GAAP.
36Appendix 13 Payroll-Related Liabilities Employers incur several expenses and liabilities from having employees.Appendix 13: Payroll-Related LiabilitiesMost of you have probably worked at some time in your life. You know that amounts are withheld from your paycheck and you may have wondered how this money is handled by your employer. In addition to remitting amounts withheld from your paycheck, your employer also pays payroll tax expenses in connection with having you on the payroll. These are not amounts withheld from your paycheck but are costs to your employer.
37Payroll-Related Liabilities Gross PayGross pay is the amount you actually earn during a pay period. Out of your gross pay, amounts are withheld for Social Security (FICA) taxes, Medicare taxes, and federal income taxes. If you live in a state or locality that has an income tax, additional amounts will be withheld. In addition to these mandatory withholdings, you may elect to have amounts withheld from your gross pay. For example, if you are eligible to participate in a contributory retirement plan or a medical savings plan, your employer may withhold amounts from your pay to contribute to these plans for you.Your gross pay less all withholdings, mandatory and voluntary, results in the net pay that you receive.FICA TaxesMedicare TaxesFederal Income TaxState and Local Income TaxesVoluntary DeductionsNet Pay
38Employees’ Withholding Taxes State and Local Income TaxesFederal Income TaxAmounts withheld depend on the employee’s earnings, tax rates, and number of withholding allowances.Employers are required by law to withhold federal (and sometimes state) income taxes and Social Security taxes from employees’ paychecks and remit these to the Internal Revenue Service (and sometimes state).The amount of income taxes withheld from your gross pay usually depends on how much you earn during the pay period and the number of withholding allowances you claimed on the W‐4 form you completed when you first went to work. Your employer must pay the taxes withheld from employees’ gross pay to the appropriate government agency.Employers must pay the taxes withheld from employees’ gross pay to the appropriate government agency.
39Employees’ Withholding Taxes Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA)FICA TaxesMedicare Taxes6.2% of the first $110,100 earned in the year.The rate of withholding for FICA taxes and Medicare taxes increase periodically. Currently, the FICA rate is 6.2 percent on the first $110,100 of gross pay. For 2011 only, employees paid a rate of 4.2% rather than the normal 6.2% as part of Congress’s efforts to stimulate the U.S. economy. Employers still paid 6.2%. The reduced rate of 4.2% has been extended through February 2012 and may be further extended as Congress sees fit.The Medicare rate of 1.45 percent is applied to total gross pay with no limit on the amount of gross pay. Employers match the amounts withheld for Medicare on a dollar‐for‐dollar basis.1.45% of all wages earned in the year.Employers must pay withheld taxes to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
40Amounts withheld depend on the employee’s request. Voluntary DeductionsAmounts withheld depend on the employee’s request.Examples include union dues, savings accounts, pension contributions, insurance premiums, charities.The amount withheld from gross pay for voluntary deductions depends upon which plans you participate in at your place of employment. Your employer makes payments to the proper designated agencies for amounts withheld as voluntary deductions.Employers owe voluntary amounts withheld from employees’ gross pay to the designated agency.
41Employers’ Payroll Taxes Federal and State Unemployment TaxesFICA TaxesMedicare TaxesEmployers pay amounts equal to that withheld from the employee’s gross pay.Your employer must match your contributions for FICA and Medicare taxes unless employee rate changes occur as described in the previous slide. In addition to matching your contributions for FICA and Medicare, your employer must pay all federal and state unemployment taxes. Let’s look a little closer at the unemployment taxes on the next slide.
42Federal and State Unemployment Taxes 6.0% on the first $7,000 of wages paid to each employee (A credit up to 5.4% is given for SUTA paid.)Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA)Basic rate of 5.4% on the first $7,000 of wages paid to each employee (Merit ratings may lower SUTA rates.)State Unemployment Tax Act (SUTA)The federal and state unemployment tax rates are subject to change. Currently, the federal rate is 6.0% on the first $7,000 of earnings for each employee. The federal tax can be reduced by as much as 5.4% for contributions to state unemployment programs resulting in a federal tax rate of 0.6%. Most states reduce this rate for employers with excellent employment records.
43Fringe BenefitsIn addition to salaries and wages, withholding taxes, and payroll taxes, most companies provide a variety of fringe benefits.Health insurance premiumsLife insurance premiumsRetirement plan contributionsIn addition to salaries and wages, withholding taxes, and payroll taxes, most companies provide a variety of fringe benefits such as health insurance, life insurance, and retirement programs. Employers must pay the amounts promised to fund employee fringe benefits to the designated agency.Employers must pay the amounts promised to fund employee fringe benefits to the designated agency.