Presentation on theme: "MANIFEST DESTINY. DO NOW Read the Introduction to the unit. Then, read the O’Sullivan text and answer the questions on your notesheet. You may use a partner."— Presentation transcript:
DO NOW Read the Introduction to the unit. Then, read the O’Sullivan text and answer the questions on your notesheet. You may use a partner when answering the questions.
Let’s Define it! Together, we are going to create a definition of manifest destiny…. In groups of 3-4, try to create a definition of “manifest destiny” in your own words after reading the next slide. Keep in mind: Manifest: clear to the eye or mind Destiny: the events that will necessarily happen to a particular person or thing in the future
John Quincy Adams, 1811: "The whole continent appears to be destined...to be peopled by one nation. The acquisition of a definite line of boundary to the [Pacific] forms a great epoch in our history." John O'Sullivan, 1845: "Away, away with all these cobweb tissues of rights of discovery, exploration, settlement, contiguity, etc. The American claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative self-government entrusted to us. It is a right such as that of the tree to the space of air and earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth....It is in our future far more than in the past history of Spanish exploration or French colonial rights, that our True Title is to be found."
What is Manifest Destiny? 1. Belief that white Americans had a God-given right to occupy the entire North American continent. 2. Manifest Destiny was exercised in 1492 by Christopher Columbus and the Spanish monarchs. 3. Pilgrim Fathers when they landed at Plymouth Rock in Any act of colonization and settlement at the expense of another race can be said to be an expression of Manifest Destiny.
Unit 9, Journal #1 Manifest destiny is the idea that it was the United States’ destiny to expand westward across the continent all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Do you think westward expansion was truly the United States’ destiny? Why or why not? List three reasons for your position. Keep in mind—the positive and negative outcomes of this philosophy
“American Progress,” John Gast 1. Technological progress 2. Progress coming from the East to the West— “civilization to the unknown” 3. The frontier would be developed by sequential waves of people 4. Who is the “woman”? In her right hand she carries a book (an emblem of education) while with the left hand she unfolds and stretches the slender wires of the telegraph. These show the intelligence throughout the land. Moves across the land in advance of settlers, replacing darkness with light and ignorance with civilization. 5. The Indians flee from progress, unable to adjust to the shifting tides of history. 6. The painting hints at the past, lays out a fantastic version of an evolving present, and finally lays out a vision of the future
How does the painting “American Progress” reflect the idea of manifest destiny?
So, how did expansion begin?
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1776 Great Britain US declared independ ence from Great Britain A - 13 Original Colonies
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1783 Great Britain Part of results of Treaty of Paris (ended Revolution ary War) B B - Western Lands
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1803 France Napoleon needed $ Jefferson wanted to buy New Orleans He got all of this instead! B C - Louisiana Purchase C
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1819 Spain Andrew Jackson invaded Spain then sold it to us for $5 million B D - Florida D C
How was manifest destiny carried out?
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1845 Republic of Texas (Independent Country) Texas independent from Mexico in 1836 Northerners feared it would become a slave state Fears finally overcome in 1944 Presidential election B E - Texas D C E
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1846 Great Britain Claimed by four countries (G. Britain, Russia, Spain, & US) Americans demanded “54 ° 40’ or fight!” Britain compromised 49 ° & US accepted B F - Oregon Territory D C E F
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1848 Mexico Polk offers to buy G from Mexico & they refuse War! US wins In Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, US offers $15 million for G B G - Mexican Cession D C E F G
Manifest Destiny in 1840s America Once the concept had been given the name 'Manifest Destiny' it became widely used, appearing in newspapers, debates, paintings and advertisements. It became the leading light for westward expansion The Second Great Awakening created another incentive for the drive west. Many settlers believed that God himself blessed the growth of the American nation. By spreading Christianity to the tribes, American missionaries believed they could save souls and they became among the first to cross the Mississippi River.
Manifest Destiny in 1840s America At the heart of manifest destiny was the belief in American cultural and racial superiority. Native Americans had long been perceived as inferior The Hispanics who ruled Texas and the lucrative ports of California were also seen as "backward.“ Expanding the boundaries of the United States was in many ways a cultural war as well. South wants to find lands suitable for cotton cultivation and this would eventually spread slavery to these regions. In the North, many citizens were deeply concerned about adding any more slave states. Manifest destiny touched on issues of religion, money, race, patriotism, and morality. These clashed in the 1840s as a truly great drama of regional conflict began to unfold.
THINK ~ PAIR ~ SHARE Why do people move even though it entails so many difficult challenges? Things to address: 1. Have you ever moved? What was it like? Did you have to readjust to your new home, school? What were some hardships you faced? 2. How might these problems be similar to the problems that Americans may have faced on their move westward?
A New Home With all of this land that we begin to acquire, Americans begin moving West into a land of great challenge, but great possibility. What did moving west entail in the mid to late 19 th century? What hardships could they face? What were the positives? Why, despite these hardships, were thousands still interested in moving west?
Overland Immigration to the West Between 1840 and 1860, more than 250,000 people made the trek westward.
The Oregon Trail
The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight! By the mid- 1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land. The joint British- U. S. occupation ended in 1846.
The Doomed Donner Party April, 1846 – April, 1847
The Doomed Donner Party James Reed & Wife Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen Breen Of the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to California! CANNIBALISM ! ! CANNIBALISM ! !
Why Go West? 1. Claim land for farming and land ownership a. New resources, new opportunities b. Prosperity! 2. Provide more living space for millions of immigrants 3. Find new markets for manufactured goods and services a. Locate harbors that could be used for trade with China 4. Seek employment a. Panic of banks close, credits collapse b. Loss of jobs, bankruptcy c. Convinces people to “start fresh” 5. Spread the “virtues of democracy” What type of groups of people would have benefited from westward expansion based on the list of reasons?
Who Moved West? What did they hope to find? Opportunity! More resources, land, increased social standing Oregon: Fertile soil! Abundant rainfall! What did they actually find? Many Unforeseen Difficulties Native American struggles Trails (or lack thereof) made travels difficult
Unit 9, Journal #2 To what extent is the idea of manifest destiny alive today? Keep in mind: What principles/ideas surrounded manifest destiny? oAmerica is ______________ to other nations oAmerica deserves _________________ oAmerica wants to spread _______________ …anything else?
Texas Declaration of Independence
Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836 Sam Houston ( ) Steven Austin ( )